France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Transavia incorporated as Transavia Airlines C. V. and branded as transavia.com, is a Dutch low-cost airline and a wholly owned subsidiary of KLM and therefore part of the Air France-KLM group. Its main base is Amsterdam Airport Schiphol and it has other bases at Rotterdam The Hague Airport and Eindhoven Airport. Transavia maintains Transavia France as its French subsidiary; the first brainstorming sessions about starting a second charter company in the Netherlands, after Martinair, started in spring 1966, when the American Chalmers Goodlin met with captain Pete Holmes. "Slick" Goodlin had bought the dormant small company Transavia Limburg, based in Maastricht, which had 3 DC-6's available. The Dutch Government needed to be approached in order to obtain an operating license for the airline, both in order to be allowed to operate out of Amsterdam Airport, for these DC6s. At that stage John Block, a former member of the Martinair Holland management, was willing to take that on, he succeeded, the license was issued on 14 November 1966 and 2 days on 16 November 1966 the first commercial flight, flown by Captain Pete Holmes – Amsterdam/Naples/Amsterdam – on board were the Dutch Ballet Orchestra and the Dutch Dance Theatre.
This was the first flight with the new name of Transavia Holland. The company found offices at the old Schiphol Airport, Hangar 7 and the fledgling's financier Slick Goodlin appointed the three-pronged management: Commercial Director J. N. Block, Director Operations H. G. Holmes and Technical Director Kees de Blok; some of the first employees were pilots John Schurman, Hans Steinbacher & Pim Sierks, Chief Stewardess Willy Holmes-Spoelder and her stewardesses: Senior Stewardess Wil Dammers and six selected and trained young women. The first of fourteen secondhand Sud Caravelle twin-jet airliners to be operated by Transavia was delivered in summer 1969 and the type remained in service with the airline until being displaced by further deliveries of Boeing 737s in 1976. Building up the airline from scratch, ten years Transavia had a marketshare of 45% of the Dutch holiday market and became the main competitor of Martinair. In 1986, the Transavia Holland brand was changed into Transavia Airlines, it was the first airline to take advantage of the first open skies agreement signed between the UK and Dutch governments.
Transavia started operating its first scheduled service on the Amsterdam to London Gatwick route on 26 October 1986. During 1991, the airline's major shareholder, sold its 80% holding to KLM. In 1998, Transavia was the first foreign airline to operate domestic services in Greece following a change in Greek aviation law. In June 2003, KLM acquired the remaining 20 % of Transavia; the subsequent merger of Air France and KLM made Transavia a wholly owned subsidiary of Air France-KLM. In the early 2000s, Transavia was a charter airline with a low-cost airline subsidiary called Basiq Air. To strengthen its brand image, the two were combined under the transavia.com name on 1 January 2005. Transavia has Transavia France, based at Paris-Orly, which operates twenty 737-800s. A Danish unit, Transavia Denmark, based at Copenhagen was operated until the end of April 2011, but was shut down after failing to meet expectations. A strike was organised by Air France pilots in September 2014, in protest against the Air France-KLM group's increased focus on the development of Transavia, whose pilots were being paid less than those of Air France.
By early 2015, Transavia received a new corporate design dropping the ".com" from its public appearance and changed its primary colors from white/green/blue to white/green. The airline is now to be positioned as Air France-KLM's low-cost brand for the Netherlands and France. In February 2017, Transavia announced that it would shut down its base at Munich Airport by late October 2017 after only a year of service due to a change in their business strategy and negative economic outlook. Transavia has its head office in the TransPort Building, Schiphol East, on the grounds of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Netherlands. Transavia moved into the new building on 3 May 2010 with about 400 employees; the head office was in the Building Triport III at Schiphol Airport. Transavia Airlines C. V. is 100% owned by KLM, which in turn is owned by Air France–KLM. It holds a 40% interest in the French airline Transavia France S. A. S, which operates in the French market. Transavia France operates under the brand name of transavia, with an identical business model and image.
