A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Lete was an ancient city in Mygdonia and Roman Catholic titular see in the Roman province of Macedonia. Lete is known by its coins and inscriptions, mentioned in Ptolemy, the Pliny the Younger, Stephanus Byzantius and Suidas in Antiquity and in the Middle Ages in Nicephorus Bryennius; the spelling "Lite" comes from iotacism. In its necropolis was found the Derveni papyrus. Lete appears in some Notitiæ episcopatuum of a late period as suffragan of the Archbishopric of Thessalonica united to the See of Rentina. Lete and Rentina had Greek bishops until the eighteenth century. Lete became the small village of Aivati/Ajvatovo situated a little north of Thessaloniki. Bulgarian revolutionary Andon Dimitrov was born there in 1867; the site of Lete is the near the modern Liti. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Lete". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Lete". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Herod of Chalcis
Herod of Chalcis known as Herod V, listed by the Jewish Encyclopedia as Herod II, was a son of Aristobulus IV, the grandson of Herod the Great, Roman client king of Chalcis. He was the brother of Herod Agrippa I and Herodias, his first wife was Mariamne. She bore him a son named Aristobulus, who eventually became ruler of Chalcis. After Mariamne's death, he married his niece Berenice, with whom he had two sons and Hyrcanus. Around 41 AD, at the request of his brother, Herod Agrippa, emperor Claudius granted him the rule of Chalcis, a territory north of Judaea, with the title of king. Three years after the death of his brother, he was given responsibility for the Temple in Jerusalem, as well as the appointment of the Temple's High Priest. During the four years in which he exercised this right he appointed two high priests—Joseph, son of Camydus, Ananias, son of Nedebeus, he died in 48 AD. After his death the kingdom was given to Herod Agrippa II. Herodian dynasty Herodian kingdom List of Hasmonean and Herodian rulers
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter is the goddess of the grain, harvest and nourishment, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth. Her cult titles include Sito, "she of the Grain", as the giver of food or grain, Thesmophoros, "Law-Bringer", as a mark of the civilized existence of agricultural society. Though Demeter is described as the goddess of the harvest, she presided over the sacred law, the cycle of life and death, she and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries, a religious tradition that predated the Olympian pantheon, which may have its roots in the Mycenaean period c. 1400–1200 BC. Demeter was considered to be the same figure as the Anatolian goddess Cybele, in Rome she was identified as the Latin goddess Ceres, it is possible that Demeter appears in Linear A as da-ma-te on three documents, all three dedicated in religious situations and all three bearing just the name. It is unlikely. On the other hand, si-to-po-ti-ni-ja, "Potnia of the Grain", is regarded as referring to her Bronze Age predecessor or to one of her epithets.
Demeter's character as mother-goddess is identified in the second element of her name meter derived from Proto-Indo-European *méh₂tēr. In antiquity, different explanations were proffered for the first element of her name, it is possible that Da, a word which corresponds to Ge in Attic, is the Doric form of De, "earth", the old name of the chthonic earth-goddess, that Demeter is "Mother-Earth". This root appears in the Linear B inscription E-ne-si-da-o-ne, "earth-shaker", as an aspect of the god Poseidon. However, the dā element in the name of Demeter is not so equated with "earth" according to John Chadwick; the element De- may be connected with Deo, an epithet of Demeter derived from the Cretan word dea, Ionic zeia —variously identified with emmer, rye, or other grains by modern scholars—so that she is the Mother and the giver of food generally. Wanax was her male companion in Mycenaean cult; the Arcadian cult links her to the god Poseidon, who substituted the male companion of the Great Goddess.
An alternative Proto-Indo-European etymology comes through Potnia and Despoina, where Des- represents a derivative of PIE *dem, Demeter is "mother of the house". Demeter was associated with images of the harvest, including flowers and grain, she was sometimes pictured with her daughter Persephone. Demeter is not portrayed with any of her consorts. Demeter is assigned the zodiac constellation Virgo the Virgin by Marcus Manilius in his 1st century Roman work Astronomicon. In art, constellation Virgo holds Spica, a sheaf of wheat in her hand and sits beside constellation Leo the Lion. In Arcadia, she was known as "Black Demeter", she was said to have taken the form of a mare to escape the pursuit of Poseidon, having been raped by him despite her disguise, dressed all in black and retreated into a cave to mourn and to purify herself. She was depicted with the head of a horse in this region. A sculpture of the Black Demeter was made by Onatas. In epic poetry and Hesiod's Theogony, Demeter is the Corn-Mother, the goddess of cereals who provides grain for bread and blesses its harvesters.
