Teterboro, New Jersey
Teterboro is a borough in Bergen County, in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 67, reflecting an increase of 49 from the 18 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 4 from the 22 counted in the 1990 Census; as of 2010, it is the fourth-smallest municipality, by population, in New Jersey. Teterboro is the home of Teterboro Airport which takes up a majority of the borough, as well as portions of Hasbrouck Heights and Moonachie. Teterboro was incorporated on March 26, 1917, from land, part of the boroughs of Moonachie, Little Ferry and Lodi Township; the borough was enlarged on July 1918, by the addition of an area annexed from Hasbrouck Heights. The borough was named for Walter C. Teter, a New York investment banker, who had purchased land in 1917 to build a racetrack and developed a 700-acre site, reclaiming marshland and building an airport and an 18-hole golf course; the name Teterboro was changed on April 14, 1937, to Bendix Borough, but reverted to Teterboro Borough on June 1, 1943.
Throughout the borough's history, neighboring municipalities, such as Hasbrouck Heights and South Hackensack, have made repeated attempts to dissolve Teterboro, in hopes of absorbing the town's ratables. Some people have reasoned that the population is too small for the borough to justify its own existence. However, all such attempts have met with failure, due to resistance from residents, business owners and municipal officials. In July 2010, a bill was introduced in the New Jersey state senate in a renewed effort to divide Teterboro among neighboring towns; the bill, sponsored by Senator Robert M. Gordon and Assemblypersons Connie Wagner and Vincent Prieto, stalled in the state Legislature after its introduction, due to opposition from the borough's officials, its residents and business and land owners within the borough, as well as the neighboring municipalities of Moonachie and Hasbrouck Heights; the legality of a 20-year tax abatement proposed by the legislators for Teterboro businesses within the bill, included to alleviate concerns of property owners that taxes could spike if the borough was dissolved, was called into question.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 1.158 square miles, including 1.157 square miles of land and 0.001 square miles of water. The borough borders Hackensack, Hasbrouck Heights, Little Ferry and South Hackensack; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 67 people, 25 households, 13.000 families residing in the borough. The population density was 57.9 per square mile. There were 27 housing units at an average density of 23.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 67.16% White, 4.48% Black or African American, 2.99% Native American, 2.99% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 8.96% from other races, 13.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 35.82% of the population. There were 25 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.0% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 48.0% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 20.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.85. In the borough, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 32.8% from 45 to 64, 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.5 years. For every 100 females there were 86.1 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 96.2 males. The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $78,571 and the median family income was $79,107. Males had a median income of $72,031 versus $24,286 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $32,446. About 0.0% of families and 13.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.0% of those under age 18 and 100.0% of those age 65 or over. Same-sex couples headed no households in either 2010 or 2000; as of the 2000 United States Census there were 18 people, 7 households, 4 families residing in the borough. The population density was 16.2 people per square mile.
There were 8 housing units at an average density of 7.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 83.33% White, 16.67% from two or more races. There were 7 households out of which 42.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 28.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.6% were non-families. 14.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.00. In the borough the population was spread out with 33.3% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 50.0% from 25 to 44, 5.6% from 45 to 64, 5.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.0 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $44,167, the median income for a family was $43,750. Males had a median income of $18,750 versus $38,750 for females.
The per capita income for the borough was $72,613. None of the population or families were below the poverty line. Borough officials stated that
National School Lunch Act
The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act is a United States federal law that created the National School Lunch Program to provide low-cost or free school lunch meals to qualified students through subsidies to schools; the program was established as a way to prop up food prices by absorbing farm surpluses, while at the same time providing food to school age children. It was named after Richard Russell, Jr. signed into law by President Harry S. Truman in 1946, entered the federal government into schools dietary programs on June 4, 1946; the majority of the support provided to schools participating in the program comes in the form of a cash reimbursement for each meal served. Schools are entitled to receive commodity foods and additional commodities as they are available from surplus agricultural stocks; the National School Lunch Program serves 30.5 million children each day at a cost of $8.7 billion for fiscal year 2007. Most participants are eligible for food during the summer through the Summer Food Service Program.