The financials for both parts of the Transavia brand are incorporated in the published annual accounts of their ultimate parent, Air France-KLM. Results reported for the Transavia brand are: Transavia offers the "Selection on Board" buy on board service offering food and drinks for purchase. Commencing 5 April 2011, Transavia introduced fees for hold luggage and changed the rules for hand luggage, with the maximum allowable weight for hand luggage increased from 5 kg to 10 kg; as of January 2018, the Transavia Netherlands fleet consists of the following aircraft: During the busy summer season, Transavia leases additional 737 aircraft from Sun Country Airlines, a US airline based in Eagan, Minnesota. During the slower winter season, which corresponds to Sun Country's busy season, Sun Country leases several planes from Transavia; this reciprocal arrangement allows both airlines to balance their fleets to reflect seasonal demand. Transav
East Midlands Airport
East Midlands Airport is an international airport in the East Midlands of England, close to Castle Donington, between Loughborough and Nottingham. East Midlands Airport has established itself as a hub for low-fare airlines such as Jet2.com and Ryanair and tour operators like TUI Airways, which serve a range of domestic and European short-haul destinations. It is a base for Flybe and Thomas Cook Airlines. Passenger numbers peaked in 2008 at 5.6 million but had declined to around 4.5 million in 2015, making it the 11th-busiest airport in the UK by passenger traffic. A major air cargo hub, it was the second-busiest UK airport for freight traffic in 2016, after London Heathrow; the airport is owned by the Manchester Airports Group, the largest British-owned airport operator, controlled by the ten metropolitan borough councils of Greater Manchester, with Manchester City Council retaining the controlling stake. The airport was a Royal Air Force station, RAF Castle Donington, decommissioned in 1946.
The site was purchased by a consortium of local government authorities in 1964, when a major programme of building work and runway investment was begun. The airfield was renamed East Midlands Airport to reflect the area it served, it opened for passengers in April 1965; until 1982, when the head office moved to Donington Hall, British Midland had its head office on the airport property. BMI had its maintenance base at the airport. Go Fly established a hub at East Midlands, the operation has been strengthened since the airline's absorption by easyJet; the majority of BMI operations were ceded to a new low-cost subsidiary, bmibaby, in 2002. In 2004 the airport was controversially renamed Nottingham East Midlands Airport; the name change, did not last long, on 8 December 2006 the airport's name was reverted to East Midlands Airport. A major development towards the long-haul programme came in 2005 with the introduction of holiday flights to the Dominican Republic and Cancún by First Choice Airways.
Following increasing overcrowding at the terminal building, the airport facilities were extended and remodelled. There are new short-stay car parks; the arrivals hall has been extended, a new transport interchange has been created and a new pier has been built to reduce across-tarmac walking to aircraft. EasyJet ceased operating from the airport on 5 January 2010. However, it was announced on 13 April 2011 that Bmibaby would close its Manchester and Cardiff bases, moving an additional service to East Midlands Airport with increased frequencies and new routes for summer 2012, it was announced only just over a year on 3 May 2012, that Bmibaby would close down and cease all operations in September 2012, with a number of services being dropped from June. The parent company, International Airlines Group, cited heavy losses and the failure to find a suitable buyer as the reasons for the decision. In light of the announcement and Monarch Airlines announced they would establish a base at the airport, low-cost airline Jet2.com confirmed they would expand their operations from the airport, with new routes and an additional aircraft from summer 2013.
From 2015, the airport announced jet2.com would base a seventh aircraft at East Midlands Airport in the summer period. Monarch Airlines shut down its base at East Midlands as well by spring 2015. Ryanair expanded its East Midlands base with a series of new routes and frequency increases on existing routes, it now serves the airport with 9 based aircraft, 41 destinations, over 320 weekly flights and 2.3 million passengers a year, making it the largest airline at the airport, accounting for about 50% of passenger traffic, with East Midlands now being Ryanair's third-largest UK airport, after London–Stansted and Manchester, both now owned by MAG. In 2016 Heathrow handled 1.54 million tonnes of freight and mail, compared with 300,100 tonnes at East Midlands. DHL Aviation have a large purpose-built facility at EMA, courier companies United Parcel Service and TNT use the airport as a base to import and export freight. Since July 2013, TUI Airways operates with their Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft out of East Midlands, serving the long-haul holiday destinations of Sanford and Cancun.