This was her main function at Eleusis, became panhellenic. In Cyprus, "grain-harvesting" was damatrizein; the main theme in the Eleusinian mysteries was the reunion of Persephone with her mother Demeter, when new crops were reunited with the old seed, a form of eternity. According to the Athenian rhetorician Isocrates, Demeter's greatest gifts to humankind were agriculture of cereals, the Mysteries which give the initiate higher hopes in this life and the afterlife; these two gifts were intimately connected in Demeter's myths and mystery cults. In Hesiod, prayers to Zeus-Chthonios and Demeter help the crops grow strong. Demeter's emblem is a bright red flower that grows among the barley. Demeter was zeidoros arοura, the Homeric "Mother Earth arοura" who gave the gift of cereals. In addition to her role as an agricultural goddess, Demeter was worshiped more as a goddess of the earth. In Arcadia, she was represented as snake-haired, holding a dove and dolphin to symbolize her power over the underworld, the air, the water.
In the cult of Flya, she was worshiped as one who sends up gifts from the underworld. There was a temple of Demeter under this name in Phlius in Attica. In Sparta, she was known as Demeter-Chthonia; the Athenians called the dead "Demetrioi", this may reflect a link between Demeter and ancient cult of the dead, linked to the agrarian-belief that a new life would sprout from the dead body, as a new plant arises from buried seed. This was a belief shared by initiates in Demeter's mysteries, as interpreted by Pindar: "Happy is he who has seen what exists under the earth, because he knows not only the end of life, but his beginning that the Gods will give". In the mysteries of P
Berenice II of Egypt
Berenice II was a ruling queen of Cyrene by birth, a queen and co-regent of Egypt by marriage to her cousin Ptolemy III Euergetes, the third ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. She was the daughter of Magas of Cyrene and Queen Apama II, she was the granddaughter of Berenice I. In 249 BC, her father died, making Berenice ruling queen of Cyrene. Soon after her father died, Berenice was married to a Macedonian prince. Berenice had no children with Demetrius. After Demetrius came to Cyrene, he became the lover of Apama. In a dramatic event, Berenice had him killed in Apama's bedroom. Berenice stood at the door and instructed the hired assassins not to hurt her mother while she attempted to protect her mother's lover. Apama lived on afterward. Although there were many plots to assassinate her, all hired assassins became fearful of her "exceptional courage." After the death of Demetrius, Berenice married Ptolemy III. Berenice is said to have participated in the Nemean Games and to have competed in Olympic games at some unknown date.
Berenice was accustomed to fighting from horseback. According to Hyginus's Astronomica, he tells of when Berenice's father Magas, king of Cyrene in modern-day Libya, his troops were routed in battle, Berenice mounted a horse, rallied the remaining forces, killed many of the enemy, drove the rest to retreat. Soon after her second husband's death in 221 BC, she was murdered at the instigation of her son, Ptolemy IV, with whom she was associated in the government. A decree "issued delineating the cult for the newly deified queen Berenike II…specified that men and women singers were to sing all day in front of the statue of Berenike." With Ptolemy III she had the following children: Arsinoe III, born in c. 246/245 BC. She married her brother Ptolemy IV Ptolemy IV Philopator, born c. 244 BC Possibly Lysimachus. The name of the son is not known, but he is said to have been born in c. 243 BC. Alexander, born in c. 242 BC Magas, born in c. 241 BC. Scalded to death in his bath by Theogos or Theodotus, at the orders of Ptolemy IV.
Berenice born in c. 239 BC and died a year later. During her second husband's absence on an expedition to Syria, she dedicated locks of her hair to Aphrodite for his safe return and victory in the Third Syrian War, placed the offering in the temple of the goddess at Zephyrium. By some unknown means, the hair offering disappeared when Ptolemy returned to Egypt. Conon of Samos explained the phenomenon in courtly phrase, saying that the hair had been carried to the heavens and placed among the stars; the name Coma Berenices or Berenice's hair, applied to a constellation, commemorates this incident. This made the locks of Berenice the only war trophy in Greco-Roman sky. Callimachus celebrated the transformation in a poem, of which only a few lines remain, but there is a fine translation of them by Catullus. Neoclassical painters illustrated this theme abundantly; the city of Euesperides was received her name, Berenice. The asteroid 653 Berenike, discovered in 1907 is named after Queen Berenice. Bevan, E.
