Pope Francis is the 266th and current Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as Bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City. He chose Francis as his name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Born in Buenos Aires, Bergoglio worked briefly as a chemical technologist and he was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969, and from 1973 to 1979 was Argentinas provincial superior of the Society of Jesus. He became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II and he led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina, and the administrations of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered him a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on Gods mercy, concern for the poor, populist causes and commitment to interfaith dialogue. He maintains that the church should be open and welcoming.
He does not support unbridled capitalism, Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology, Francis maintains the traditional views of the church regarding abortion, contraception, ordination of women, and priestly celibacy. He opposes consumerism, irresponsible development, and supports taking action on climate change, in international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the U. S. and Cuba. Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born on 17 December 1936 in Flores and he was the eldest of five children of Mario José Bergoglio and Regina María Sívori. Mario Bergoglio was an Italian immigrant accountant born in Portacomaro in Italys Piedmont region, Regina Sívori was a housewife born in Buenos Aires to a family of northern Italian origin. Mario Josés family left Italy in 1929, to escape the fascist rule of Benito Mussolini, María Elena Bergoglio, the Popes only living sibling, confirmed that their emigration was not for economic reasons. His other siblings were Alberto Horacio, Oscar Adrián and Marta Regina, two great-nephews and Joseph, died in a traffic collision.
In the sixth grade, Bergoglio attended Wilfrid Barón de los Santos Ángeles and he attended the technical secondary school Escuela Técnica Industrial N°27 Hipólito Yrigoyen, named after a past President of Argentina, and graduated with a chemical technicians diploma. He worked for a few years in that capacity in the section at Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory where his boss was Esther Ballestrino. Before joining the Jesuits, Bergoglio worked as a bar bouncer and as a janitor sweeping floors, in the only known health crisis of his youth, at the age of 21 he suffered from life-threatening pneumonia and three cysts. He had part of a lung excised shortly afterwards, Bergoglio has been a lifelong supporter of San Lorenzo de Almagro football club. Bergoglio is a fan of the films of Tita Merello, Bergoglio found his vocation to the priesthood while he was on his way to celebrate the Spring Day. He passed by a church to go to confession, and was inspired by the priest
Addis Ababa or Addis Abeba, is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia. It has a population of 3,384,569 according to the 2007 population census and this number has been increased from the originally published 2,738,248 figure and appears to be still largely underestimated. As a chartered city, Addis Ababa has the status of both a city and a state and it is where the African Union is and its predecessor the OAU was based. It hosts the headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa is therefore often referred to as the political capital of Africa for its historical and political significance for the continent. The city is populated by people from different regions of Ethiopia and it is home to Addis Ababa University. The Federation of African Societies of Chemistry and Horn of Africa Press Institute are headquartered in Addis Ababa, Entoto is one of a handful of sites put forward as a possible location for a medieval imperial capital known as Barara. Dubbed the Pentagon, the 30 hecatre site incorporates a castle with 12 towers, the site of Addis Ababa was chosen by Empress Taytu Betul and the city was founded in 1886 by Emperor Menelik II.
His interest in the area grew when his wife Taytu began work on a church on Mount Entoto, and Menelik endowed a second church in the area. However, the area did not encourage the founding of a town for lack of firewood and water. Initially, Taytu built a house for herself near the Filwoha hot mineral springs, other nobility and their staff and households settled in the vicinity, and Menelik expanded his wifes house to become the Imperial Palace which remains the seat of government in Addis Ababa today. The name changed to Addis Ababa and became Ethiopias capital when Menelik II became Emperor of Ethiopia, the town grew by leaps and bounds. One of Emperor Meneliks contributions that is visible today is the planting of numerous eucalyptus trees along the city streets. Following all the engagements of their invasion, Italian troops from the colony of Eritrea entered Addis Ababa on 5 May 1936. Along with Dire Dawa, the city had been spared the aerial bombardment practiced elsewhere, the city was liberated by Major Orde Wingates Sudanese and Ethiopian Gideon Force in time to permit Emperor Haile Selassies return on 5 May 1941, five years to the day after he had left.
