Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the royal academies of Sweden. It is an independent, non-governmental scientific organisation which takes special responsibility for the natural sciences and mathematics, but endeavours to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines, its purpose is to. Nobel Prizes in Physics and in Chemistry Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel Crafoord Prizes in astronomy and mathematics, geosciences and polyarthritis Sjöberg Prize Rolf Schock Prizes in logic and philosophy Gregori Aminoff Prize in crystallography Tobias Prize Göran Gustafsson Prize for research in mathematics, the natural sciences and medicine Söderberg Prize in economics or jurisprudence Ingvar Lindqvist Prizes for teachers in the fields of physics, chemistry and mathematics. Etc; the academy has elected about 1,700 Swedish and 1,200 foreign members since it was founded in 1739. Today the academy has about 470 Swedish and 175 foreign members which are divided into ten "classes", representing ten various scientific disciplines: Mathematics Astronomy and space science Physics Chemistry Geosciences Biosciences Medical sciences Engineering sciences Social sciences Humanities and for outstanding services to science The following persons have served as permanent secretaries of the academy: Anders Johan von Höpken, 1739–1740, 1740–1741 Augustin Ehrensvärd, April – June 1740 Jacob Faggot, 1741–1744 Pehr Elvius, 1744–1749 Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin, 1749–1783 Johan Carl Wilcke and Henrik Nicander, 1784–1796 Daniel Melanderhjelm and Henrik Nicander, 1796–1803 Jöns Svanberg and Carl Gustaf Sjöstén 1803–1808.
In parallel, other major series have appeared and gone: Öfversigt af Kungl. Vetenskapsakademiens förhandlingar Bihang till Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar Vetenskapsakademiens årsbok The academy started publishing annual reports in physics and chemistry, technology and zoology; these lasted into the 1860s. Starting in 1887, this series was once again split into four sections, which in 1903 became independent scientific journals of their own, titled "Arkiv för...", among them Arkiv för matematik, astronomi och fysik. Further restructuring of their topics occurred in 1949 and 1974. Current publicationsAmbio Acta Mathematica Arkiv för matematik Acta Zoologica Levnadsteckningar över Vetenskapsakademiens ledamöter, biographies of deceased members Porträttmatrikel, portraits of current members Zoologica Scripta, jointly with the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters The academy was founded on 2 June 1739 by naturalist Carl Linnaeus, mercantilist Jonas Alströmer, mechanical engineer Mårten Triewald, civil servants Sten Carl Bielke and Carl Wilhelm Cederhielm, statesman/author Anders Johan von Höpken.
The purpose of the academy was to focus on useful knowledge, to publish in Swedish in order to disseminate the academy's findings. The academy was intended to be different from the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala, founded in 1719 and published in Latin; the location close to the commercial activities in Sweden's capital was intentional. The academy was modeled after the Royal Society of London and Academie Royale des Sciences in Paris, which some of the founding members were familiar with. Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Official website Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences video site
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Frescati is a park-like area on the northern outskirts of Stockholm. The name has been spelled Freskati, e.g. on the name signs at the former Freskati railway station. Frescati was a part of Norra Djurgården but was granted to the societé for building private villas; the origin of the name is the Villa Frescati, built by the architect Louis Jean Desprez for Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt in 1791-1792. The villa is named after the Italian city of Frascati, visited by King Gustavus III during his Italian journey. During the 19th century the name began to be used for a larger area in the vicinity of the house, the Royal Swedish Academy for Agriculture established its Experimental Field there, it was followed by a number of other scientific and academic institutions, including the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, the Bergian Garden, a botanical garden, Stockholm University. Frescati is today a part of the Royal National City Park. In the middle of the area the Metro station Universitetet and the named railway station are located.
The railway station is situated at the narrow gauge railway Roslagsbanan. In 2010, the present railway station replaced two earlier stations and Frescati
A botanical garden or botanic garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, so on. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, other entertainment. Botanical gardens are run by universities or other scientific research organizations, have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden; the origin of modern botanical gardens is traced to the appointment of professors of botany to the medical faculties of universities in 16th century Renaissance Italy, which entailed the curation of a medicinal garden.
