New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Warren County, New Jersey
Warren County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 106,798, making it the 19th-most populous of the state's 21 counties, representing a decrease of 1.7% from the 108,692 enumerated in the 2010 United States Census, in turn having increased by 6,255 from 102,437 counted at the 2000 Census, Its county seat is Belvidere. It is part of the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ metropolitan area and is considered the eastern border of the Lehigh Valley, it is considered part of the New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area, shares its eastern border with the New York City Metropolitan Area, with its northwestern section bordering The Poconos. The most populous place was Phillipsburg, with 14,950 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Hardwick Township, covered 37.92 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. Warren County was incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on November 20, 1824, from portions of Sussex County.
At its creation, the county consisted of the townships of Greenwich, Knowlton, Mansfield and Pahaquarry. The county was named for Joseph Warren, an American Revolutionary War hero of the Battle of Bunker Hill. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 362.86 square miles, including 356.92 square miles of land and 5.94 square miles of land. Warren County has rolling hills, with the Kittatinny Ridge in the west. Allamuchy Mountain and Jenny Jump Mountain are part of the New York – New Jersey Highlands known as the Reading Prong. Around 450 million years ago, a chain of volcanic islands collided with proto North America; the chain of islands went over the North American plate, thus the Highlands were created from the island rock and so was the Great Appalachian Valley. The Highlands is the Jenny Jump Mountains. Thus, Warren County was born. Around 400 million years ago, a small continent, long and thin collided with proto North America; this created the Kittatinny Mountains. The quartzite, lying in a shallow sea over top of the Martinsburg shale and faulted due to pressure and heat.
The quartzite lifted, thus the Kittatinny Mountain was born. The final collision was; this was the final episode of the building of the Appalachian Mountains. The African plate tore away from North America; the Wisconsin Glacier covered the northern part of the county from 21,000 to 13,000 BC. This glacier covered the top of Kittatinny Mountain and carved the terrain in the northern part of the county; the terminal moraine runs from north of Belvidere to south of Great Meadows to north of Hackettstown, to north of Budd Lake. Blairstown Township, Hope Township, half of Independence Township, part of White Township, all of Allamuchy Township was covered by the Glacier; when the glacier melted, a lake was formed at Great Meadows. The lake drained leaving a large flat area filled with organic material; the county is drained by three rivers. All three rivers are narrow, they are fresh water rivers. The Paulins Kill drains the western portion of the county; the river flows from Newton to Blairstown Township, through Knowlton Township where it drains into the Delaware River.
The Pequest River drains the middle of the county flowing from Andover Township through Allamuchy to Independence Township where it turns west and flows through White Township and empties into the Delaware River at Belvidere. The third river is the Musconetcong. Starting at Lake Musconetcong, the river divides the county from Hunterdon; this river drains the southern portion of the county and empties into the Delaware River near Warren Glen. Warren County is located in two valleys of the Great Appalachian Valley; the first is the Kittatinny Valley, in the northern part of the county, the Lehigh Valley, in the southern part of the county. The Lehigh Valley starts at the terminal moraine of the Wisconsin Glacier north of Belvidere, it extends from the Delaware River south to where the Musconetcong River goes into the Delaware River, northeast to the Jenny Jump Mountains and along Route 80 to the Allamuchy Mountains to the terminal moraine near Hackettstown. The Kittatinny Valley is north of the terminal moraine.
Towns such as Blairstown, Johnsonburg and Allamuchy are in the Kittatinny Valley The highest elevation is 1,600 feet above sea level on the Kittatinny Ridge, at two areas just south of Upper Yards Creek Reservoir, west of Blairstown. The lowest point is the confluence of the Delaware and Musconetcong rivers at the county's southern tip, at 160 feet of elevation; the highest elevation on Allamuchy Mountain is 1,240 feet on the ridge northeast of Allamuchy. On Jenny Jump Mountain the highest point is 1,134 feet east of the Shiloh area or south of Interstate 80. Sunfish Pond has an elevation of 1,379 feet and upper Yards Creek Reservoir is at 1,555 feet. Warren County has a Humid Continental Climate. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Belvidere have ranged from a low of 19 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −17 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 101 °F was recorded in July 1999. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.77 inches in February to 4.65 inches in July.