Following reconstruction, Haile Selassie helped form the Organisation of African Unity in 1963, the OAU was dissolved in 2002 and replaced by the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa has its headquarters in Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa was the site of the Council of the Oriental Orthodox Churches in 1965. Ethiopia has often called the original home of mankind because of various humanoid fossil discoveries like the Australopithecine Lucy. After analysing the DNA of almost 1,000 people around the world, the research indicated that genetic diversity decreases steadily the farther ones ancestors traveled from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Francis Arinze is a Nigerian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He is Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments and he is the current Cardinal Bishop of Velletri-Segni since 2005. Arinze was one of the advisors to Pope John Paul II, and was considered papabile before the 2005 papal conclave. Arinze was born in Eziowelle, Nigeria, a convert from an African traditional religion, he was baptized on his ninth birthday by Father Michael Tansi, who was beatified by John Paul II in 1998. His parents converted to Catholicism, at age 15, he entered All Hallows Seminary of Onitsha from which he graduated and earned a philosophy degree in 1950. His father was opposed to his entering the seminary, but after seeing how much Francis enjoyed it. Arinze stayed at All Hallows until 1953 to teach, in 1955, he went to Rome to study theology at the Pontifical Urban University, where he ultimately earned a doctorate in sacred theology summa cum laude. After ordination, Father Arinze remained in Rome, earning a masters in theology in 1959 and his doctoral thesis on Ibo Sacrifice as an Introduction to the Catechesis of Holy Mass was the basis for his much used reference work, Sacrifice in Ibo Religion, published in 1970.
From 1961 to 1962, Arinze was professor of liturgy, from there, he was appointed regional secretary for Catholic education for the eastern part of Nigeria. Eventually, Arinze was transferred to London, where he attended the Institute of Education, Francis Arinze became the youngest Roman Catholic bishop in the world when he was consecrated on 29 August 1965, at the age of 32. He was appointed bishop of Fissiana, and named coadjutor to the Archbishop of Onitsha. He attended the session of the Second Vatican Council in that same year along with the 45-year-old Archbishop of Kraków, Karol Wojtyla. Following the death of the Archbishop of Onitsha in February 1967, Arinze was appointed to the position a few months and he was the first native African to head his diocese, succeeding Archbishop Charles Heerey, an Irish missionary. The new Archbishop did not have time to settle into his office before the Nigeria-Biafra War broke out. The entire archdiocese was located in the secessionist Biafran territory during the Nigerian Civil War.
As a result of the war, Archbishop Arinze had to flee his see city of Onitsha and to live as a refugee, first in Adazi and Amichi, for the three years of the war, which lasted from 1967 to 1970. With the help of missionaries, he supervised what one international relief worker called one of the most effective. He took care to keep the Church separate from the political conflict
His Eminence is a historical style of reference for high nobility, still in use in various religious contexts. The style remains in use as the style or standard of address in reference to a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. A longer, and more formal, title is His Most Reverend Eminence, patriarchs of Eastern Catholic Churches who are cardinals may be addressed as His Eminence or by the style particular to Eastern Catholic patriarchs, His Beatitude. The Prince and Grand Master of the contemporary Sovereign Military Order of Malta is still syled His Most Eminent Highness, styles such as His Grand Eminence or His Eminent Grace amongst others were used as well, some formalized by the Pope or other powers, such as monarchs. However, many others where simply personal preference of the Cardinal, archbishops in the Eastern Orthodox Church are addressed with the styles of Beatitude or Eminence. The Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is styled His All-Holiness, and so is, exceptionally, in Oriental Orthodoxy bishops holding the rank of metropolitan are referred to as His Eminence.
The Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia is addressed as His Beatitude and it is used, informally, in Islam for highly honorable religious leaders. Tsem Tulku Rinpoche, a Tibetan Buddhist tulku of the Gelugpa monastic order who presides over a center in Malaysia
Giovanni Battista Re
Giovanni Battista Re is an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church whose service has been primarily in the Roman Curia. He is the Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 2001 and he retired as Prefect on 30 June 2010, having turned 75, and was succeeded by the Archbishop of Quebec and Primate of Canada, Marc Ouellet PSS. Cardinal Re was the senior Cardinal-Bishop to attend the March 2013 conclave to elect Pope Benedict XVIs successor, born in Borno, the son of the carpenter Matteo Re, Giovanni Battista Re was ordained a priest by Archbishop Giacinto Tredici in Brescia on 3 March 1957. He holds a doctorate in law from the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome. Re has been a member of the Roman Curia since 1963, Pope John Paul II administered the episcopal consecration one month later, on 7 November. On 12 December 1989, he became Sostituto for General Affairs of the Secretariat of State and he was named on 16 September 2000 to head the Congregation for Bishops and the Pontifical Commission for Latin America.
XII Apostoli in the consistory held 21 February 2001 named first among all those elevated, the next year, on 1 October, he was named Cardinal Bishop of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto when a vacancy arose in that order. Since all major Vatican officials automatically lose their positions during a sede vacante and he was confirmed to office by Pope Benedict XVI on 21 April 2005. He was one of the electors who participated in the 2005 papal conclave that selected Pope Benedict XVI. Re was a member of various offices of the Curia, in May 2008, Pope Benedict named Cardinal Re as a member of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts. He held these memberships until his 80th birthday, the duties and responsibilities of presiding over the actual conclave itself therefore were exercised by Cardinal Re, the most-senior cardinal eligible to participate in the conclave. The conclave subsequently elected Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio, SJ, who became Pope Francis. At the new inauguration on 19 March 2013, Cardinal Re was one of the six cardinals who made the public profession of obedience to the new pope on behalf of the College of Cardinals.
On 30 January 2014, Cardinal Re turned 80 and lost the right to participate in future conclaves, insiders describe him as a friend of Carlo Maria Martini, who has played a major role in the dissent against the last three Popes. As leader of the Congregation for Bishops, Re reportedly appointed several bishops in Germany and elsewhere and his pronouncement was appealed to Rome, but in 2006 the ruling was upheld by Cardinal Re, the Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops. In January 2009, he published a decree removing the excommunications from the bishops of the Society of Saint Pius X and he expressed regret over the move after the controversy on the comments of Bishop Richard Williamson. The attack on the Brazilian church is unjustified and he added that excommunication of those who performed the abortion was just. The National Conference of Bishops of Brazil declared the Archbishops statement mistaken, media related to Giovanni Battista Re at Wikimedia Commons
Angelo Raffaele Sodano is an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church who has served as Dean of the College of Cardinals since 2005. He was Cardinal Secretary of State from 1991 to 2006, under both popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI, on 27 April 2005, he was elected to succeed Benedict XVI as Dean of the College of Cardinals by his fellow Cardinal Bishops. Sodano was the first person since 1828 to serve simultaneously as Dean, on 22 June 2006, Benedict XVI accepted Sodanos resignation as Secretary of State, effective on 15 September 2006. He was succeeded by Tarcisio Bertone, Archbishop of Genoa, the second of six children, Angelo Sodano was born in Isola dAsti, Piedmont, to Giovanni and Delfina Sodano. His father was a Christian Democrat deputy in the Italian Parliament for three terms from 1948 until 1963, in 1959 he entered the diplomatic corps of the Holy See. He served as secretary in nunciatures in Latin America, and was given the title of monsignor, initially with the rank of Chaplain of His Holiness, in 1968 he was called to work in the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church in the Vatican.