School feeding in the United States underwent the same evolution as in Europe, beginning with sporadic food services undertaken by private societies and associations interested in child welfare and education. The Children's Aid Society of New York initiated a program in 1853, serving meals to students attending the vocational school. In 1894, the Starr Center Association in Philadelphia began serving penny lunches in one school expanding the service to another. Soon a lunch committee was established within the Home and School League, lunches were extended to include nine schools in the city. In 1909, Dr. Cheesman A. Herrick, principal of the William Penn High School for Girls was credited with accomplishing the transfer of responsibilities for operation and support of the lunch program from charitable organizations to the Philadelphia School Board, he requested that a system be established to assure that the lunches served would be based upon sound principles of nutrition and required that the program be under the direction of a home economics graduate.
The Board granted his request on an experimental basis and on the condition that the program would be self-supporting. The experiment proved successful, the following year lunch services were extended to the Southern Manual Training School and to three additional units. In the spring of 1912, the School Board established a Department of High School Lunches and directed that the food services be inaugurated in all the high schools of the city. During all this time the Home and School League had continued operating the feeding program in the nine elementary schools, continued to do so until May 1915, when it reported to the Board that the need for a lunch system had been demonstrated and that it could not be operated by an organization outside the school system; as a result, the School Board placed the operation of both high school and elementary lunch programs under the supervision of the Department of High School Lunches and authorized the extension of the program to other elementary schools.
In September 1908, the Women's Educational and Industrial Union in Boston begun to supply hot lunches to high schools which were under the supervision of the Boston School Committee. A central kitchen system was used and lunches were transported to the participating schools. In January 1910, an experimental program for elementary schools took the form of a mid-morning lunch prepared by the class in Home Economics three days each week. On two days of each week sandwiches and milk were served; the children ate their meals at their desks. Before the end of the school year five additional schools were benefiting from the program, a total of 2,000 pupils were being served each day, according to a report submitted by Ellen H. Richards in the "Journal of Home Economics" for December 1910; as the scope of the meal supply expanded, local governments and school district boards could not provide the funds necessary to carry the increasing load. Supplementary contributions by charitable organizations and individuals did not suffice.
Aid from Federal sources became inevitable. The earliest Federal aid came from the Reconstruction Finance Corporation in 1932 and 1933 when it granted loans to several towns in southwestern Missouri to cover the cost of labor employed in preparing and serving school lunches; such Federal assistance was expanded to other areas in 1933 and 1934 under the operations of the Civil Works Administration and the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, reaching into 39 States and covering the employment of 7,442 women. The depression of the 1930s brought on widespread unemployment. Much of the production of the farm went begging for a market, surpluses of farm products continued to mount, prices of farm products declined to a point where farm income provided only a meager subsistence. Millions of school children were unable to pay for their school lunches, with but limited family resources to provide meals at home, the danger of malnutrition among children became a national concern. Public Law 320 passed by the 74th Congress and approved August 24, 1936, made available to the Secretary of Agriculture an amount of money equal to 30 percent of the gross receipts from duties collected under the customs laws during each calendar year.
Needy families and school lunch programs became constructive outlets for the commodities purchased by the USDA under the terms of such legislation. Many needy school children could not afford to pay for lunches and were sorely in need of supplementary foods from a nutritional standpoint, thus they would be using foods at school which would not otherwise be purchased in the market place and farmers would be helped by obtaining an outlet for
The ACT is a standardized test used for college admissions in the United States. It was first introduced in November 1959 by University of Iowa professor Everett Franklin Lindquist as a competitor to the Scholastic Aptitude Test, it is administered by ACT, a nonprofit organization of the same name. The ACT consisted of four tests: English, Social Studies, Natural Sciences. In 1989, the Social Studies test was changed into a Reading section, the Natural Sciences test was renamed the Science Reasoning test, with more emphasis on problem-solving skills as opposed to memorizing scientific facts. In February 2005, an optional Writing Test was added to the ACT, mirroring changes to the SAT that took place in March of the same year. In 2013, ACT announced that students would be able to take the ACT by computer starting in the spring of 2015; the ACT has seen a gradual increase in the number of test takers since its inception, in 2011 the ACT surpassed the SAT for the first time in total test takers.
