Lyngen is a municipality in Troms county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Lyngseidet, other villages include Furuflaten, Nord-Lenangen, and Svensby. The municipality is named after the Lyngen fjord, the name of the fjord is derived from the word logn which means quiet, still, or calm. The coat-of-arms is from modern times, the arms show a black horse of the local breed on a silver background. The silver color symbolizes the sea and fishing industry and the horse represents the local agriculture, see also, The coat-of-arms of Eid, Levanger, Nord-Fron and Ski. The Lyngen Church was built at Karnes in 1731, and was moved to its present location at Lyngseidet in 1740, in 1775, the church was rebuilt in its current cross shape, with the material from the old church used for a boathouse in Oldervik. Finally in 1840–1845, the church was renovated with a new tower, windows, during the Cold War the Norwegian Army planned to abandon Finnmark and halt the Soviets along the European route E06 highway at the choke point between the Lyngen fjord and the mountains.
Lyngen was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838, on 1 January 1867, the Sørfjorden part of Karlsøy municipality was transferred to Lyngen. Then on 1 January 1875, a part of Lyngen was transferred to Balsfjord. On 1 January 1902, the Sørfjorden area was separated from Lyngen to form a new municipality and these changes left Lyngen with 2,225 residents. On 1 January 1964, the part of the Lyngen peninsula in Karlsøy municipality. Then on 1 January 1992, the Nordnes area of Lyngen on the shore of the Lyngenfjorden was transferred to the neighboring municipalities of Kåfjord and Storfjord. The municipality is situated on the Lyngen peninsula, with the Lyngen fjord to the east, the municipal centre is Lyngseidet, a pretty settlement on an isthmus that almost cuts the peninsula in the middle. Other villages include Furuflaten, which has various industries, and Svensby, Nord-Lenangen faces the open sea, and is largely a fishing village. The municipality has its own shipping company, operating the car ferries west to Breivikeidet in Tromsø, there is a road going south along the shore of the fjord connecting to the main E6 road, giving ferry-free access to the main road network.
The Lyngen peninsula is a scenic and mountainous area, known as the Lyngen Alps. The highest peak is Jiehkkevárri, reaching 1,833 metres, another prominent mountain is Store Lenangstind. The Strupbreen lies in this range, northwest of Lyngseidet
Bergen, historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway. At the end of the first quarter of 2016, the population was 278,121. Bergen is the second-largest city in Norway, the municipality covers 465 square kilometres and is on the peninsula of Bergenshalvøyen. The city centre and northern neighbourhoods are on Byfjorden, the city fjord, many of the extra-municipal suburbs are on islands. Bergen is the centre of Hordaland and consists of eight boroughs—Arna, Fana, Laksevåg, Ytrebygda, Årstad. Trading in Bergen may have started as early as the 1020s, according to tradition, the city was founded in 1070 by king Olav Kyrre, its name was Bjørgvin, the green meadow among the mountains. It served as Norways capital in the 13th century, and from the end of the 13th century became a city of the Hanseatic League. Until 1789, Bergen enjoyed exclusive rights to trade between Northern Norway and abroad and it was the largest city in Norway until the 1830s when it was surpassed by the capital.
What remains of the quays, Bryggen, is a World Heritage Site, the city was hit by numerous fires over the years. The Bergen School of Meteorology was developed at the Geophysical Institute beginning in 1917, the Norwegian School of Economics was founded in 1936, from 1831 to 1972, Bergen was its own county. In 1972 the municipality absorbed four surrounding municipalities and became a part of Hordaland county, the city is an international centre for aquaculture, offshore petroleum industry and subsea technology, and a national centre for higher education, media and finance. Bergen Port is Norways busiest in both freight and passengers with over 300 cruise ship calls a year bringing nearly a half a million passengers to Bergen, almost half of the passengers are German or British. The citys main team is SK Brann and the citys unique tradition is the buekorps. Natives speak the distinct Bergensk dialect, the city features Bergen Airport, Bergen Light Rail, and is the terminus of the Bergen Line.