He was consecrated in his native Asti by Cardinal Antonio Samoré on 15 January 1978 and he arrived at a difficult moment, with Chile on the brink of war with Argentina over the Beagle Channel and Augusto Pinochet in power. On the other hand, Sodano arranged a meeting in the nunciature between the Pope and the leaders of the opposition, seven Chilean priests wrote to the Pope to have Sodano removed from his post as Nuncio. Maria Nuova on 28 June 1991, on 29 June 1991, Angelo Sodano became Cardinal Secretary of State succeeding Cardinal Agostino Casaroli who had retired back on 1 December 1990. On 10 January 1994, Pope John Paul II named Sodano Cardinal Bishop of the see of Albano. Sodano however retained in commendam the cardinal-priest title to the church of Santa Maria Nuova. Due to the health of John Paul II, it was Cardinal Sodano, as Secretary of State. When in 2002 Sodano turned 75, John Paul specifically invited him to stay on as Secretary of State, though this is the customary retirement age for heads of major Vatican departments.
On 30 November 2002, exactly twenty-five years after he was first appointed a bishop, he was elected vice-dean of the College of Cardinals in succession to Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, who became Dean. When Pope John Paul II died on 2 April 2005, who participated in the 2005 papal conclave, was not generally seen as one of the papabili and this was largely due to his advanced age, and his lack of experience outside the Roman Curia. Also as the Sub-Dean and the most senior Cardinal-Bishop, Cardinal Sodano discharged the duties normally allotted to the Dean at the new popes papal inauguration, Sodanos position as Secretary of State expired upon the death of John Paul II. But Benedict XVI reappointed him to the position on 21 April 2005, on 30 April Benedict formally ratified Sodanos election to the position of Dean of the College of Cardinals by the suburbicarian Cardinal Bishops. Accordingly, the title of the see of Ostia, proper of the dean, was added to the title of the see of Albano
Pontifical Gregorian University
The Pontifical Gregorian University is a pontifical university located in Rome, Italy. It was originally a part of the Roman College founded in 1551 by Saint Ignatius of Loyola, in 1584 the university was given a grandiose home by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom it was renamed. Only the theology and philosophy departments survived the turmoil in Italy after 1870. Its international faculty serves around 3800 students from over 150 countries, Saint Francis Borgia, the vice-king of Catalonia who became a Jesuit himself, provided financial patronage. With a small library connected to it, this school was called the Collegio Romano, in September of the same year, the site was transferred to a larger facility behind the Church of San Stefano del Cacco due to the large number of students seeking enrollment. After only two years of existence, the Roman College already counted 250 alumni, in January 1556, Pope Paul IV authorized the College to confer academic degrees in theology and philosophy, thereby raising the school to the rank of university.
During the following two decades, due again to a number of students, the university changed its location twice. During this period, a chair in philosophy was added, and a chair in Arabic was added to the already existing chairs in Latin, Greek. With the university counting more than a thousand pupils at this point, two blocks near the Via del Corso were expropriated, and the architect Bartolomeo Ammannati was commissioned to design a grand new edifice for the institute. The new building was inaugurated in 1584, in became known as the Piazza Collegio Romano. For his sponsorship of the Roman College, Gregory XIII became known as its founder and father, the university in its new space was able to augment the number of disciplines that were taught. New chairs of Church history and liturgy were added, at this time, the university attained great prestige in the fields of mathematics and astronomy. The illustrious Jesuit mathematician and inventor Athanasius Kircher subsequently taught there, not long after the new quarters were opened, the student body increased to over two thousand.
The university chapel, too small for so many students, was rebuilt as the Church of SantIgnazio between 1626 and 1650, becoming one of the major Baroque churches of the area. In 1773, following the suppression of the Society of Jesus and it was reverted to the Jesuits on 17 May 1824 by Pope Leo XII, after the refoundation of their order. It was at point that Pope Pius IX permitted the school to assume the title of Pontifical University. With the difficult situation after Romes takeover, the endeavors of the university were dramatically affected. Due to a lack of space, the university had to all faculties except for theology
King's College London
Kings College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, and a founding constituent college of the federal University of London. Kings was established in 1829 by King George IV and the Duke of Wellington, in 1836, Kings became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. It is a member of organisations such as the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association. Kings has five campuses, its main campus on the Strand in central London. In 2015/16, Kings had an income of £738.4 million, of which £193.2 million was from research grants and contracts and as of 2014/15. It has the fifth largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, and its academic activities are organised into nine faculties which are subdivided into numerous departments and research divisions. Kings is home to six Medical Research Council centres and is a member of the Kings Health Partners academic health sciences centre, Francis Crick Institute.