However, the objectives and audience of today’s botanic gardens more resembles that of the grandiose gardens of antiquity and the educational garden of Theophrastus in the Lyceum of ancient Athens. The early concern with medicinal plants changed in the 17th century to an interest in the new plant imports from explorations outside Europe as botany established its independence from medicine. In the 18th century, systems of nomenclature and classification were devised by botanists working in the herbaria and universities associated with the gardens, these systems being displayed in the gardens as educational "order beds". With the rapid rise of European imperialism in the late 18th century, botanic gardens were established in the tropics, economic botany became a focus with the hub at the Royal Botanic Gardens, near London. Over the years, botanical gardens, as cultural and scientific organisations, have responded to the interests of botany and horticulture. Nowadays, most botanical gardens display.
The role of major botanical gardens worldwide has been considered so broadly similar as to fall within textbook definitions. The following definition was produced by staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium of Cornell University in 1976, it covers in some detail the many functions and activities associated with botanical gardens: A botanical garden is a controlled and staffed institution for the maintenance of a living collection of plants under scientific management for purposes of education and research, together with such libraries, herbaria and museums as are essential to its particular undertakings. Each botanical garden develops its own special fields of interests depending on its personnel, extent, available funds, the terms of its charter, it may include greenhouses, test grounds, an herbarium, an arboretum, other departments. It maintains a scientific as well as a plant-growing staff, publication is one of its major modes of expression; this broad outline is expanded: The botanic garden may be an independent institution, a governmental operation, or affiliated to a college or university.
If a department of an educational institution, it may be related to a teaching program. In any case, it is not to be restricted or diverted by other demands, it is not a landscaped or ornamental garden, although it may be artistic, nor is it an experiment station or yet a park with labels on the plants. The essential element is the intention of the enterprise, the acquisition and dissemination of botanical knowledge. A contemporary botanic garden is a protected natural urban green area, where a managing organization creates landscaped gardens and holds documented collections of living plants and/or preserved plant accessions containing functional units of heredity of actual or potential value for purposes such as scientific research, public display, sustainable use and recreational activities, production of marketable plant-based products and services for improvement of human well-being; the "New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening" points out that among the various kinds of organisations now known as botanical gardens are many public gardens with little scientific activity, it cites a more abbreviated definition, published by the World Wildlife Fund and IUCN when launching the ’’Botanic Gardens Conservation Strategy’’ in 1989: "A botanic garden is a garden containing scientifically ordered and maintained collections of plants documented and labelled, open to the public for the purposes of recreation and research."
This has been further reduced by Botanic Gardens Conservation International to the following definition which "encompasses the spirit of a true botanic garden": "A botanic garden is an institution holding documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation and education." Worldwide, there are now about 1800 botanical gardens and arboreta in about 150 countries of which about 550 are in Europe, 2
Stockholm University is a public university in Stockholm, founded as a college in 1878, with university status since 1960. Stockholm University has two scientific fields: the natural sciences and the humanities/social sciences. With over 34,000 students at four different faculties: law, social sciences, natural sciences, it is one of the largest universities in Scandinavia; the institution is regarded as one of the top 100 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. Stockholm University was granted university status in 1960, making it the fourth oldest Swedish university; as with other public universities in Sweden, Stockholm University's mission includes teaching and research anchored in society at large. The initiative for the formation of Stockholm University was taken by the Stockholm City Council; the process was completed after a decision in December 1865 regarding the establishment of a fund and a committee to "establish a higher education institution in the capital".
The nine members of the Committee were respected and prominent citizens whose work have helped the evolution of science and society. The next important step was taken in October 1869, when the Stockholm University College Association was established. Several members of the committee became members of the association - including Professor Pehr Henrik Malmsten; the association's mission was to establish a university in Stockholm and would "not be dissolved until college came into being and its future could be secured." The memorandum of the Stockholm University College were adopted in May 1877, in the autumn semester of the following year, actual operations began. In 1878, the university college Stockholms högskola started its operations with a series of lectures on natural sciences, open to curious citizens. Notable in the university's early history is the appointment of Sofia Kovalevskaya to hold a chair in mathematics department in 1889, making her the third female professor in Europe. In 1904 the college became an official degree granting institution.