Four large bridges connect Bergen to its suburban municipalities, Bergen is well known for having a mild winter climate, though with a lot of precipitation. In December - March, the difference between Bergen and Oslo can be up to 30 degrees Celsius, despite the fact that both cities are at approximately 60 degrees North. The Gulf Stream keeps the sea relatively warm, considering the latitude, the city of Bergen was traditionally thought to have been founded by king Olav Kyrre, son of Harald Hardråde in 1070 AD, four years after the Viking Age ended with the Battle of Hastings. Modern research has, discovered that a settlement was established already during the 1020s or 1030s
Nynorsk, literally New Norwegian or New Norse, is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål. From 1885, when the parliament declared them official and equal, until new voting in 1929, the official standard of Nynorsk has since been significantly altered. A minor purist fraction of the Nynorsk populace has stayed firm with the Aasen norm, in local communities, one-fourth of Norwegian municipalities have declared Nynorsk as their official language form, and these municipalities account for about 12% of the Norwegian populace. Of the remaining municipalities, half are neutral and half have adopted Bokmål as their official language form, four of Norways nineteen counties, Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane and Møre og Romsdal, have Nynorsk as their official language form. These four together comprise the region of Western Norway, the word Nynorsk has another meaning. Nynorsk was the written Norwegian in use until it died out in the early 1600s during the period of Danish rule, a major source of old written material is Diplomatarium Norvegicum in 22 printed volumes.
Written Nynorsk is found in all the types of places. Bokmål has, however, a larger basis in the cities. Most Norwegians do not speak either Nynorsk or Bokmål as written, Nynorsk shares many of the problems that minority languages face. In Norway, each municipality and county can choose to one of the two languages as its official language, or it can remain language neutral. As of 2015, 26% of the 428 municipalities have declared Nynorsk as their language, while 36% have chosen Bokmål and another 36% are neutral. At least 128 of the municipalities are in areas where Bokmål is the prevailing form. As for counties, three have declared Nynorsk, Sogn og Fjordane and Møre og Romsdal, two have declared Bokmål, Østfold and Vestfold. The remaining fourteen are officially language neutral, there are few municipalities in language neutral counties that use nynorsk. The main language used in schools is decided by referendum within the local school district. The number of districts and pupils using primarily Nynorsk has decreased from its height in the 1940s.
As of 2016,12. 2% of pupils in school are taught Nynorsk as their primary language. The prevailing regions for Nynorsk are the areas of the western counties of Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane and Møre og Romsdal
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the water is composed of two syllables, wa and ter. A syllable is typically made up of a nucleus with optional initial and final margins. Syllables are often considered the building blocks of words. They can influence the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic meter, syllabic writing began several hundred years before the first letters. The earliest recorded syllables are on tablets written around 2800 BC in the Sumerian city of Ur and this shift from pictograms to syllables has been called the most important advance in the history of writing. A word that consists of a syllable is called a monosyllable. Syllable is an Anglo-Norman variation of Old French sillabe, from Latin syllaba, συλλαβή means what is taken together, referring to letters that are taken together to make a single sound. συλλαβή is a noun from the verb συλλαμβάνω syllambánō, a compound of the preposition σύν sýn with. The noun uses the root λαβ-, which appears in the aorist tense, the present tense stem λαμβάν- is formed by adding a nasal infix ⟨μ⟩ ⟨m⟩ before the β b and a suffix -αν -an at the end.
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the period ⟨. ⟩ marks syllable breaks, in practice, however, IPA transcription is typically divided into words by spaces, and often these spaces are understood to be syllable breaks. When a word comes in the middle of a syllable. The liaison tie is used to join lexical words into phonological words. In the typical theory of structure, the general structure of a syllable consists of three segments. e. Nucleus and coda are grouped together as a rime and onset are only distinguished at the second level, the nucleus is usually the vowel in the middle of a syllable. The onset is the sound or sounds occurring before the nucleus, and they are sometimes collectively known as the shell. The term rime covers the nucleus plus coda, in the one-syllable English word cat, the nucleus is a, the onset c, the coda t, and the rime at. This syllable can be abstracted as a consonant-vowel-consonant syllable, abbreviated CVC, languages vary greatly in the restrictions on the sounds making up the onset and coda of a syllable, according to what is termed a languages phonotactics
Hordaland is a county in Norway, bordering Sogn og Fjordane, Buskerud and Rogaland counties. Hordaland is the third largest county after Akershus and Oslo by population, the county government is the Hordaland County Municipality which is located in Bergen. Before 1972, the city of Bergen was its own separate county apart from Hordaland, Hordaland is the old name of the region which was revived in 1919. The first element is the genitive case of hǫrðar, the name of an old Germanic tribe. The last element is land which means land or region in the Norwegian language, until 1919 the name of the county was Søndre Bergenhus amt which meant southern Bergenhus amt. The flag of Hordaland shows two golden axes and a crown in red, the flag is a banner of the coat of arms derived from the old seal of the guild of St. Olav from Onarheim in Tysnes municipality. This seal was used by the delegates of Sunnhordland in 1344 on the document to install king Haakon V of Norway and it was thus the oldest symbol used for the region and adapted as the arms and flag in 1961.
