Ermengol III, Count of Urgell
Ermengol III, called el de Barbastro, was the count of Urgell from 1038 to his death. He was the son of Ermengol II, Count of Urgell and his wife Velasquita "Constance" the daughter of Bernard I, Count of Besalú. Allied with his contemporary and second cousin Ramon Berenguer I, Count of Barcelona, together they shared in the process of erosion of the comital authority to the noblesse, they cooperated in the Reconquista and he received a third part of the conquests, occupying, in 1050, Camarasa and Cubells after taking them from Yusuf of Lleida. In 1039 – 1040, Ermengol and Raymond Berengar signed a pact against Raymond of Cerdanya. In that decade, Raymond Berenger paid 20,000 solidi for Ermengol's support and military aid, he took part in the Barbastro War of 1064 under the banner of his brother-in-law Sancho Ramírez of Aragon. When Barbastro was captured, he was given the lordship of the city, he died before 12 April 1065 defending the city from Moorish reprisals and was buried at the Monastery of San Pedro de Ager.
Ermengol married before 1048, who died before 1055 and whose family is not known if some scholars made her daughter of Guillem I, Count of Besalu. They were the parents of: his heir. Before 7 May 1055, Ermengol took as his second wife Clemencia, hypothesized to have been daughter of Berengar Raymond I and his second wife Guisla, by whom he had: Berenguer Guillem RamonClemencia died after 17 October 1059, when she confirms a charter with her husband, before 6 November 1062. Ermengol was remarried to a lady named Elvira, who died before 1063. In 1063, Ermengol married as daughter of Ramiro I of Aragon. Ermengol III died in battle near Monzón and his body was first taken to Barbastro and to the fortress of Àger where he was buried at the entrance of the Church of San Pedro at the Monastery of San Pedro de Àger
Zaragoza is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the Huerva and the Gállego in the center of both Aragon and the Ebro basin. On 1 September 2010 the population of the city of Zaragoza was 701,090, within its administrative limits on a land area of 1,062.64 square kilometres, ranking fifth in Spain. It is the 32nd most populous municipality in the European Union; the population of the metropolitan area was estimated in 2006 at 783,763 inhabitants. The municipality is home to more than 50 percent of the Aragonese population; the city lies at an elevation of 199 metres above sea level. Zaragoza hosted Expo 2008 in the summer of 2008, a world's fair on water and sustainable development, it was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2012. The city is famous for its folklore, local gastronomy, landmarks such as the Basílica del Pilar, La Seo Cathedral and the Aljafería Palace. Together with La Seo and the Aljafería, several other buildings form part of the Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Fiestas del Pilar are among the most celebrated festivals in Spain. The city was called by the ancient Romans Caesaraugusta; the Iberian town that preceded the Roman city was called Salduie. The Sedetani, a tribe of ancient Iberians, populated. On, Augustus founded a city called Caesaraugusta at the same location to settle army veterans from the Cantabrian wars; the foundation date of Caesaraugusta has not been set with exact precision, though it is known to lie between 25 BC and 11 BC. The city did not suffer any decline during the last centuries of the Roman empire and was captured peacefully by the Goths in the fifth century AD. From 1018 to 1118, Zaragoza was one of the taifa kingdoms, independent Muslim states which emerged in the eleventh century following the destruction of the Caliphate of Córdoba. During the first three decades of this period, 1018–1038, the city was ruled by the Banu Tujibi. In 1038 they were replaced by the Banu Hud, who had to deal with a complicated alliance with El Cid of Valencia and his Castilian masters against the Almoravids, who managed to bring the Taifas Emirates under their control.