All four-year colleges and universities in the U. S. accept the ACT, but different institutions place different emphases on standardized tests such as the ACT, compared to other factors including class rank, GPA, extracurricular activities. The main four sections are individually scored on a scale of 1–36, a composite score is provided. ACT, Inc. says that the ACT assessment measures high school students' general educational development and their capability to complete college-level work with the multiple choice tests covering four skill areas: English, mathematics and science. The optional Writing Test measures skill in writing a short essay. ACT states that its scores provide an indicator of "college readiness", that scores in each of the subtests correspond to skills in entry-level college courses in English, social science and biology. According to a research study conducted by ACT, Inc. in 2003, there was a relationship between a student's ACT composite score and the probability of him or her earning a college degree.
To develop the test, ACT incorporates the objectives for instruction from middle and high schools throughout the United States, reviews approved textbooks for subjects taught in Grades 7–12, surveys educators on which knowledge skills are relevant to success in postsecondary education. ACT publishes a technical manual that summarizes studies conducted on its validity in predicting freshman GPA, equating different high school GPAs, measuring educational achievement. Colleges use the ACT and the SAT because there are substantial differences in funding, curricula and difficulty among U. S. secondary schools due to American federalism, local control, the prevalence of private, home schooled students, lack of a rigorous college entrance examination system similar those used in some other countries. ACT/SAT scores are used to supplement the secondary school record and help admission officers put local data—such as coursework and class rank—in a national perspective; the majority of colleges do not indicate a preference for the SAT or ACT exams and accept both, being treated by most admissions officers.
According to "Uni in the USA," colleges that require students to take the SAT Subject Tests do so regardless of whether the candidate took the SAT or ACT. Most colleges use ACT scores as only one factor in the admission process. A sampling of ACT admissions scores shows that the 75th percentile composite score was 24.1 at public four-year institutions and 25.3 at private four-year institutions. Students should check with their prospective institutions directly to understand ACT admissions requirements. In addition, some states and individual school districts have used the ACT to assess the student learning and/or the performance of schools, requiring all high school students to take the ACT, regardless of whether they are college bound. Colorado and Illinois were the first to incorporate the ACT as part of their mandatory testing program in 2001. Other states followed suit in subsequent years. During the 2018–2019 school year, 13 states will administer the ACT test to all public school 11th graders, another six states will fund ACT test administration as an option or choice for districts.
While the exact manner in which ACT scores will help to determine admission of a student at American institutions of higher learning is a matter decided by the individual institution, some foreign countries have made ACT scores a legal criterion in deciding whether holders of American high school diplomas will be admitted at their public universities. The ACT is more used in the Midwestern, Rocky Mountain, Southern United States, whereas the SAT is more popular on the East and West coasts. However, the ACT is being used more on the East Coast. Use of the ACT by colleges has risen as a result of various criticisms of the effectiveness and fairness of the SAT; the required portion of the ACT is divided into four multiple choice subject tests: English, mathematics and science reasoning. Subject test scores range from 1 to 36; the English and readi
U.S. Route 46
U. S. Route 46 is an east–west U. S. Highway within the state of New Jersey, running for 75.34 mi, making it the shortest signed, non-spur U. S. Highway; the west end is at an interchange with Interstate 80 and Route 94 in Columbia, Warren County on the Delaware River. The east end is in the middle of the George Washington Bridge over the Hudson River in Fort Lee, Bergen County while the route is concurrent with I-95 and US 1-9. Throughout much of its length, US 46 is paralleled by I-80. US 46 is a major local and suburban route, with some sections built to or near freeway standards and many other sections arterials with jughandles; the route runs through several communities in the northern part of New Jersey, including Hackettstown, Dover, Parsippany-Troy Hills, Clifton, Ridgefield Park, Palisades Park, Fort Lee. It crosses over the Upper Passaic River at several points; the road has been ceremonially named the United Spanish–American War Veterans Memorial Highway. What is now US 46 was designated as three separate routes.