R. The House of Ptolemy, Methuen Publishing, London, 1927 - Chapter 3, "The Second Ptolemy, "Philadelphus"
Herod Agrippa known as Herod or Agrippa I, was a King of Judea from 41 to 44 AD. He was the last ruler with the royal title reigning over Judea and the father of Herod Agrippa II, the last King from the Herodian dynasty; the grandson of Herod the Great and son of Aristobulus IV and Berenice, He is the king named Herod in the Acts of the Apostles 12:1: "Herod". Agrippa's territory comprised most of modern Israel, including Judea, Galilee and Perea. From Galilee his territory extended east to Trachonitis, he was born Marcus Julius Agrippa, so named in honour of Roman statesman Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Josephus informs us that, after the execution of his father, young Agrippa was sent by his grandfather, Herod the Great, to the imperial court in Rome. There, Tiberius conceived a great affection for him, had him educated alongside his son Drusus, who befriended him, future emperor Claudius. On the death of Drusus, recklessly extravagant and was in debt, was obliged to leave Rome, fleeing to the fortress of Malatha in Idumaea.
There, it was said, he contemplated suicide. After a brief seclusion, through the mediation of his wife Cypros and his sister Herodias, Agrippa was given a sum of money by his brother-in-law and uncle, Herodias' husband, Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, was allowed to take up residence in Tiberias, received the rank of aedile in that city, with a small yearly income, but having quarrelled with Antipas, he fled to governor of Syria. Soon afterwards he was convicted, through the information of his brother Aristobulus, of having received a bribe from the Damascenes, who wished to purchase his influence with the proconsul, was again compelled to flee, he was arrested as he was about to sail for Italy, for a sum of money which he owed to the treasury of Caesar, but made his escape, reached Alexandria, where his wife succeeded in procuring a supply of money from Alexander the Alabarch. He set sail, landed at Puteoli, he was favorably received by Tiberius, who entrusted him with the education of his grandson Tiberius Gemellus.
He formed an intimacy with Caligula a popular favorite. Agrippa was one day overheard by his freedman Eutyches expressing a wish for Tiberius's death and the advancement of Caligula, for this he was cast into prison. Following Tiberius' death and the ascension of Agrippa's friend Caligula in 37, Agrippa was set free and made king of the territories of Gaulanitis, Auranitis and Trachonitis, which his uncle Philip the Tetrarch had held, with the addition of Abila. Agrippa was awarded the ornamenta praetoria and could use the title amicus caesaris. Caligula presented him with a gold chain equal in weight to the iron one he had worn in prison, which Agrippa dedicated to the Temple of Jerusalem on his return to his ancestral homeland. In 39, Agrippa returned to Rome, brought about the banishment of his uncle, Herod Antipas; this created a Jewish kingdom. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, Agrippa was involved in the struggle over the accession between Claudius, the Praetorian Guard, the Senate.
How big a part Agrippa played is uncertain. Cassius Dio writes that Agrippa cooperated with Claudius in seeking rule. Flavius Josephus gives us two versions. In The Jewish War, Agrippa is presented as only a messenger to a energetic Claudius, but in The Antiquities of the Jews, Agrippa's role is central and crucial: he convinces Claudius to stand up to the Senate and the Senate to avoid attacking Claudius. After becoming Emperor, Claudius gave Agrippa dominion over Judea and Samaria and granted him the ornamenta consularia, at his request gave the kingdom of Chalcis in Lebanon to Agrippa's brother Herod of Chalcis, thus Agrippa became one of the most powerful kings of the east. His domain more or less equaled that, held by his grandfather Herod the Great. In the city of Berytus, he built a theatre and amphitheatre and porticoes, he was generous in Sebaste and Caesarea. Agrippa began the building of the third and outer wall of Jerusalem, but the suspicions he had of Claudius's intervention prevented him from finishing the fortifications which he had begun.
His friendship was courted by many of the neighboring kings and rulers, some of whom he housed in Tiberias, which caused Claudius some displeasure. Agrippa governed it to the satisfaction of the Jews, his zeal and public, for Judaism is recorded by Josephus, Philo of Alexandria and the rabbis. Because of this, his passage through Alexandria in the year 38 instigated anti-Jewish riots. At the risk of his own life, or at least of his liberty, he interceded with Caligula on behalf of the Jews, when that emperor was attempting to set up his statue in the Temple at Jerusalem shortly before his death in 41. Agrippa's efforts bore fruit and persuaded Caligula to temporarily rescind his order thus prevented the Temple's desecration. However, Philo of Alexandria recounts that Caligula issued a second order to have his statue erected in the Temple, prevented by Caligula's death; the Acts of the Apostles, chapter 12, where Herod Agrippa is called "King Herod", report that he persecuted the Jerusalem church, having James son of Zebedee killed and imprisoning Peter around the time of a Passover.
Blastus is mentioned in Acts as Herod's chamberlain. After Passover in 44, Agrippa went to Caesarea. In the midst of his speech to t