There are return flights to Jamaica and Barbados, operated once per year to join cruises and holidays. The following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights to and from East Midlands Airport: The airport has excellent connections to the motorway network, as it is near the M1, M42 and A50, bringing the airfield within easy reach of the major population centres of the Midlands; the airport introduced a charge of £1 to drop car passengers near the departure lounge in 2010. In May 2016, the charge was doubled to £2, with any stay in the area above ten minutes being charged at £1 per minute. Drivers needing longer can stay free for one hour in the long-term carpark, a five-minute bus ride from the terminal; the short-term parking charges £ 3.50 for 30 minutes. The airport has no direct access to the Nottingham tram network; the nearest railway station is East Midlands Parkway, 4 miles away, with regular services to Leicester, Sheffield and London. The original shuttle bus service linking the station and the airport ceased not long after it was introduced, but in 2015 an hourly minibus service was re-introduced by Elite Cars, restoring scheduled shuttle services to and from the airport.
Connections to the airport via taxi are available. Although still in the initial planning stages, a prop
National Weather Service
The National Weather Service is an agency of the United States federal government, tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection and general information. It is a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration branch of the Department of Commerce, is headquartered in Silver Spring, within the Washington metropolitan area; the agency was known as the United States Weather Bureau from 1890 until it adopted its current name in 1970. The NWS performs its primary task through a collection of national and regional centers, 122 local Weather Forecast Offices; as the NWS is an agency of the U. S. federal government, most of its products are in available free of charge. In 1870, the Weather Bureau of the United States was established through a joint resolution of Congress signed by President Ulysses S. Grant with a mission to "provide for taking meteorological observations at the military stations in the interior of the continent and at other points in the States and Territories...and for giving notice on the northern Lakes and on the seacoast by magnetic telegraph and marine signals, of the approach and force of storms."
The agency was placed under the Secretary of War as Congress felt "military discipline would secure the greatest promptness and accuracy in the required observations." Within the Department of War, it was assigned to the U. S. Army Signal Service under Brigadier General Albert J. Myer. General Myer gave the National Weather Service its first name: The Division of Telegrams and Reports for the Benefit of Commerce. Cleveland Abbe – who began developing probabilistic forecasts using daily weather data sent by the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce and Western Union, which he convinced to back the collection of such information in 1869 – was appointed as the Bureau's first chief meteorologist. In his earlier role as the civilian assistant to the chief of the Signal Service, Abbe urged the Department of War to research weather conditions to provide a scientific basis behind the forecasts. While a debate went on between the Signal Service and Congress over whether the forecasting of weather conditions should be handled by civilian agencies or the Signal Service's existing forecast office, a Congressional committee was formed to oversee the matter, recommending that the office's operations be transferred to the Department of War following a two-year investigation.
The agency first became a civilian enterprise in 1890, when it became part of the Department of Agriculture. Under the oversight of that branch, the Bureau began issuing flood warnings and fire weather forecasts, issued the first daily national surface weather maps; the first Weather Bureau radiosonde was launched in Massachusetts in 1937, which prompted a switch from routine aircraft observation to radiosondes within two years. The Bureau prohibited the word "tornado" from being used in any of its weather products out of concern for inciting panic until 1938, when it began disseminating tornado warnings to emergency management personnel; the Bureau would be moved to the Department of Commerce in 1940. On July 12, 1950, bureau chief Francis W. Reichelderfer lifted the agency's ban on public tornado alerts in a Circular Letter, noting to all first order stations that "Weather Bureau employees should avoid statements that can be interpreted as a negation of the Bureau's willingness or ability to make tornado forecasts", that a "good probability of verification" exist when issuing such forecasts due to the difficulty in predicting tornadic activity.