Sussex County, New Jersey – nort
Passaic County, New Jersey
Passaic County is a county in the U. S. state of New Jersey, part of the New York metropolitan area. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 501,226, an increase of 12,177 from the 489,049 counted in the 2000 Census, As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 512,607, making it the state's ninth-most populous county, marking an increase of 2.3% from 2010. Its county seat is Paterson; the most populous place was Paterson, with 146,199 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, more than 29% of the county's population, while West Milford covered 80.32 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality and more than 40% of the county's area. Passaic County was created on February 1837, from portions of Bergen County and Essex County; the landscape of Passaic County, near the north edge of New Jersey, spans some hilly areas and has dozens of lakes. The county covers a region about 30 × 20 miles wide; the region is split including portions of Interstate 287 and I-80, near Paterson.
The Garden State Parkway cuts near Clifton. The Passaic River winds northeast past Totowa into Paterson, where the river turns south to Passaic town, on the way to Newark, further south; the highest point is any one of six areas on Bearfort Ridge in West Milford at 1,480 feet above sea level. The lowest elevation is 20 feet along the Passaic River in Clifton; the southeastern, more populous half of the county is either mildly hilly. The northwestern section is mountainous. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 197.10 square miles, including 184.59 square miles of land and 12.51 square miles of water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Paterson have ranged from a low of 19 °F in January to a high of 86 °F in July, although a record low of −11 °F was recorded in January 1961 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in September 1953. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.86 inches in February to 4.78 inches in September. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 501,226 people, 166,785 households, 120,919.125 families residing in the county.
The population density was 2,715.3 per square mile. There were 175,966 housing units at an average density of 953.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 62.65% White, 12.83% Black or African American, 0.67% Native American, 5.01% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 15.11% from other races, 3.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 37.04% of the population. There were 166,785 households out of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were non-families. 22.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.45. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, 12% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.1 years.
For every 100 females there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 91.1 males. Same-sex couples headed one in 149 households in 2010; as of the 2000 United States Census there were 489,049 people, 163,856 households, 119,614 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,639 people per square mile. There were 170,048 housing units at an average density of 918 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 62.32% White, 13.22% Black or African American, 0.44% Native American, 3.69% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 16.24% from other races, 4.05% from two or more races. 29.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those who reported their ancestry, 16.6% were of Italian, 9.5% Irish, 8.1% German and 6.2% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 163,856 households out of which 35.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.50% were married couples living together, 16.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.00% were non-families.
22.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.92 and the average family size was 3.42. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 31.30% from 25 to 44, 21.30% from 45 to 64, 12.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $49,210, the median income for a family was $56,054. Males had a median income of $38,740 versus $29,954 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,370. About 9.40% of families and 12.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.30% of those under age 18 and 9.20% of those age 65 or over. The Passaic County Court House and Administrative Building complex is located at the county seat in Paterson. In Passaic County's commission form of government, the Board of Chosen Freeholders discharge both executive and legislative responsibilities.
Seven Freeholders are elected at-large for three-year terms on a staggered basis. A Freeholder Director and Freeholder Deputy Director are elected from among the seven Freeholders a
Weehawken Public Library
The Weehawken Public Library is the free public library of Weehawken, New Jersey. The library has a collection of 43,000 volumes and circulates 40,604 items annually, it is a member of the Bergen County Cooperative Library System, a consortium of municipal libraries in the northeastern New Jersey counties of Bergen, Hudson and Essex. One of the atypical buildings to be used as a library, it is located at 49 Hauxhurst Avenue on a precipice overlooking the Lincoln Tunnel Approach and Helix. Built as a private home, it became a library in 1942, was extensively renovated in 1997; the landmark is home to the town's historical commission. An annual fundraiser for the library at Lincoln Harbor, a culinary event called A Taste of Weehawken, has taken place since 2000. Wilhelm Joseph Peter immigrated from Achern in the Grand Duchy of Baden after the German revolution of 1848 to avoid persecution due his father's affiliation with it. After some years in the brewery business at several locales in North Hudson, he established the William Peter Brewing Company in 1862 at Hudson Avenue and Weehawken Street in what was Union Hill.
Parts of the imposing structure still are used as a storage facility. While he and his family lived for a time across the street at the since demolished Fausel Mansion, Peter built a mansion across the valley on the cliff where the library now stands. Completed in 1904 at the cost of $75,000, the home was designed like a German-style castle with 17 rooms and elaborately decorated with ornate woodwork, stained glass, several fireplaces. A successful businessman, Peter was a painter encouraged by Hudson River School artist Max Eaglau and maintained a studio as his home for himself and others use, The gallery in the house included many works inspired by his native Black Forest and the Catskill Mountains, where he summered. After Peter's death, the house was owned for a time by the Arnoldi family. In the 1930s, to make way for the construction of the Midtown-Hudson Tunnel, the building and others in the neighborhood and along Boulevard East were acquired by the Port Authority. Many were demolished, but the Peter Mansion was spared and given to the township.
