The Beriev S-13 was a Soviet reverse-engineered copy of the Lockheed U-2C, developed in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s. On 1 May 1960, Francis Gary Powers flew a U-2 espionage mission from northern Pakistan over the Soviet Union. While flying over the Urals, the aircraft lost altitude due to engine problems and came within range of Soviet surface-to-air missiles; the U-2 was hit by an S-75 Dvina missile and broke apart, but the debris remained intact. The Soviet Union had its own comparable high altitude reconnaissance aircraft, the Yakovlev Yak-25RW, but for political reasons this high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was not used outside the borders of the Soviet Union and its main function was to emulate the U-2 to train Soviet air defence forces; the Yakovlev Yak-25RV was unable to reach the U-2's ceiling of 21,335–25,900 m. After the U-2 shoot down, the wreckage was examined by Soviet aviation specialists; the investigation, conducted by Georgy Beriev of OKB-49 at Taganrog, led to a decision of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union on 28 June 1960 that the aircraft and its Pratt & Whitney J75-P-13 engine should be copied.
OKB-16 in Kazan, led by Profkofiy F. Zubets, reverse-engineered the engine under the designation RD-16-75. On 23 August 1960 the USSR Council of Ministers ordered five aircraft, two of which were to be made available to the Air Force after completing trial flights; the timetable was tight, as it was planned to examine all the components of the U-2 and to copy them while following the standards of Soviet military aviation, including the AFA-60 camera system. The S-13 was to be used for aerial reconnaissance, for weather research and as a balloon interceptor. On 1 April 1961 the first fuselage was completed. However, on 12 May 1962 the Council of Ministers cancelled the project with immediate effect, when it was realized that the US and its allies, like the Soviet Union, could shoot down slow-moving targets at high altitude. For large-scale, long-term surveillance, spy satellites were a better solution. For short-term, ad-hoc reconnaissance, the Soviet Union, like the US with the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, preferred high-speed reconnaissance aircraft, such as the Tsybin RSR.
Although no S-13 aircraft was completed, the S-13 program gave valuable insights into alloys and processing methods that were subsequently utilized in new Soviet aircraft designs. Parts of the U-2 were exhibited in the Central Museum of the Armed Forces at Monino in Moscow. General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 15.7 m Wingspan: 24.38 m Empty weight: 5,900 kg Gross weight: 11,000 kg Powerplant: 1 × Zubets RD-16-15 Turbojet, 110.853 kN thrustPerformance Maximum speed: 850 km/h estimated Range: 6,400 km Service ceiling: 24,000 m Lockheed U-2 Yakovlev Yak-25RW Myasishchev M-55 MiG-25R S-75 Dvina Beriev Photo from the S-13 Pictures Beriev S-13 Models
A hydrofoil is a lifting surface, or foil, that operates in water. They are similar in purpose to aerofoils used by aeroplanes. Boats that use hydrofoil technology are simply termed hydrofoils; as a hydrofoil craft gains speed, the hydrofoils lift the boat's hull out of the water, decreasing drag and allowing greater speeds. The hydrofoil consists of a wing like structure mounted on struts below the hull, or across the keels of a catamaran in a variety of boats; as a hydrofoil-equipped watercraft increases in speed, the hydrofoil elements below the hull develop enough lift to raise the hull out of the water, which reduces hull drag. This provides a corresponding increase in fuel efficiency. Wider adoption of hydrofoils is prevented by the increased complexity of building and maintaining them. Hydrofoils are prohibitively more expensive than conventional watercraft above the certain displacement, so most hydrofoil craft are small, are used as high-speed passenger ferries, where the high passenger fees can offset the high cost of the craft itself.
However, the design is simple enough. Amateur experimentation and development of the concept is popular. Since air and water are governed by similar fluid equations—albeit with different levels of viscosity and compressibility—the hydrofoil and airfoil create lift in identical ways; the foil shape moves smoothly through the water, deflecting the flow downward, following the Euler equations, exerts an upward force on the foil. This turning of the water creates higher pressure on the bottom of the foil and reduced pressure on the top; this pressure difference is accompanied by a velocity difference, via Bernoulli's principle, so the resulting flow field about the foil has a higher average velocity on one side than the other. When used as a lifting element on a hydrofoil boat, this upward force lifts the body of the vessel, decreasing drag and increasing speed; the lifting force balances with the weight of the craft, reaching a point where the hydrofoil no longer lifts out of the water but remains in equilibrium.