Pre-1927 Route 5 was created in 1916 to follow the road from Delaware to Denville, pre-1927 Route 12 in 1917 to follow the route between Hackettstown and Paterson, pre-1927 Route 10 in 1917 to run between Paterson and Edgewater. In 1927, Route 6 was legislated to run from Delaware east to the George Washington Bridge, replacing portions of Routes 5 and 12 and paralleling the former Route 10, which itself became Route 5 and Route 10N, the latter being shortly removed from the state highway system. In 1936, US 46 was designated to run from US 611 in Portland, Pennsylvania east to the George Washington Bridge; the route replaced Pennsylvania Route 987 to the Delaware Bridge over the Delaware, from there followed Route 6 across New Jersey. In 1953, the Route 6 designation was removed from US 46 in New Jersey, that year, the route was realigned to end at US 611 in Columbia, New Jersey, replacing a part of Route 94. US 611 had been brought into New Jersey by two new bridges over the Delaware River, following a freeway between them that became a part of I-80.
In 1972, US 611 was aligned back into its original Pennsylvania route, US 46’s western terminus remained as an interchange ramp with I-80 and Route 94. US 46 begins at a large interchange with I-80 and Route 94 near the Portland–Columbia Toll Bridge leading to Pennsylvania Route 611 in the community of Columbia in Knowlton Township, Warren County. From this interchange, the route heads southeast along the east bank of the Delaware River as a four-lane divided highway before narrowing into a two-lane undivided road; the road passes through wooded mountainous areas before reaching the community of Delaware. In Delaware, US 46 intersects Route 163, the approach to the former Delaware Bridge, before passing a few commercial establishments. From here, the route continues alongside the river, passing more rural areas of woods and farms with occasional development as it enters White Township. US 46 makes a sharp turn to the east away from the Delaware River, widening into a four-lane divided highway again as it bypasses the town of Belvidere and has a few businesses on it.
The road turns back into a two-lane undivided road and comes to a crossroads with CR 519. Past this intersection, US 46 continues through rural sectors with some business before coming to the northern terminus of Route 31. From this point, the route continues east through dense woods prior to turning northeast into Liberty Township; the road passes through the community of Townsbury before crossing into Independence Township. Here, US 46 enters more agricultural areas and turns east again, with development increasing along the road as it passes through Great Meadows-Vienna, it continues southeast before entering Hackettstown. In Hackettstown, the route crosses New Jersey Transit’s Morristown Line and Montclair-Boonton Line before coming to an intersection with CR 517. Here, CR 517 forms a concurrency with US 46, the two routes continue southeast through the downtown area. At the intersection with the northern terminus of Route 182, CR 517 splits from US 46 by heading south on that route while US 46 continues to the east.
Shortly after the Route 182 intersection, the route crosses the Musconetcong River into Washington Township, Morris County, where it heads back into rural surroundings. About a mile into Morris County, US 46 becomes a four-lane highway with a wide median; the road passes a median ride lot as it turns north and crosses over a mountain. It continues into Mount Olive Township, taking a sharp turn to the east before the road becomes undivided while remaining four lanes; the road passes rural areas and development. In this community, the route passes to the south of the namesake lake as it begins to turn northeast and north; the road heads northeast again before it enters Netcong and becomes a divided highway as it comes to an interchange with I-80/US 206. Within this interchange, the lanes of US 46 split. From this point, the route narrows back into a two-lane undivided road and runs through developed areas of Netcong a short distance to the south of New Jersey Transit's Morristown Line/Montclair-Boonton Line.
US 46 meets Route 183 at an intersection before widening into a four-lane undivided road and leaving Netcong for Roxbury Township. Here, the road passes through wooded areas, meeting I-80 at another interchange and becoming a divided highway at the crossing under I-80 and again at the actual interchange. US 46 remains a divided highway with jughandles past this point, continuing southeast into the Ledgewood area. At a three-way intersection which was
Bergen County, New Jersey
Bergen County is the most populous county in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 948,406, an increase of 4.8% from the 2010 United States Census, which in turn represented an increase of 20,998 from the 884,118 counted in the 2000 Census. Located in the northeastern corner of New Jersey and its Gateway Region, Bergen County is part of the New York City Metropolitan Area and is directly across the Hudson River from Manhattan, to which it is connected by the George Washington Bridge. Bergen County has no large cities, its most populous place, with 43,010 residents at the time of the 2010 census, is Hackensack, its county seat. Mahwah covered the largest area of any municipality, at 26.19 square miles. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $75,849, the fourth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 45th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Bergen County is one of the wealthiest counties in the United States, with a median household income of $81,708 per the 2010 Census, increasing to an estimated $84,677 in 2014, 18% higher than the $71,919 median statewide.