However it would not be until it faced criticism for continuing to refuse to provide public tornado warnings and preventing the release of the USAF Severe Weather Warning Center's tornado forecasts beyond military personnel that the Bureau issued its first experimental public tornado forecasts in March 1952. In 1957, the Bureau began using radars for short-term forecasting of local storms and hydrological events, using modified versions of those used by Navy aircraft to create the WSR-57, with a network of WSR systems being deployed nationwide through the early 1960s; the Weather Bureau became part of the Environmental Science Services Administration when that agency was formed in August 1966. The Environmental Science Services Administration was renamed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration on October 1, 1970, with the enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act. At this time, the Weather Bureau became the National Weather Service. NEXRAD, a system of Doppler radars deployed to improve the detection and warning time of severe local storms, replaced the WSR-57 and WSR-74 systems between 1988 and 1997.
Bob Glahn has written a comprehensive history of the first hundred years of the National Weather Service. The NWS, through a variety of sub-organizations, issues different forecasts to users, including the general public. Although, throughout history, text forecasts have been the means of product dissemination, the NWS has been using more forecast products of a digital, gridded, im
Rotterdam The Hague Airport
Rotterdam The Hague Airport, located 3 NM north northwest of Rotterdam, is the Netherlands' third largest airport. It surroundings; the airport handled over 1.6 million passengers in 2016 and features scheduled flights to European metropolitan and leisure destinations. It is used extensively by general aviation and there are several flying clubs and schools located at the airport. After World War II, the Dutch government decided that a second national airport was needed in addition to Schiphol. Rotterdam had had an airport before the war - Waalhaven airport - but it was damaged in the German bombing of Rotterdam, was completely destroyed to prevent it from being used by the Germans. Reconstruction of the airport was not a realistic proposition, so a new location was found in the Zestienhoven polder, giving the airport its name. Construction of the airport began in August 1955 and the airport was opened in October 1956. Several large international airlines, such as Swissair, Air France, Channel Airways, British Air Ferries were soon operating to Rotterdam.
However, in the 1970s plans were made to either move the airport to make space for housing. Its uncertain future led to many operators leaving. For thirty years the airport faced closure, but the economic growth of the 1990s caused an increase in passengers again and in 2001 it was decided that the airport's current location would be maintained for at least a century; the route with the longest continual service, to London Heathrow and operated by KLM Cityhopper, was suspended in 2008. This marked the end of KLM's involvement with the airport. However, in December 2012, British Airways began a service to Rotterdam from Heathrow. In October 2014 British Airways announced they would suspend the route again in March 2015. British Airways now flies to Rotterdam from London City Airport; the name of the airport was changed from Zestienhoven to Rotterdam Airport and in 2010 to its current name Rotterdam The Hague Airport. Most flights today are operated by smaller mainline jets such as the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 series or the Embraer 190.
There is a fair amount of business aviation. State and military aircraft use the airport this due to The Hague being the seat of the Dutch government and housing various other international institutions such as the International Criminal Court. With the closure of nearby Ypenburg Airport in 1992 and Valkenburg Naval Air Base in 2006, Rotterdam The Hague airport is now the only remaining airport in the area for those types of flights; the following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights to and from Rotterdam: The airport is served by bus line 33, which runs between Rotterdam Centraal, the airport, further to Meijersplein station. At Meijersplein, transfers are available to metro line E, with frequent service to Den Haag Centraal, Rotterdam Centraal and Rotterdam city center; the airport is situated next to the busy A13/E19 motorway, which makes it accessible via car. Transport in the Netherlands List of airports in the Netherlands Media related to Rotterdam The Hague Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Current weather for EHRD at NOAA/NWS Accident history for RTM at Aviation Safety Network Latest ops reports for EHRD from Aireport
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is the largest administrative region in France, located in the southwest of the country. The region was created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014 through the merger of three regions: Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes, it covers 84,061 km2 – or 1⁄8 of the country – and has 5,800,000 inhabitants.. The new region was established on 1 January 2016, following the regional elections in December 2015, it is the largest region in France by area, with a territory larger than that of Austria. Its largest city, together with its suburbs and satellite cities, forms the 7th-largest metropolitan area of France, with 850,000 inhabitants; the region has 25 major urban areas, among which the most important after Bordeaux are Bayonne, Poitiers, La Rochelle, as well as 11 major clusters. The growth of its population marked on the coast, makes this one of the most attractive areas economically in France. After Île-de-France, New Aquitaine is the premier French region in research and innovation, with five universities and several Grandes Ecoles.