Since wave resistance and other impeding forces such as various types of drag on the hull are eliminated as the hull lifts clear and drag act on the much smaller surface area of the hydrofoil, decreasingly on the hull, creating a marked increase in speed. Early hydrofoils used V-shaped foils. Hydrofoils of this type are known as "surface-piercing" since portions of the V-shape hydrofoils rise above the water surface when foilborne; some modern hydrofoils use submerged inverted T-shape foils. Submerged hydrofoils are less subject to the effects of wave action, therefore, more stable at sea and more comfortable for crew and passengers; this type of configuration, however, is not self-stabilizing. The angle of attack on the hydrofoils must be adjusted continuously to changing conditions, a control process performed by sensors, a computer, active surfaces; the first evidence of a hydrofoil on a vessel appears on a British patent granted in 1869 to Emmanuel Denis Farcot, a Parisian. He claimed that "adapting to the sides and bottom of the vessel a series or inclined planes or wedge formed pieces, which as the vessel is driven forward will have the effect of lifting it in the water and reducing the draught.".
Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini used a "ladder" foil system. Forlanini obtained patents in the United States for his ideas and designs. Between 1899 and 1901, British boat designer John Thornycroft worked on a series of models with a stepped hull and single bow foil. In 1909 his company built the full scale 22-foot long boat, Miranda III. Driven by a 60 hp engine, it rode on a flat stern; the subsequent Miranda IV was credited with a speed of 35 kn. A March 1906 Scientific American article by American hydrofoil pioneer William E. Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils. Alexander Graham Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane a significant achievement, after reading the article began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat. With his chief engineer Casey Baldwin, Bell began hydrofoil experiments in the summer of 1908. Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models based on those designs, which led to the development of hydrofoil watercraft.
During Bell's world tour of 1910–1911, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in Italy, where they rode in his hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore. Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying. On returning to Bell's large laboratory at his Beinn Bhreagh estate near Baddeck, Nova Scotia, they experimented with a number of designs, culminating in Bell's HD-4. Using Renault engines, a top speed of 87 km/h was achieved, accelerating taking waves without difficulty, steering well and showing good stability. Bell's report to the United States Navy permitted him to obtain two 260 kW engines. On 9 September 1919 the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of 114 km/h, which stood for two decades. A full-scale replica of the HD-4 is viewable at the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site museum in Baddeck, Nova Scotia. In the early 1950s an English couple built the White Hawk, a jet-powered hydrofoil water craft, in an attempt to beat the absolute water speed record. However, in tests, White Hawk could top the record breaking speed of the 1919 HD-4.
The designers had faced an engineering phenomenon that limits the top speed of modern hydrofoils: cavitation disturbs the lift created by the foils as t
The Beriev Be-112 is a proposed amphibian aircraft with two propeller engines, projected to carry 27 passengers. The Beriev firm lacks a production amphibian aircraft in this size. Intended purposes of the Be-112 include passenger and cargo carriage, ambulance missions and search-and-rescue missions. Beriev explored a version of the Be-112 with wing-mounted turboprop engines Data from http://www.beriev.com/eng/Be-112_e/be-112_e.htmlGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Capacity: 27 Payload: 2,350 kg Length: 17.0 m Wingspan: 21.2 m Height: 5.2 m Loaded weight: 11,000 kg Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada РТ6А-67R turboprop, 1,062 kW eachPerformance Maximum speed: 420 km/h Cruise speed: 370 km/h Range: 1,000 km beriev.com
A reciprocating engine often known as a piston engine, is a heat engine that uses one or more reciprocating pistons to convert pressure into a rotating motion. This article describes the common features of all types; the main types are: the internal combustion engine, used extensively in motor vehicles. Internal combustion engines are further classified in two ways: either a spark-ignition engine, where the spark plug initiates the combustion. There may be one or more pistons; each piston is inside a cylinder, into which a gas is introduced, either under pressure, or heated inside the cylinder either by ignition of a fuel air mixture or by contact with a hot heat exchanger in the cylinder. The hot gases expand; this position is known as the Bottom Dead Center, or where the piston forms the largest volume in the cylinder. The piston is returned to the cylinder top by a flywheel, the power from other pistons connected to the same shaft or by the same process acting on the other side of the piston.