The county hosts an extensive park system totaling nearly 9,000 acres. The origin of the name of Bergen County is a matter of debate, it is believed that the county is named for one of the earliest settlements, Bergen, in modern-day Hudson County. However, the origin of the township's name is debated. Several sources attribute the name to Bergen, while others attribute it to Bergen, North Holland in the Netherlands; some sources say that the name is derived from one of the earliest settlers of New Amsterdam, Hans Hansen Bergen, a native of Norway, who arrived in New Netherland in 1633. At the time of first European contact, Bergen County was inhabited by Native American people the Lenape Nation, whose sub-groups included the Tappan and Rumachenanck, as named by the Dutch colonists; some of their descendants are included among the Ramapough Mountain Indians, recognized as a tribe by the state in 1980. Their ancestors had moved into the mountains to escape encroachment by English colonists, their descendants reside in the northwest of the county, in nearby Passaic County and in Rockland County, New York, tracing their Lenape ancestry to speakers of the Munsee language, one of three major dialects of their language.
Over the years, they absorbed other ethnicities by intermarriage. In the 17th century, the Dutch considered the area comprising today's Bergen and Hudson counties as part of New Netherland, their colonial province of the Dutch Republic; the Dutch claimed it after Henry Hudson explored Newark Bay and anchored his ship at Weehawken Cove in 1609. From an early date, the Dutch began to import African slaves to fill their labor needs. Bergen County was the largest slaveholding county in the state; the African slaves were used for labor at the ports to support shipping, as well as for domestic servants and farm labor. Early settlement attempts by the Dutch included Pavonia and Achter Col, but the Native Americans repelled these settlements in Kieft's War and the Peach Tree War. European settlers returned to the western shores of the Hudson River in the 1660 formation of Bergen Township, which would become the first permanent European settlement in the territory of present-day New Jersey. During the Second Anglo-Dutch War, on August 27, 1664, New Amsterdam's governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered to the English Navy.
The English organized the Province of New Jersey in 1665 splitting the territory into East Jersey and West Jersey in 1674. On November 30, 1675, the settlement Bergen and surrounding plantations and settlements were called Bergen County in an act passed by the province's General Assembly. In 1683, Bergen was recognized as an independent county by the Provincial Assembly. Bergen County consisted of only the land between the Hudson River and the Hackensack River, extending north to the border between East Jersey and New York. In January 1709, the boundaries were extended to include all of the current territory of Hudson County and portions of the current territory of Passaic County; the 1709 borders were described as follows: "Beginning at Constable's Hook, so along the bay and Hudson's River to the partition point between New Jersey and the province of New York. † The line between East and West Jersey here referred to is not the line adopted and known as the Lawrence line, run by John Lawrence in September and October 1743.
It was the compromise line agreed upon between Governors Daniel Coxe and Robert Barclay in 1682, which ran a little north of Morristown to the Passaic River. This line being afterward objected to by the East Jersey proprietors, the latter procured the running of the Lawrence line. Bergen was the location of several battles and troop movements during the American Revolutionary War. Fort Lee's location on the bluffs of the New Jersey Palisades, opposite Fort Washington in Manhattan, made it a strategic position during the war. In November 1776, the Battle of Fort Lee took place as part of a British plan to capture George Washington and to crush the Contin
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933. Between 2008 and 2012, Newsweek experienced financial difficulties, leading to the cessation of print publication and a transition to all-digital format at the end of 2012; the print edition was relaunched in March 2014. Revenue declines prompted an August 2010 sale by owner The Washington Post Company to audio pioneer Sidney Harman—for a purchase price of one dollar and an assumption of the magazine's liabilities; that year, Newsweek merged with the news and opinion website The Daily Beast, forming The Newsweek Daily Beast Company. Newsweek was jointly owned by the estate of Harman and the diversified American media and Internet company IAC. In 2013, IBT Media announced it had acquired Newsweek from IAC. IBT Media rebranded itself as Newsweek Media Group in 2017, but returned to IBT Media in 2018 after making Newsweek independent. News-Week was launched in 1933 by Thomas J. C. Martyn, a former foreign-news editor for Time, he obtained financial backing from a group of U.