The symbols refer to the saint of the guild, Saint Olav, King of Norway. The coat-of-arms were officially granted on 1 December 1961 and they were designed by Magnus Hardeland, but the general design had been originally used in the Sunnhordland region during the 14th century. In the early 20th century, leaders of the county using the old arms as a symbol for the county once again. The arms are on a red background and consist of two golden axes that are crossed with a crown above them. Hordaland county has been around for more than one thousand years, since the 7th century, the area was made up of many petty kingdoms under the Gulating and was known as Hordafylke since around the year 900. In the early 16th century, Norway was divided into four len, the Bergenhus len was headquartered in Bergen and encompassed much of western and northern Norway. In 1662, the lens were replaced by amts, Bergenhus amt originally consisted of the present-day areas of Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane, and Sunnmøre and the far northern Nordlandene amt was subordinate to Bergenhus.
In the 1680s, Nordlandene and Sunnmøre were split from Bergenhus, in 1763, the amt was divided into northern and southern parts, Nordre Bergenhus amt and Søndre Bergenhus amt. When the amt was split, the present day municipality of Gulen was split with the southern part ending up in Søndre Bergenhus amt, in 1773, the border was re-drawn so that all of Gulen was located in the northern part. Søndre Bergenhus amt was renamed Hordaland fylke in 1919, the city of Bergen was classified as a city-county from 1831–1972. During that time in 1915, the municipality of Årstad was annexed into Bergen, in 1972, the neighboring municipalities of Arna, Laksevåg and Åsane were annexed into the city of Bergen
The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s and it stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages and early modern period. Hanse, spelled as Hansa, was the Middle Low German word for a convoy, the League was created to protect the guilds economic interests and diplomatic privileges in their affiliated cities and countries, as well as along the trade routes the merchants visited. The Hanseatic cities had their own system and furnished their own armies for mutual protection. The hegemony of Lübeck peaked during the 15th century, Lübeck became a base for merchants from Saxony and Westphalia trading eastward and northward. This area was a source of timber, amber, the towns raised their own armies, with each guild required to provide levies when needed. The Hanseatic cities came to the aid of one another, and commercial ships often had to be used to carry soldiers, Visby functioned as the leading centre in the Baltic before the Hansa.
Sailing east, Visby merchants established a trading post at Novgorod called Gutagard in 1080, Merchants from northern Germany stayed in the early period of the Gotlander settlement. Later they established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof, in 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges that made their position more secure. Hansa societies worked to remove restrictions to trade for their members, before the official foundation of the League in 1356, the word Hanse did not occur in the Baltic language. The earliest remaining documentary mention, although without a name, of a specific German commercial federation is from London 1157. That year, the merchants of the Hansa in Cologne convinced Henry II, King of England, to them from all tolls in London. The allied cities gained control over most of the trade, especially the Scania Market. In 1266, Henry III of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa a charter for operations in England, much of the drive for this co-operation came from the fragmented nature of existing territorial government, which failed to provide security for trade.
Over the next 50 years the Hansa itself emerged with formal agreements for confederation and co-operation covering the west and east trade routes. The principal city and linchpin remained Lübeck, with the first general Diet of the Hansa held there in 1356, other such alliances formed throughout the Holy Roman Empire. Yet the League never became a closely managed formal organisation, over the period, a network of alliances grew to include a flexible roster of 70 to 170 cities. The league succeeded in establishing additional Kontors in Bruges and these trading posts became significant enclaves
The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus /ˈpaɪrəs/, in the family Rosaceae. It is the name of the fruit of the trees. Several species of pear are valued for their fruit, while others are cultivated as ornamental trees. The word “pear” is probably from Germanic pera as a loanword of Vulgar Latin pira, the term pyriform is used to describe something pear-shaped. The pear is native to coastal and mildly temperate regions of the Old World, from western Europe and it is a medium-sized tree, reaching 10–17 metres tall, often with a tall, narrow crown, a few species are shrubby. The leaves are arranged, simple, 2–12 centimetres long, glossy green on some species, densely silvery-hairy in some others. Most pears are deciduous, but one or two species in southeast Asia are evergreen, most are cold-hardy, withstanding temperatures between −25 °C and −40 °C in winter, except for the evergreen species, which only tolerate temperatures down to about −15 °C. The flowers are white, rarely tinted yellow or pink, 2–4 centimetres diameter, the fruit is composed of the receptacle or upper end of the flower-stalk greatly dilated.