This is. In most types the expanded or "exhausted" gases are removed from the cylinder by this stroke; the exception is the Stirling engine, which heats and cools the same sealed quantity of gas. The stroke is the distance between the TDC and the BDC, or the greatest distance that the piston can travel in one direction. In some designs the piston may be powered in both directions in the cylinder, in which case it is said to be double-acting. In most types, the linear movement of the piston is converted to a rotating movement via a connecting rod and a crankshaft or by a swashplate or other suitable mechanism. A flywheel is used to ensure smooth rotation or to store energy to carry the engine through an un-powered part of the cycle; the more cylinders a reciprocating engine has the more vibration-free it can operate. The power of a reciprocating engine is proportional to the volume of the combined pistons' displacement. A seal must be made between the sliding piston and the walls of the cylinder so that the high pressure gas above the piston does not leak past it and reduce the efficiency of the engine.
This seal is provided by one or more piston rings. These are rings made of a hard metal, are sprung into a circular groove in the piston head; the rings fit in the groove and press against the cylinder wall to form a seal, more when higher combustion pressure moves around to their inner surfaces. It is common to classify such engines by the number and alignment of cylinders and total volume of displacement of gas by the pistons moving in the cylinders measured in cubic centimetres or litres or. For example, for internal combustion engines and two-cylinder designs are common in smaller vehicles such as motorcycles, while automobiles have between four and eight, locomotives, ships may have a dozen cylinders or more. Cylinder capacities may range from 10 cm³ or less in model engines up to thousands of liters in ships' engines; the compression ratio affects the performance in most types of reciprocating engine. It is the ratio between the volume of the cylinder, when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke, the volume when the piston is at the top of its stroke.
The bore/stroke ratio is the ratio of the diameter of the piston, or "bore", to the length of travel within the cylinder, or "stroke". If this is around 1 the engine is said to be "square", if it is greater than 1, i.e. the bore is larger than the stroke, it is "oversquare". If it is less than 1, i.e. the stroke is larger than the bore, it is "undersquare". Cylinders may be aligned in line, in a V configuration, horizontally opposite each other, or radially around the crankshaft. Opposed-piston engines put two pistons working at opposite ends of the same cylinder and this has been extended into triangular arrangements such as the Napier Deltic; some designs have set the cylinders in motion around the shaft, such as the Rotary engine. In steam engines and internal combustion engines, valves are required to allow the entry and exit of gases at the correct times in the piston's cycle; these are worked by eccentrics or cranks driven by the shaft of the engine. Early designs used the D slide valve but this has been superseded by Piston valve or Poppet valve designs.
In steam engines the point in the piston cycle at which the steam inlet valve closes is called the cutoff and this can be controlled to adjust the torque supplied by the engine and improve efficiency. In some steam engines, the action of the valves can be replaced by an oscillating cylinder. Internal combustion engines operate through a sequence of strokes that admit and remove gases to and from the cylinder; these operations are repeated cyclically and an engine is said to be 2-stroke, 4-stroke or 6-stroke depending on the number of strokes it takes to complete a cycle. In some steam engines, the cylinders may be of varying size with the smallest bore cylinder working the highest pressure steam; this is fed through one or more larger bore cylinders successively, to extract power from the steam at lower pressures. These engines are called Compound engines. Aside from loo
A floatplane is a type of seaplane, with one or more slender pontoons mounted under the fuselage to provide buoyancy. By contrast, a flying boat uses its fuselage for buoyancy. Either type of seaplane may have landing gear suitable for land, making the vehicle an amphibious aircraft. British usage is to call "floatplanes" "seaplanes" rather than use the term "seaplane" to refer to both floatplanes and flying boats. Since World War II and the advent of helicopters, advanced aircraft carriers and land-based aircraft, military seaplanes have stopped being used. This, coupled with the increased availability of civilian airstrips, have reduced the number of flying boats being built. However, numerous modern civilian aircraft have floatplane variants, most of these are offered as third-party modifications under a supplemental type certificate, although there are several aircraft manufacturers that build floatplanes from scratch; these floatplanes have found their niche as one type of bush plane, for light duty transportation to lakes and other remote areas, as well as to small/hilly islands without proper airstrips.