The agricultural region of Europe with the greatest turnover, it is the French region with the most tourism jobs, as it has three of the four historic resorts on the French Atlantic coast:, as well as several ski resorts, is the fifth French region for business creation. Its economy is based on agriculture and viticulture, tourism, a powerful aerospace industry, digital economy and design and pharmaceutical industries, financial sector, industrial ceramics. Many companies specializing in surfing and related sports have located along the coast; the new region includes major parts of Southern France, marked by Basque, Oïl cultures. It is the "indirect successor" to medieval Aquitaine, extends over a large part of the former Duchy of Eleanor of Aquitaine; the region's interim name Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes was a hyphenated placename, known as ALPC, created by hyphenating the merged regions' names – Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes – in alphabetical order. In June 2016, a working group headed by historian Anne-Marie Cocula, a former vice president of Aquitaine, proposed the name "Nouvelle Aquitaine".
The decision came after the popular favorite, "Aquitaine", faced resistance by regional politicians from Limousin and Poitou-Charentes. The other popular favorite, "Grande Aquitaine," was rejected for its connotation with a feeling of superiority. Alain Rousset, president of the region, concurred with the working group's conclusion, reaffirming that he considered the acronym "ALPC" no choice at all. For those deploring the loss of "Limousin" and "Poitou-Charentes", he noted that the predecessor region of Aquitaine subsumed the identities of the Périgord or the Pays Basque, which did not disappear during its 40 years of operation. On 27 June 2016, just a few days ahead of the 1 July deadline, the Regional council unanimously adopted Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the region's permanent name. France's Conseil d'État approved Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective two days later. For the recent history of each former administrative regions and departments before 2016, For the history of past entities covering much of the area of the region before the French revolution, At 84,061 square kilometers, the region Nouvelle-Aquitaine is larger than French Guiana, which makes it the largest region in France.
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is delimited by four other French regions, three autonomous communities in Spain to the south, the North Atlantic Ocean to the west. Nouvelle-Aquitaine comprises twelve departments: Charente, Charente-Maritime, Corrèze, Dordogne, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Deux-Sèvres and Haute-Vienne, its largest city and only metropolis is Bordeaux, in the heart of an urban agglomeration of nearly one million inhabitants. Taking into consideration the urban area, the new region is home to six of the fifty largest metropolitan areas of French territory: Bordeaux Bayonne Limoges Poitiers Pau La Rochelle. In addition, the region has a network of medium towns scattered throughout its territory, including: Angoulême Agen Brive-la-Gaillarde Niort Périgueux Bergerac Villeneuve-sur-Lot Dax Mont-de-Marsan The region covers a large part of the Aquitaine Basin and a small portion of the Paris Basin and the Limousin plate and the western part of the Pyrenees, it is part of five watersheds facing the Atlantic Ocean: Loire, Charente and Dordogne (and their extension, the
Manchester Airport is an international airport at Ringway, Greater Manchester, England, 7.5 nautical miles south-west of Manchester city centre. In 2016, it was the third busiest airport in the United Kingdom in terms of passenger numbers and the busiest outside London; the airport comprises three passenger terminals and a goods terminal, is the only airport in the UK other than Heathrow Airport to operate two runways over 3,280 yd in length. Manchester Airport covers an area of 560 hectares and has flights to 199 destinations, placing the airport thirteenth globally for total destinations served. Opened on 25 June 1938, it was known as Ringway Airport, why it is still referred to as "Ringway" to this day. In the Second World War, as RAF Ringway, it was a base for the Royal Air Force; the airport is owned and managed by the Manchester Airports Group, a holding company owned by the Australian finance house IFM Investors and the ten metropolitan borough councils of Greater Manchester, with Manchester City Council owning the largest stake.