In 1960, the college was granted university status. The university premises were situated in central Stockholm at Observatorielunden but increased enrollment resulted in a lack of space, which required the university campus to be shifted to a bigger facility. Since 1970 most of the university operations are pursued at the main campus at Frescati north of the city center, the former Experimentalfältet used by the Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry. Stockholm University is a state agency and is governed by the decisions coming from the government and parliament; the University has the right, within the limits the government provides, to decide on many issues such as their internal organization, admission of students and other administrative functions of the university. The University Board is the University's highest governing body; the board is responsible for the University as a government agency's mission and for following the requirements of laws and regulations. The board reports to the government.
It consists of eight external members, four business representatives from the university with two group alternates and three student representatives with an alternate. The University board is above the principal, the head of the authority and have operational responsibility for all operations; the principal has a vice president to replace him/her. At the university, there are two area councils, Area board of science and Area board of humanities and social sciences, they are headed by a vice principal. The area boards are responsible for strategic planning of education and research, coordination of faculty teaching and internal and external collaboration. After the district councils, the faculty boards are the highest decision-making bodies at the faculty level; the faculty boards consists of the dean, the assistant dean, other business representatives and student representatives. The deans are appointed by the president after proposal by choice within the faculty. After faculties, decisions are taken on the institutional level, where each department has a department head who manage and make decisions together with the institutional board.
The University administration is the preparation and service organization for the University board and other decision-making bodies, it is led by the executive director. The University administration has a number of administrative units in charge of different parts of the university administration, for example, finance department, IT department, HR department and the student section. There are three staff units: The strategy and communication unit that will help the university management with decision making; the Permanent Secretary is the most senior official at Stockholm University and decide on including university administration's organization and finances. The permanent secretary is titulated University Director. Education and research at Stockholm University is carried out within the natural sciences and the humanities/social sciences. Within these fields, there are four faculties with 65 departments and centers within the humanities, natural sciences and social sciences. Research and training takes place at a number of centers and institutes with a separate governing board, but that organisationally belong to a department.
Stockholm University offers courses at both advanced level. There are 200 Bachelor's programmes, 75 master's programmes taught in English, 1,900 courses to choose from within science, hu
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Nils Johan Andersson
Nils Johan Andersson, was a Swedish botanist and traveller. The standard author abbreviation Andersson is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name, he studied at Uppsala University between 1840-45 obtaining a DSc. On 30 September 1851 he accompanied the Swedish expedition as botanist aboard the frigate HSwMS Eugenie, sailing from Karlskrona under the command of Captain Christian Adolf Virgin, on the first Swedish circumnavigation, calling at Honolulu, San Francisco and Manila, various South American ports, the Galapagos, Hong Kong and Singapore. On this voyage he collected at the Cape of Good Hope in April 1853. Returning to Sweden, he was appointed Professor of Botany at Lund University, he was director of the Botanical Department of the Swedish Museum of Natural History and the Hortus Bergianus in Stockholm. His special interests were Salix and Gramineae and he published numerous papers on the systematics and morphology of these taxa. In 1875, acting on behalf of the Swedish Museum of Natural History, he acquired Sonder's South African collection of some 100 000 specimens.
Andersson was commemorated in the Piperaceae genus Anderssoniopiper Trel.. According to Yuncker, Trelease's student who completed Trelease's work after his death, there are grave doubts about the type locality of Anderssoniopiper panamense Trel., not to be found anywhere in Panama. It may well have been collected in Tahiti, Honolulu or Sydney and mislabelled during or after the voyage, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1859. Andersson was married to the artist Anna Tigerhielm, their son Johan Axel Gustaf Acke was a well-known painter and illustrator. Enumeratio Plantarum in Insulis Galapagensibus huiusque Observatorum - Nils Johan Andersson En verldsomsegling Stockholm 1853-1854, 3 vols, Leipzig 1854 Salices Lapponiæ Uppsala 1845 Conspectus vegetationis Lapponiae ca. 1846 Atlas öfver Skandinaviska florans naturliqa familjer 1849 Cyperaceae Scandinaviae Stockholm 1849 Gramineae Scandinavae Stockholm 1852 Om Galapagos-Öernas Vegetation Stockholm 1854 Inledning till Botaniken Stockholm 1851-53, 3 tomos Väggtaflor för åskådnings-undervisningen i Botanik 1861 - 1862 European and American voyages of scientific exploration Skogman, Carl Johan Alfred - "Fregatten Eugenies Resa Omkring Jorden"...
Stockholm, Adolf Bonnier, 1854