They may operate on a charter basis, provide scheduled service, or be operated by residents of the area for private, personal use. Float planes have been derived from land-based aircraft, with fixed floats mounted under the fuselage instead of retractable undercarriage. Float planes offer several advantages since the fuselage is not in contact with water, which simplifies production by not having to incorporate the compromises necessary for water tightness, general impact strength and the hydroplaning characteristics needed for the aircraft to leave the water. Attaching floats to a landplane allows for much larger production volumes to pay for the development and production of the small number of aircraft operated from the water. Additionally, on all but the largest seaplanes, floatplane wings offer more clearance over obstacles, such as docks, reducing the difficulty in loading while on the water. A typical single engine flying boat is unable to bring the hull alongside a dock for loading while most floatplanes are able to do so.
Floats impose extra drag and weight, rendering floatplanes slower and less manoeuvrable during flight, with a slower rate of climb, relative to aircraft equipped with wheeled landing gear. Air races devoted to floatplanes attracted a lot of attention during the 1920s and 1930s, most notably in the form of the Schneider Trophy, not least because water takeoffs permitted longer takeoff runs which allowed greater optimization for high speed compared to contemporary airfields. There are two basic configurations for the floats on floatplanes: "single float" designs, in which a single large float is mounted directly underneath the fuselage, with smaller stabilizing floats underneath the wingtips, on planes like the Nakajima A6M2-N and; some early twin float designs had additional wingtip stabilizing floats. The main advantage of the single float design is its capability for landings in rough water: a long central float is directly attached to the fuselage, this being the strongest part of the aircraft structure, while the smaller floats under the outer wings provide the aircraft with lateral stability.
By comparison, dual floats restrict handling to waves as little as one foot in height. However, twin float designs facilitate mooring and boarding, – in the case of torpedo bombers – leave the belly free to carry a torpedo. Amphibious aircraft List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft RAPT system "Why Seaplanes Fly With Bullet Speed", December 1931, Popular Science excellent article on the different design features of the floats on floatplanes "Will a Lake Be Your Postwar Landing Field?" Popular Science, February 1945, pp. 134–135
The Beriev Be-103 is an amphibious seaplane designed by the Beriev Aircraft Company and constructed by the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association in Russia. Intended for autonomous operation in the unmarked areas of Russia's far north and Siberia, the Be-103 was designed for short-haul routes in regions that have rivers and streams, but are otherwise inaccessible; the Be-103 is a mid-wing monoplane, making use of the modified wing roots as water-displacing sponsons. It features an all-moving slab retractable tricycle landing gear for land operations, its hallmark and most distinguishing design feature is the water-displacing wing, an unusual feature for a seaplane, with three aquaplaning implements which enhance the aircraft's on-the-water stability and seaworthiness. The Be-103 features include an advanced, blended wing, swept at 22°, with 11-foot -long fixed leading edge slats, trailing-link main landing gear, three-bladed MT-12 reverse pitch propellers. Fuel is stored in the wet wings.
The aircraft is built from aluminum-lithium alloy with titanium used in high-stress areas. A 30-parameter, five-hour flight data recorder, engine fire-detection systems and an ice detector are standard, as are hydraulic brakes. However, unlike most modern aircraft, the Be-103 is not equipped with wing flaps; when flying solo, ballast must be placed near the right front seat due to center of gravity issues. The Be-103 received its Federal Aviation Administration type certification on 21 July 2003 at the EAA AirVenture airshow in Oshkosh, where the aircraft had arrived via An-124 airlift; the type certificate was handed over by the FAA's co-chairman of regulations and certification, Nicholas Sabatini. The aircraft is certified in Brazil, the People's Republic of China, the European Union, Russia. On 1 August 2003, FAA Director Marion Blakey visited the Be-103's display area at the exhibition in order to familiarize herself with the aircraft and to meet representatives of the developer and Air Register.