After the death of El Cid his kingdom was overrun by the Almoravids, who, by 1100, had managed to cross the Ebro into Barbastro, which brought Aragon into direct contact with them. The Banu Hud stubbornly resisted the Almoravids and ruled until they were defeated by them in May 1110. On 18 December 1118, the Aragonese led by Alfonso I conquered the city from the Almoravids, made it the capital of the Kingdom of Aragon. After Alfonso's death without heirs in 1134, Zaragoza was swiftly occupied by Alfonso VII of León and Castile; the city control was held by García Ramírez, king of Navarra, until 1136 when it was given to Ramiro II the Monk in the treaty signed at the betrothal of Ramiro's daughter Petronila and Alfonso's son Sancho. The wedding never happened, as Petronila ended up marrying Ramon Berenguer Count of Barcelona; the marriage union was the origin of the Crown of Aragón, union with Castile would not happen for another 333 years, when King Ferdinand II of Aragon and his wife, Queen Isabella I of Castile, each took their respective thrones.
13th century Zaragoza was the scene of two controversial martyrdoms related with the Spanish Inquisition: those of Saint Dominguito del Val, a choirboy in the basilica, Pedro de Arbués, head official of the inquisition. While the reality of the existence of Saint Dominguito del Val is questioned, his "murder" at the hands of "jealous Jews" was used as an excuse to murder or convert the Jewish population of Zaragoza. Zaragoza suffered two famous sieges during the Peninsular War against the Napoleonic army: a first from June to August 1808. Despite a decline in the outlying rural economy, Zaragoza has continued to grow; the General Military Academy, a higher training center of the Spanish Army, was re-established on 27 September 1940, by Minister of the Army José Enrique Varela Iglesias. During the second half of the 20th century, Zaragoza's population boomed as a number of factories opened in the region. In 1979, the Hotel Corona de Aragón fire killed at least 80; the armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization ETA has been blamed, but the fire is still regarded as accidental.
ETA carried out the 1987 Zaragoza Barracks bombing in the city which killed eleven people, including a number of children, leading to 250,000 people taking part in demonstrations in the city. Since 1982, the city has been home to a large factory, built by General Motors for the production of Opel cars, some of which are exported to the United Kingdom and sold under the Vauxhall brand. Population, in thousands, can be seen here: Population data: National Statistics Institute of Spain In 2017 there were 64,003 foreign citizens in Zaragoza, which represent 9.6% of the total population. From 2010 to 2017 immigration dropped from a 27 % drop. Romanians represent 29.8% of foreigners living in Zaragoza, or 2,9% of the total city population, followed by Moroccans and Chinese. Zaragoza has a cool semi-arid climate, as it lies in a wide basin surrounded by mountains which block off moist air from the Atlantic and Mediterranean; the average annual precipitation is a scanty 322 millimetres with abundant sunny days, the most rainy seasons are spring and autumn, with a relative
Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit
Ramon Borrell, Count of Barcelona
Ramon Borrell was count of Barcelona and Ausona from 992. He was the son of Borrell II of Barcelona and Letgarda of Rouergue, was associated with his father in ruling the counties from 988. In 991, he married Ermesinde of Carcassonne, with whom he had three children: Borrell Ramon, Berenguer Ramon, Adelaide Ramon, who married firstly, Roger I of Tosny, secondly, Count of Évreux. Between 1000 and 1002 Ramon had to deal with a number of incursions by Almanzor; however Almanzor died in 1002, seeing an opportunity Ramon counter-attacked in 1003 leading an expedition to Lleida. This prompted a new raid on the county of Barcelona by Almanzor's Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar; this was defeated by an alliance of Christian forces at the Battle of Torà. Ramon was present at the Battle of Albesa shortly thereafter. In 1010, with the Cordoban Caliphate crumbling into civil war, Ramon saw another opportunity, he organised a campaign, assisted by the bishop of Vic and Sal·la, bishop of Urgell, against the Caliphate with Ermengol I of Urgell and Bernard I of Besalú, joined forces with Muhammad II of Córdoba.