S. stockholders "which included Ward Cheney, of the Cheney silk family, John Hay Whitney, Paul Mellon, son of Andrew W. Mellon". Paul Mellon's ownership in Newsweek represented "the first attempt of the Mellon family to function journalistically on a national scale." The group of original owners invested around $2.5 million. Other large stockholders prior to 1946 were public utilities investment banker Stanley Childs and Wall Street corporate lawyer Wilton Lloyd-Smith. Journalist Samuel T. Williamson served as the first editor-in-chief of Newsweek; the first issue of the magazine was dated February 17, 1933. Seven photographs from the week's news were printed on the first issue's cover. In 1937 News-Week merged with the weekly journal Today, founded in 1932 by future New York Governor and diplomat W. Averell Harriman, Vincent Astor of the prominent Astor family; as a result of the deal and Astor provided $600,000 in venture capital funds and Vincent Astor became both the chairman of the board and its principal stockholder between 1937 and his death in 1959.
In 1937 Malcolm Muir took over as editor-in-chief. He changed the name to Newsweek, emphasized interpretive stories, introduced signed columns, launched international editions. Over time the magazine developed a broad spectrum of material, from breaking stories and analysis to reviews and commentary; the magazine was purchased by The Washington Post Company in 1961. Osborn Elliott was named editor of Newsweek in 1961 and became the editor in chief in 1969. In 1970, Eleanor Holmes Norton represented sixty female employees of Newsweek who had filed a claim with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that Newsweek had a policy of only allowing men to be reporters; the women won, Newsweek agreed to allow women to be reporters. The day the claim was filed, Newsweek's cover article was "Women in Revolt", covering the feminist movement. Edward Kosner became editor from 1975 to 1979 after directing the magazine's extensive coverage of the Watergate scandal that led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1974.
Richard M. Smith became chairman in 1998, the year that the magazine inaugurated its "Best High Schools in America" list, a ranking of public secondary schools based on the Challenge Index, which measures the ratio of Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate exams taken by students to the number of graduating students that year, regardless of the scores earned by students or the difficulty in graduating. Schools with average SAT scores above 1300 or average ACT scores above 27 are excluded from the list. In 2008, there were 17 Public Elites. Smith resigned as board chairman in December 2007. During 2008–2009, Newsweek undertook a dramatic business restructuring. Citing difficulties in competing with online news sources to provide unique news in a weekly publication, the magazine refocused its content on opinion and commentary beginning with its May 24, 2009, issue, it shrank its subscriber rate base, from 3.1 million to 2.6 million in early 2008, to 1.9 million in July 2009 and to 1.5 million in January 2010—a decline of 50% in one year.
Meacham described his strategy as "counterintuitive" as it involved discouraging renewals and nearly doubling subscription prices as it sought a more affluent subscriber base for its advertisers. During this period, the magazine laid off staff. While advertising revenues were down 50% compared to the prior year, expenses were diminished, whereby the publishers hoped Newsweek would return to profitability; the financial results for 2009 as reported by The Washington Post Company showed that advertising revenue for Newsweek was down 37% in 2009 and the magazine division reported an operating loss for 2009 of $29.3 million compared to a loss of $16 million in 2008. During the first quarter of 2010, the magazine lost nearly $11 million. By May 2010, Newsweek was put up for sale; the sale attracted international bidders. One bidder was Syrian entrepreneur Abdulsalam Haykal, CEO of Syrian publishing company Haykal Media, who brought together a coalition of Middle Eastern investors with his company.