The obtaining of FAA certification allows official sales of the Be-103 to begin in the USA and Canada. After the exhibition, the first production Be-103 aircraft were handed over to its American dealer, Kent Linn of Sky Manor Airport in Pittstown, New Jersey. Domestic and international market demands were estimated at 250-330 units, respectively; the Be-103 was the first Russian aircraft to be in the "Normal" category by the FAA. and along with the Dornier Seastar is the only twin-engine amphibian in production. As of 2010, three aircraft were on the United States civil register. In 2004 China signed a US$20mil contract with KnAAPO for the delivery of 20 aircraft. Be-103 Twin-engine light utility amphibian aircraft, seating one pilot and five passengers. SA-20P Eight-seat version powered by single VOKEM M14X radial engine. Data from General characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 5 passengers or 545 kilograms cargo Length: 10.7 m Wingspan: 12.5 m Height: 3.7 m Wing area: 25.1 m2 Empty weight: 1,730 kg Gross weight: 2,283 kg Max takeoff weight: 2,270 kg Fuel capacity: 340 litres Powerplant: 2 × Continental IO-360-ES4 fuel-injected Horizontally opposed piston engines, 157 kW each Propellers: 3-bladed MT-Propeller MT-12, 1.83 m diameterPerformance Cruise speed: 235 km/h Stall speed: 111 km/h Never exceed speed: 241 km/h Minimum control speed: 115 km/h Range: 845 km Service ceiling: 5,000 m Wing loading: 90.3 kg/m2 Power/mass: 11.9lb/hp Aircraft of comparable role and era Lake Renegade Related lists List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft G.
M. Beriev Taganrog Aviation Scientific Engineering Complex Press-release No.8, 24 April 1998. Beriev USA FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet A55CE
Tushino is a former village and town to the north of Moscow, part of the city's area since 1960. Between 1939 and 1960, Tushino was classed as a separate town; the Skhodnya River flows across the southern part of Tushino. The village was attested since the late 14th century as an estate of boyar Vasili Ivanovich Kvashnin-Tusha and his sons Pyotr and Semyon. In the middle of the 16th century, the village and the nearby Saviour Monastery were acquired by the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra. One of the finest of Russian tent-like churches was built in the monastery under Ivan the Terrible. In the late 16th century, the monastery used to provide lodging for foreign diplomatic missions before their arrival in Moscow. During the Time of Troubles, False Dmitry II and his supporters settled in Tushino between 1608 and 1610; the Tushino camp was a replica of the Muscovite court, having the Patriarch. From here, False Dmitry II was laying siege to the Moscow Kremlin. In December 1609, the Tushino Thief and his wife Marina Mniszech fled from Tushino to Kaluga after losing Polish support.
In 1610, the combined Russo-Swedish army of Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky and Jacob de La Gardie forced False Dmitry's supporters out of Tushino. Thereafter the monastery was disbanded, the village declined. In the second half of the 19th century, Tushino saw the first industrial enterprises, such as windmills and a textile mill. In the 1920s, they built Tushino Stocking Factory. In 1929, the Soviets established a flying school of the Osoaviakhim and Tushino Airfield with research facilities and aircraft factories next to Tushino; the Tushino workers took an active part in the revolutionary movement: guards were created in 1905, during the December fighting in Moscow, the terrorists made an unsuccessful attempt to discourage station Tushino train with weapons. After the suppression of the uprising in Moscow, a Cossack punitive expedition was sent to Tushino. In October 1917, local workers supported the Bolsheviks and the slogan "All Power to the Soviets": thus, the majority of workers was for this new government.
At the Tushino-Guchkov Council Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, a revolutionary committee was created, which with the help of the Red Guards seized control of the vicinity of the station. 104 people were sent to Moscow from "Explorer". 17 Red factory Hutareva in Bratsevo found the factory gates closed. They arrested the owner; the result, was that in the early 20s until collectivization, factories did not work, except for Brattsevskoy. A flight school was founded near Tushino in 1929, followed by a glider factory in 1930. Soviet air shows, for which Tushino airfield was notable South Tushino authority North-West District of Moscow Tushino airfield at Google maps