Their army destroyed the forces of Caliph Sulayman II and sacked Córdoba in May 1010, although Ermengol died as a result of the battle. Both bishop Arnulf of Vic and Sal·la, bishop of Urgell died on this campaign. On 2 June 1010, Ramon participated in the Battle of Aqbat al-Bakr on the side of the Muslim rebels as part of the Andalusian civil wars. In 1015 and 1016 Ramon made further expeditions to the rivers Segre; the treasure obtained from these campaigns maintained the loyalty of his barons. Within the County of Barcelona he ensured the repopulation of the Segarra, Conca de Barberà and Camp de Tarragona, he was the first Catalan ruler to mint his own coinage. At his death in 1017, he was succeeded by his son Berenguer Ramon under the regency of his mother, he was buried in the Barcelona Cathedral, but his grave was lost
Oliba was the count of Berga and Ripoll, abbot of the monasteries of Santa Maria de Ripoll and Sant Miquel de Cuixà and the bishop of Vic. He is considered one of the spiritual founders of Catalonia and the most important prelate of his age in the Iberian Peninsula. Oliba was a great writer and from his scriptorium at Ripoll flowed a ceaseless stream of works enlightening us about his world. Most however, are the Arabic manuscripts he translated into Latin for the benefit of all Europe. Oliba was born circa 971 to an affluent family in the Spanish March, his father was Oliba Cabreta, the count of Besalú, Cerdanya and Ripoll, his mother was Ermengard of Empúries. His father's lineage made him the great-grandson of Wilfred the Hairy. Oliba had three brothers and a sister, when his father chose to retire to a monastery in 988, his lands were divided among his three oldest sons. In 1002, Oliba himself abdicated his secular possessions to his brothers - Wilfred receiving Berga and Bernard getting Ripoll - to take up the Benedictine habit at the Monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll.
Six years after joining the order, Oliba was named abbott at Santa Maria de Ripoll, at Sant Miquel de Cuixà shortly thereafter. Oliba promoted the movement of the Peace and Truce of God beginning about 1022. In 1027 a council of bishops and noblemen took place in Toulouges, a town in Roussillon, it was agreed to establish days during which there would be no violence between Christians - Sundays and Holy Days - and that fugitives could take refuge in churches and holy places, sure of being protected; this was in addition to the established principle of the movement: to protect peasants, the clergy, other defenseless individuals by threat of excommunication. So influential was Oliba that, in 1023, King Sancho III of Navarre consulted him on the propriety of marrying his sister Urraca to her second cousin, Alfonso V of León; the bishop objected. Oliba's letters to the various contemporaneous kings of Spain indicate to us that Alfonso and his successor, Vermudo III were regarded as imperatores, while the king of Navarre was a mere rex, though rex Ibericus.
Oliba founded the monastery of Santa María de Montserrat, reformed others such as Sant Miquel de Fluvià and Sant Martí del Canigó, consecrated or patronized numerous other churches, such as the Collegiate Basilica of Manresa. He created the Assemblies of Peace and Truce, the seeds of the future Catalan Corts, to aid the nobles in the administration of the realm, he improved the decoration of his own church at Ripoll and rededicated it on 15 January 1032. He was a close advisor to Count Berenguer Ramon I of Barcelona and reconstructed the cathedral of Vic with the support of Berenguer Ramon's mother, the Countess Ermesinde; the new cathedral was rededicated to Saints Peter and Paul on 31 August 1038. Oliba died at his monastery at Cuixà in 1046. In 1973, the Abat Oliba College was established as a private branch of the University of Barcelona. In 2003, the Catalan government approved the conversion of Abat Oliba College to the Abat Oliba CEU University; the founders named the institution after Abbot Oliba because they "aimed to embrace the spirit of Oliba who one thousand years ago established the foundations of the nascent Catalonia on the basis of Roman and Christian culture".