Haykal claimed his bid was ignored by Newsweek's bankers, Allen & Co. The magazine was sold to audio pioneer Sidney Harman on August 2, 2010, for $1 in exchange for assuming the magazine's financial liabilities. Harman's bid was accepted over three competitors. Meacham left the magazine upon completion of the sale. Sidney Harman was the
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is a public research university in New Jersey. It is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey. Rutgers was chartered as Queen's College on November 10, 1766, it is the eighth-oldest college in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The college was renamed Rutgers College in 1825 in honor of Colonel Henry Rutgers. For most of its existence, Rutgers was a private liberal arts college but it evolved into a coeducational public research university after being designated "The State University of New Jersey" by the New Jersey Legislature in laws enacted in 1945 and 1956. Rutgers has three campuses located throughout New Jersey: New Brunswick campus in New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway, the Newark campus, the Camden campus; the university has additional facilities elsewhere in the state. Instruction is offered by 9,000 faculty members in 175 academic departments to over 45,000 undergraduate students and more than 20,000 graduate and professional students.
The university is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools and is a member of the Big Ten Academic Alliance, the Association of American Universities and the Universities Research Association. The New Brunswick campus was categorized by Howard and Matthew Green in their book titled The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities as a Public Ivy. Two decades after the College of New Jersey was established in 1746 by the New Light Presbyterians, ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church, seeking autonomy in ecclesiastical affairs in the American colonies, sought to establish a college to train those who wanted to become ministers within the church. Through several years of effort by the Rev. Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen and Rev. Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh the college's first president, Queen's College received its charter on November 10, 1766 from New Jersey's last Royal Governor, William Franklin, the illegitimate son of Founding Father Benjamin Franklin; the original charter established the college under the corporate name the trustees of Queen's College, in New-Jersey, named in honor of King George III's Queen consort, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, created both the college and the Queen's College Grammar School, intended to be a preparatory school affiliated and governed by the college.
The Grammar School, today the private Rutgers Preparatory School, was a part of the college community until 1959. New Brunswick was chosen as the location over Hackensack because the New Brunswick Dutch had the support of the Anglican population, making the royal charter easier to obtain; the original purpose of Queen's College was to "educate the youth in language, the divinity, useful arts and sciences" and for the training of future ministers for the Dutch Reformed Church The college admitted its first students in 1771—a single sophomore and a handful of first-year students taught by a lone instructor—and granted its first degree in 1774, to Matthew Leydt. Despite the religious nature of the early college, the first classes were held at a tavern called the Sign of the Red Lion; when the Revolutionary War broke out and taverns were suspected by the British as being hotbeds of rebel activity, the college abandoned the tavern and held classes in private homes. According to research from Scarlet and Black, "Rutgers depended on slaves to build its campuses and serve its students and faculty.
In its early years, due to a lack of funds, Queen's College was closed for two extended periods. Early trustees considered merging the college with the College of New Jersey, in Princeton and considered relocating to New York City. In 1808, after raising $12,000, the college was temporarily reopened and broke ground on a building of its own, called "Old Queens", designed by architect John McComb, Jr; the college's third president, the Rev. Ira Condict, laid the cornerstone on April 27, 1809. Shortly after, the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784, relocated from Brooklyn, New York, to New Brunswick, shared facilities with Queen's College. During those formative years, all three institutions fit into Old Queens. In 1830, the Queen's College Grammar School moved across the street, in 1856, the Seminary relocated to a seven-acre tract less than one-half miles away. After several years of closure resulting from an economic depression after the War of 1812, Queen's College reopened in 1825 and was renamed "Rutgers College" in honor of American Revolutionary War hero Colonel Henry Rutgers.
According to the Board of Trustees, Colonel Rutgers was honored because he epitomized Christian values. A year after the school was renamed, it received two donations from its namesake: a $200 bell still hanging from the cupola of Old Queen's and a $5,000 bond which placed the college on sound financial footing. Rutgers College became the land-grant college of New Jersey in 1864 under the Morrill Act of 1862, resulting in the establishment of the Rutgers Scientific School, featuring departments of agriculture and chemistry; the Rutgers Scientific School would expand over the years to grow into the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station and divide into the College of Engineering and the College of Agriculture. Rutgers created the New Jersey College for Women in 1918, the School of Education in 1