Kings College London, so named to indicate the patronage of King George IV, was founded in 1829 in response to the controversy surrounding the founding of London University in 1826. The need for such an institution was a result of the religious and social nature of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which educated solely the sons of wealthy Anglicans. The secular nature of London University was disapproved by The Establishment, thus, the creation of a rival institution represented a Tory response to reassert the educational values of The Establishment. Winchilsea and about 150 other contributors withdrew their support of Kings College London in response to Wellingtons support of Catholic emancipation. In a letter to Wellington he accused the Duke to have in mind insidious designs for the infringement of our liberty, the letter provoked a furious exchange of correspondence and Wellington accused Winchilsea of imputing him with disgraceful and criminal motives in setting up Kings College London.
The result was a duel in Battersea Fields on 21 March 1829, Winchilsea did not fire, a plan he and his second almost certainly decided upon before the duel, Wellington took aim and fired wide to the right. Accounts differ as to whether Wellington missed on purpose, noted for his poor aim, claimed he did, other reports more sympathetic to Winchilsea claimed he had aimed to kill. Honour was saved and Winchilsea wrote Wellington an apology, duel Day is still celebrated on the first Thursday after 21 March every year, marked by various events throughout Kings, including reenactments. Kings opened in October 1831 with the cleric William Otter appointed as first principal, despite the attempts to make Kings Anglican-only, the initial prospectus permitted, nonconformists of all sorts to enter the college freely. William Howley, the governors and the professors, except the linguists, had to be members of the Church of England but the students did not, though attendance at chapel was compulsory. Kings was divided into a department and a junior department, known as Kings College School
Harar, formerly written as Harrar or Harer and known to its inhabitants as Gēy, is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia. It was formerly the capital of Hararghe and now the capital of the modern Harari Region of Ethiopia, the city is located on a hilltop in the eastern extension of the Ethiopian Highlands, about five hundred kilometers from Addis Ababa at an elevation of 1,885 meters. Based on figures from the Central Statistical Agency in 2005, Harar had a total population of 122,000. According to the census of 1994, on which estimate is based. Harar Jugol, the old walled city, was listed as a World Heritage Site in 2006 by UNESCO in recognition of its cultural heritage and it is sometimes known in Arabic as مدينة الأَوْلِيَاء the City of Saints. According to UNESCO, it is considered the holy city of Islam with 110 mosques. The Fath Madinat Harar records that the cleric Abadir Umar ar-Rida, Harar was made the new capital of the Adal Sultanate in 1520 by the Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad. The city saw a decline during the ensuing Emirate of Harar.
During the Ethiopian Empire, the city decayed while maintaining a certain cultural prestige, today, it is the seat of the Harari Region. It is likely the inhabitants of the region were the Harla people. The Argobba and the ancestors of the Harari people are believed to be founders of the city, called Gēy by its inhabitants, Harar emerged as the center of Islamic culture and religion in the Horn of Africa during end of the Middle Ages. Abadir was met by the Harla and Argobba, abadirs brother Fakr ad-Din subsequently founded the Sultanate of Mogadishu. According to the 14th century chronicles of Amda Seyon I, Gēt was an Arab colony in Harla country, during the Middle Ages, Harar was part of the Adal Sultanate, becoming its capital in 1520 under Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad. The sixteenth century was the citys Golden Age, the local culture flourished, and many poets lived and wrote there. It became known for coffee, weaving and bookbinding and his successor, Emir Nur ibn Mujahid, built a protective wall around the city.
Four meters in height with five gates, this structure, called Jugol, is intact and is a symbol of the town to the inhabitants. Silte and Harari, lived in Harar while the two moved to the Gurage region. Following the death of Emir Nur, Harar began a decline in wealth