Menéndez Pidal, Ramón. The Cid and his Spain. 1929. Amado, Ramon Ruiz. "Diocese of Vich". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Fundació Abat Oliba Abat Oliba CEU University Oliba at Wikisource
Your Honour and Your Honor redirect here. For a list of English honorifics, see Style. For other uses, see Your Honour A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges; the powers, method of appointment and training of judges vary across different jurisdictions. The judge is supposed to conduct the trial impartially and in an open court; the judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the barristers of the case, assesses the credibility and arguments of the parties, issues a ruling on the matter at hand based on his or her interpretation of the law and his or her own personal judgment. In some jurisdictions, the judge's powers may be shared with a jury. In inquisitorial systems of criminal investigation, a judge might be an examining magistrate; the ultimate task of a judge is to settle a legal dispute in a final and public manner, thus affirm the rule of law. Judges exercise significant governmental power, they can order police, military or judicial officials to execute searches, imprisonments, distrainments, seizures and similar actions.
However, judges supervise that trial procedures are followed, in order to ensure consistency and impartiality and avoid arbitrariness. The powers of a judge are checked by higher courts such as supreme courts. Before the trial, a pre-trial investigation collecting the facts has been conducted by police officials, such as police officers and coroners, prosecutors or public procurators; the court has three main trained court officials: the judge, the prosecutor and the defence attorney. The role of a judge varies between legal systems. In an adversarial system, as in effect in the U. S. and England, the judge functions as an impartial referee ensuring correct procedure, while the prosecution and the defense present their case to a jury selected from common citizens. The main factfinder is the jury, the judge will finalize sentencing. In smaller cases judges can issue summary judgments without proceeding to a jury trial. In an inquisitorial system, as in effect in continental Europe, there is no jury and the main factfinder is the judge, who will do the presiding and sentencing on his own.
As such, the judge is expected to apply the law directly, as in the French expression Le juge est la bouche de la loi. Furthermore, in some system investigation may be conducted by the judge, functioning as an examining magistrate. Judges may work alone in smaller cases, but in criminal and other significant cases, they work in a panel. In some civil law systems, this panel may include lay judges. Unlike professional judges, lay judges are not trained, but unlike jurors, lay judges are volunteers and may be politically appointed. Judges are assisted by law clerks and notaries in legal cases and by bailiffs or similar with security. There are professional judges. A volunteer judge, such as an English magistrate, is not required to have legal training and is unpaid. Whereas, a professional judge is required to be educated. S. this requires a degree of Juris Doctor. Furthermore, significant professional experience is required. S. judges are appointed from experienced attorneys. Judges are appointed by the head of state.
In some U. S. jurisdictions, judges are elected in a political election. Impartiality is considered important for rule of law. Thus, in many jurisdictions judges may be appointed for life, so that they cannot be removed by the executive. However, in non-democratic systems, the appointment of judges may be politicized and they receive instructions on how to judge, may be removed if their conduct doesn't please the political leadership. Judges must be able to research and process extensive lengths of documents and other case material, understand complex cases and possess a thorough understanding of the law and legal procedure, which requires excellent skills in logical reasoning and decision-making. Excellent writing skills are a necessity, given the finality and authority of the documents written. Judges work with people all the time. Judges are required to have good moral character, i.e. there must be no history of crime. Professional judges enjoy a high salary, in the U. S. the median salary of judges is $101,690 per annum, federal judges earn $208,000–$267,000 per annum.
A variety of traditions have become associated with the occupation. Gavels are used by judges in many countries, to the point that the gavel has become a symbol of a judge. In many parts of the world, judges sit on an elevated platform during trials. American judges wear black robes. American judges have ceremonial gavels, although American judges have court deputies or bailiffs and contempt of court power as their main devices to maintain decorum in the courtroom. However, in some of the Western United States, like California, judges did not always wear robes and instead wore everyday clothing. Today, some members of state supreme courts, such as the Maryland Court of Appeals wear distinct dress. In Italy and Portugal, both judges and lawyers wear particular black robes. In some countries in the Commonwealth of Nations, judges wear wigs; the long wig associated with judges is now reserved for ceremonial occasions, although it was par
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in Roman Catholic Western Europe during the Middle Ages. In this region it served as the primary written language, though local languages were written to varying degrees. Latin functioned as the main medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of the Church, as the working language of science, literature and administration. Medieval Latin represented, in essence, a continuation of Classical Latin and Late Latin, with enhancements for new concepts as well as for the increasing integration of Christianity. Despite some meaningful differences from Classical Latin, Medieval writers did not regard it as a fundamentally different language. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin Medieval Latin begins; some scholarly surveys begin with the rise of early Ecclesiastical Latin in the middle of the 4th century, others around 500, still others with the replacement of written Late Latin by written Romance languages starting around the year 900.