Ringway, after which the airport was named, is a village with a few buildings and church at the southern edge of the airport. Future developments include the £800 million Manchester Airport City logistics, manufacturing and hotel space next to the airport. Ongoing and future transport improvements include the £290 million Eastern Link relief road, due to open in summer 2019. A High Speed 2 station known as Manchester Interchange, is earmarked for opening in 2033, will directly connect the airport to Central London in under an hour and create a regular sub-10 minute shuttle service for connecting rail passengers from central Manchester to the Airport - relieving stress on the Styal Line to the Airport from Manchester which has become one of the most congested routes on the National Rail network. After the airport handled a record 27.8 million passengers in 2017, the Airport is undergoing a major expansion programme to double the size of Terminal 2, with the first phase due to open in spring 2019.
The £1 billion expansion will be completed in 2024 and enable the Terminal 2 to handle 35 million passengers. Capacity exists for up to 50 million passengers annually with two runways, however this potential figure is limited by the airport's restriction to 61 aircraft movements per hour as well as existing terminal sizes to process arrivals and departures. Construction started on Ringway on 28 November 1935 and opened in June 1937 and on 25 June 1938, in Ringway parish, north of Wilmslow, its northern border was Yewtree Lane between Firtree Farm and The Grange, east of the crossroads marked "Ringway", its southeast border a little west of Altrincham Road, along the lane from Oversleyford running northeast east into Styal. During the Second World War, it was the Royal Air Force's base RAF Ringway and was important in military aircraft production and training parachutists. After the Second World War, the base reverted to a civilian airport and expanded to its present size. Manchester Airport was the busiest airport after Heathrow for a number of decades following the war.
In 1972, the M56 motorway opened to the airport. By 1993, the airport railway station opened. From 1997 to 2001 its second runway was built, causing large-scale protests in the Cheshire in the village of Styal where natural habitats were disturbed and listed buildings were dismantled to make way for the second runway. More British Airways have scaled down operations from the Manchester Airport with the sale of their BA Connect subsidiary to Flybe. In October 2008 the daily New York–JFK service was terminated and in March 2013, the frequent service to London–Gatwick was terminated as well; this leaves a BA Shuttle serving London Heathrow. American Airlines operations remain in Terminal 3 with daily flights to Philadelphia, but has terminated services to New York and Charlotte, North Carolina. Since taking over BA Connect's select routes, Flybe has gone on to add several more destinations. In 2012, Flybe introduced the "mini hub" concept co-ordinating the arrival and departure times of various domestic services throughout the day and thereby creating combinations such as Norwich-Manchester-Belfast, Glasgow-Manchester-Southampton or Edinburgh-Manchester-Exeter and others to be accomplished in each direction with conveniently short transfer times.
In 2013 Virgin Atlantic introduced its'Little Red' short-haul brand to take-up some of the available Heathrow and Gatwick slots. Manchester was the inaugural destination, with services were operated by aircraft'wet-leased' from Aer Lingus. However, these services ceased in March 2015 due to low popularity; as of October 2017 there is a second London route by Flybe to London-Southend operating up to thrice daily. As part of the Government's'The Future of Air Transport' White Paper, Manchester Airport published its Master Plan on its proposed expansions until 2030. Demolition of older buildings, such as old storage buildings, the old Alpha Catering Building and Males Garage, to the east of Terminal 2 has begun, to make way for a new apron and taxiway towards runway 05L/23R and an eastwards extension of Terminal 2, planned to provide 15 more covered stands. A full-length parallel taxiway may be added to the second runway and more crossing points added across the first runway to improve ground movements of aircraft.
The World Logistics Hub is part of the Airport City Enterprise Developments in South Manchester. This development is designed to meet the growing demand for cargo handling space and