The library opened in 1942 with memorablia donated by local residents. In 1997–1998, it closed for enlargement and renovation and re-opened in 1999; the Weehawken Historical Commission, whose office and archives are located on the upper floor of the library in the Historical Room, maintains materials contributed upon the creation of the library as well as other acquisitions made over the years. The Weehawken Time Machine is a website that has digitized many of the photographs and documents in the collection. In 2009, to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the town's incorporation, the commission published Weehawken as part of Arcadia Publishing's Images of America series; the original town hall of Weehawken, located on Park Avenue a few blocks south of the Beaux-Arts municipal building, is undergoing renovations and will become the town's museum upon completion. Official website Bergen County Cooperatived Library System Weehawken Time Machine Wikimapia Weehawken Township Official Website
Montclair Public Library
The Montclair Public Library is the public library for the township of Montclair located in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. It serves the residents from the Main Library and the Bellevue Avenue Branch, it is a member of the Bergen County Cooperative Library System. The Montclair Public Library had its beginnings with the founding of the Montclair Library Association, a 30-person subscription-based organization started by Israel Crane in 1869. On April 12, 1893 citizens of Montclair voted to establish a free public library, it was housed on the second floor of Dr. John J. H. Love's office at 16 Church Street. Mary F. Weeks served as the first Library Director, until 1897. An abandoned inn was purchased and became the new home for the Library in 1898. A branch was established in 1899 in a rented room in the real estate office of John Mancini on Bellevue Avenue, near the train station; the first building constructed for the library was completed in 1904 with $40,000 from the Carnegie Corporation.
This building at 73 Church Street served as the main library for 50 years. This building is now part of the Unitarian Church, located at the intersection of Valley Road and Church Street. In 1913, the Carnegie Corporation gave Montclair a second sum of $40,000 for the construction of the Bellevue Avenue Branch. Designed by the architect Francis A. Nelson, the branch opened on December 26, 1914. In 1927, Margery Quigley became the sixth director of the library, her book "Portrait of a Library"OCLC 1750291, co-authored with William Marcus, the library board president, was revolutionary for changing the concept of public libraries from that of a place for quiet reading to that of a dynamic information center. It drew the attention of Director Hans Burger, who developed a film of the same name in 1940, distributed by the Museum of Modern Art and shown throughout the world under the auspices of the U. S. Department of State. In February 1942, International Business Machines Corporation designed the first punch card data processing system for the library making the first public library in the United States to have a computerized circulation system.
In 1955 the Davella Mills Foundation donated the former site of Dr. Love's home, whose offices served as the first library, as the site for the new library building, they contributed $250,000 toward the $800,000 construction cost. Designed by Ralph Walker of Voorhees, Walker and Smith was noted for its large glass windows and an absence of internal load bearing walls. In 1996 the Main Library closed for expansion, reopening a year later. In 2002 it was named one of the top five libraries in the nation by Library Journal. Mary F. Weeks S. Augusta Smith Katherine School Helen M. Hereling Alta M. Barker Margery C. Quigley Ruth P. Tubby Arthur Curley Betty J. Turock Phillip M. Clark Ellen Foth Michael L. Connell Carol W. Robinson Howard W. Curtis Cheryl M. McCoy Mary Lou Skillin David Hinkley Peter Coyl
Edgewater Public Library
The Edgewater Public Library is located at 48 Hudson Avenue in Edgewater, in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. Serving a population of 7,677, the library in 2011 included a collection of 20,402 volumes; as member of the Bergen County Cooperative Library System, a consortium of municipal libraries in the northeastern New Jersey counties of Bergen, Hudson and Essex it has a circulation of 52,627 items per year. The building is one of New Jersey's 36 Carnegie libraries, constructed with a grant of $15,000 made March 16, 1915 by the Carnegie Corporation and opened in 1916. Engraved about its entrance is Edgewater Free Library. In 2009, the library was listed on the state and national registers of historic places. List of Carnegie libraries in New Jersey Edgewater Borough Hall National Register of Historic Places listings in Bergen County, New Jersey Edgewater Public Library Bergen County Coopertaive Library System