The terms Medieval Latin and Ecclesiastical Latin are used synonymously, though some scholars draw distinctions. Ecclesiastical Latin refers to the form, used by the Roman Catholic Church, whereas Medieval Latin refers more broadly to all of the forms of Latin used in the Middle Ages; the Romance languages spoken in the Middle Ages were referred to as Latin, since the Romance languages were all descended from Classical, or Roman, Latin itself. Medieval Latin had an enlarged vocabulary, which borrowed from other sources, it was influenced by the language of the Vulgate, which contained many peculiarities alien to Classical Latin that resulted from a more or less direct translation from Greek and Hebrew. Greek provided much of the technical vocabulary of Christianity; the various Germanic languages spoken by the Germanic tribes, who invaded southern Europe, were major sources of new words. Germanic leaders became the rulers of parts of the Roman Empire that they conquered, words from their languages were imported into the vocabulary of law.
Other more ordinary words were replaced by coinages from Vulgar Latin or Germanic sources because the classical words had fallen into disuse. Latin was spread to areas such as Ireland and Germany, where Romance languages were not spoken, which had never known Roman rule. Works written in those lands where Latin was a learned language, having no relation to the local vernacular influenced the vocabulary and syntax of medieval Latin. Since subjects like science and philosophy, including Argumentation theory and Ethics, were communicated in Latin, the Latin vocabulary that developed for them became the source of a great many technical words in modern languages. English words like abstract, communicate, matter and their cognates in other European languages have the meanings given to them in medieval Latin; the influence of Vulgar Latin was apparent in the syntax of some medieval Latin writers, although Classical Latin continued to be held in high esteem and studied as models for literary compositions.
The high point of the development of medieval Latin as a literary language came with the Carolingian renaissance, a rebirth of learning kindled under the patronage of Charlemagne, king of the Franks. Alcuin was an important writer in his own right. Although it was developing into the Romance languages, Latin itself remained conservative, as it was no longer a native language and there were many ancient and medieval grammar books to give one standard form. On the other hand speaking there was no single form of "medieval Latin"; every Latin author in the medieval period spoke Latin as a second language, with varying degrees of fluency and syntax. Grammar and vocabulary, were influenced by an author's native language; this was true beginning around the 12th century, after which the language became adulterated: late medieval Latin documents written by French speakers tend to show similarities to medieval French grammar and vocabulary. For instance, rather than following the classical Latin practice of placing the verb at the end, medieval writers would follow the conventions of their own native language instead.
Whereas Latin had no definite or indefinite articles, medieval writers sometimes used forms of unus as an indefinite article, forms of ille as a definite article or quidam as something like an article. Unlike classical Latin, where esse was the only auxiliary verb, medieval Latin writers might use habere as an auxiliary, similar to constructions in Germanic and Romance languages; the accusative and infinitive construction in classical Latin was replaced by a subordinate clause introduced by quod or quia. This is identical, for example, to the use of que in similar constructions in French. In every age from the late 8th century onwards, there were learned writers who were familiar enough with classical syntax to be aware that these forms and usages were "wrong" and resisted their use, thus the Latin of a theologian like St Thomas Aquinas or of an erudite clerical historian such as William of Tyre tends to avoid most of the characteristics described above, showing its p