Enclosed within its cellular flesh is the fruit, five cartilaginous carpels. From the upper rim of the receptacle are given off the five sepals, the five petals and apples cannot always be distinguished by the form of the fruit, some pears look very much like some apples, e. g. the nashi pear. One major difference is that the flesh of pear fruit contains stone cells, Pear cultivation in cool temperate climates extends to the remotest antiquity, and there is evidence of its use as a food since prehistoric times. Many traces of it have been found in pile dwellings around Lake Zurich. The pear was cultivated by the Romans, who ate the raw or cooked. Plinys Natural History recommended stewing them with honey and noted three dozen varieties, the Roman cookbook De re coquinaria has a recipe for a spiced, stewed-pear patina, or soufflé. A certain race of pears, with white down on the undersurface of their leaves, is supposed to have originated from P. nivalis, and their fruit is chiefly used in France in the manufacture of perry.
Other small-fruited pears, distinguished by their early ripening and apple-like fruit, may be referred to as P. cordata, pears have been cultivated in China for approximately 3000 years. Court accounts of Henry III of England record pears shipped from La Rochelle-Normande, Asian species with medium to large edible fruit include P. pyrifolia, P. ussuriensis, P. × bretschneideri, P. × sinkiangensis, and P. pashia. Other small-fruited species are used as rootstocks for the cultivated forms
Danish dialects are the regional and local varieties of the Danish language. Traditional dialects are now extinct in Denmark, with only the oldest generations still speaking them. Danish traditional dialects are divided into three dialect areas, Jutlandic dialect, Insular Danish and Bornholmian. Bornholmian is the only Eastern Danish dialect spoken in Denmark, since the other Eastern Danish dialects were spoken in areas ceded to Sweden, Jutlandic is further divided into Southern Jutlandic and Northern Jutlandic, with Northern Jutlandic subdivided into North Jutlandic and West Jutlandic. Insular Danish is divided into Zealand, Funen, Møn and Lolland-Falster dialect areas - each with addition internal variation, the realization of stød has traditionally been one of the most important isoglosses for drawing up geographic dialect areas. There are four main variants of stød, in Southeastern Jutlandic, Southernmost Funen, Southern Langeland and Ærø, there is no stød. In most of Jutland and on Zealand there is stød, and in Zealandic traditional dialects and regional language there are often more stød occurrences than in the standard language.
In Zealand the stød line divides Southern Zealand, an area used to be directly under the Danish crown. In the dialects that have pitch accent, such as the Southern Jutlandic of Als, for example, præst priest, but præsten the priest. In Western Jutland, a second stød, more like a glottal stop, is employed in addition to the standard Danish stød. It occurs in different environments, particularly after stressed vowels before consonant clusters that arise through the elision of final unstressed vowels. For example, the word to pull which is /trække/ in Standard Danish in Western Jutlandic is, whereas the present tense form /trækker/ in Standard Danish is
Rogaland is a county in Western Norway, bordering Hordaland, Aust-Agder, and Vest-Agder counties. Rogaland is the center of the Norwegian petroleum industry, in 2016, Rogaland had an unemployment rate of 4. 9%, one of the highest in Norway. In 2015, Rogaland had a fertility rate of 1.78 children per woman, the Diocese of Stavanger for the Church of Norway includes all of Rogaland county. Rogaland is the Old Norse name of the region which was revived in modern times, during Denmarks rule of Norway until the year 1919, the county was named Stavanger amt, after the large city of Stavanger. The first element is the genitive case of rygir which is probably referring to the name of an old Germanic tribe. The last element is land which means land or region, in Old Norse times, the region was called Rygjafylki. The coat-of-arms is from modern times, they were granted on 11 January 1974, the arms are blue with a white or silver pointed cross in the centre. The cross is based on the old cross in Sola. It was erected in memory of Erling Skjalgsson after his death in 1028 and this type of cross was very common in medieval Norway.
Rogaland is mainly a coastal region with fjords and islands, the vast Boknafjorden is the largest bay, with many fjords branching off from it. Together, this conurbation is ranked above the city Trondheim in population rankings in Norway, there are many cities/towns in Rogaland other than Stavanger and Sandnes. They include Haugesund, Sauda, Kopervik, Åkrehamn, Karmøy has large deposits of copper. Sokndal has large deposits of ilmenite, Rogaland is the most important region for oil and gas exploration in Norway, and the Jæren district in Rogaland is one of the countrys most important agricultural districts. There are remains in Rogaland from the earliest times, such as the excavations in a cave at Viste in Randaberg and these include the find of a skeleton of a boy from the Stone Age. Various archeological finds stem from the times, the Bronze Age. Many crosses in Irish style have been found, Rogaland was called Rygjafylke in the Viking Age. Before Harald Fairhair and the Battle of Hafrsfjord, it was a petty kingdom, the Rugians were a tribe possibly connected with Rogaland.
The ONS is an international conference and exhibition with focus on oil and gas