Mutschellen is the name of a pass in the canton of Aargau in the district of Bremgarten near the border of canton Zurich. Three municipalities, Berikon and Rudolfstetten-Friedlisberg, meet directly atop the pass; the pass Mutschellen connects the Reuss valley in the west with communities of greater Zurich in the east. Due to its low summit of 551 meters above sea level, Mutschellen is called the lowest pass of Europe. Directly on the mountain there are three municipalities: Berikon, Rudolfstetten-Friedlisberg and Widen; these three villages have grown together closely. Considered to be part of the Mutschellen region are the municipalities of Zufikon to the west and Oberwil-Lieli to the southeast. Mutschellen is a glacial moraine, which emerged during an ice age. At this time the Reuss glacier and the Linth glacier went northbound as far as the river Rhine. Today one can see the traces of these monumental glaciers; the glaciers left huge furrows during their retreat left lakes like the lake of Zurich.
The pressure of the two glaciers created the Mutschellen. The pass is crossed by a busy road from Bremgarten to Zufikon; the road has been improved over the past ten years as it winds down into Bremgarten. The pass is crossed by the Bremgarten-Dietikon-Bahn, a metre gauge light railway, used by commuters traveling into Zurich for work; the top of the pass features a large intersection and train station that connects to several bus routes. Connecting travelers with the route that runs along the top of the Mutschellen; the area is a bustling commercial area with a supermarket and Denner stores, as well as smaller independent stores. Media related to Mutschellen at Wikimedia Commons Mutschellen Berikon Widen Rudolfstetten Oberwil-Lieli Friedlisberg
Swiss Reformed Church
The Swiss Reformed Church is the Reformed branch of Protestantism in Switzerland started in Zürich by Huldrych Zwingli and spread within a few years to Basel, Bern, St. Gallen, to cities in southern Germany and via Alsace to France. Switzerland is the birthplace of the Reformed tradition as it was Zwingli who first preached it in 1519. Since 1920, the Swiss Reformed Churches have been organized in 26 member churches of the Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches; as of 2017, 2,150,387 people are registered members of a Reformed cantonal church. The Reformation spread into the cities of Switzerland, composed of loosely connected cantons. Breakthrough began in the 1520s in Zurich under Zwingli, in Bern in 1528 under Berchtold Haller, in Basel in 1529 under Johannes Oecolampadius. After the early death of Zwingli in 1531, the Reformation continued; the French-speaking cities Neuchâtel and Lausanne changed to the Reformation ten years under William Farel and John Calvin coming from France. The Zwingli and Calvin branches had each their theological distinctions, but in 1549 under the lead of Bullinger and Calvin they came to a common agreement in the Consensus Tigurinus, 1566 in the Second Helvetic Confession.
The German Reformed ideological center was Zurich, the French speaking Reformed movement bastion was Geneva. A distinctive feature of the Swiss Reformed churches in the Zwinglian tradition is their almost symbiotic link to the state, only loosening in the present. In cities where the Reformed faith became leading theology, several confessions were written, some of them: The 67 Articles of Zurich Theses of Berne 1528 Berne Synodus 1532 Confession of Geneva 1537 Second Helvetic Confession written by Bullinger in 1566In the mid 19th century, opposition to liberal theology and interventions by the state led to secessions in several cantonal churches. One of these secessionist churches still exists today, the Evangelical Free Church of Geneva, founded in 1849, while a couple of others have reunited with the Swiss Reformed Church in 1943 and 1966. An important issue to liberal theologians was the Apostles' Creed, they questioned its binding character. This caused a heated debate; until the late 1870s, most cantonal reformed churches stopped prescribing any particular creed.
In 1920 the Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches, with 24 member churches — 22 cantonal churches and 2 free churches, was formed to serve as a legal umbrella before the federal government and represent the church in international relations. Like many European Protestant denominations, several of the Swiss Reformed churches have welcomed gay and lesbian members to celebrate their civil unions within a church context; as early as 1999, the Reformed Churches in St. Gallen and Lucerne had permitted prayer and celebration services for same-sex couples to recognize their civil unions. Since the Reformed Church in Aargau has allowed for prayer services to celebrate same-sex couples. To date, seven other Swiss Reformed churches, including Bern-Jura-Solothurn, Graubünden, Ticino, Vaud, Zürich, have allowed prayer or blessing services for same-sex civil unions. Organizationally, the Reformed Churches in Switzerland remain cantonal units; the German churches are more in the Zwinglian tradition. They are governed synodically and their relation to the respective canton ranges from independent to close collaboration, depending on historical developments.
Reformed Churches in the Swiss cantons: Reformed Church of Aargau Evangelical-Reformed Church of Appenzell Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton Basel-Landschaft Evangelical-Reformed Church of the Canton Basel-Stadt Reformed Churches of the Canton Bern-Jura-Solothurn Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton Freiburg Protestant Church of Geneva Evangelical Free Church of Geneva Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Glarus Evangelical Reformed Church of Graubünden Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Lucerne Reformed Church of the Canton of Neuchâtel Evangelical-Reformed Church of Nidwalen Association of Evangelical Reformed Churches in the Canton of Obwalden Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of St. Gallen Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Schaffhausen Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Schwyz Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Solothurn Evangelical Reformed Church of Ticino Evangelical Church of the Canton of Thurgau Evangelical Reformed Church of Uri Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Vaud Evangelical Reformed Church in Valais Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Zürich Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Zug
The Reuss is a river in Switzerland. With a length of 164 kilometres and a drainage basin of 3,426 square kilometres, it is the fourth largest river in Switzerland; the upper Reuss forms the main valley of the canton of Uri. The course of the lower Reuss runs from Lake Lucerne to the confluence with the Aare at Brugg and Windisch; the Gotthardreuss rises in the Gotthard massif, emerging from Lago di Lucendro in the canton of Ticino and passing into the canton of Uri at Brüggboden. The Furkareuss rises east of Furka Pass from Schwärziseeli and forms the valley called Urseren, passing Realp at 1,540 m. Gotthardreuss and Furkareuss join at Hospental. Downstream of Andermatt the Reuss passes through Schöllenen Gorge and under the legendary Devil's Bridge. At Göschenen it is joined by the Göschenerreuss. From here it forms the main valley of the canton of Uri, passing below Wassen, Gurtnellen and through Erstfeld, past Attinghausen and Altdorf, joining the southernmost part of Lake Lucerne at Seedorf.
The Reuss leaves Lake Lucerne some 20 km to the north-west, at the city of Lucerne. Notable bridges in Lucerne are the Kapellbrücke, first built 1333, rebuilt 1993 and Spreuerbrücke, built 1408. A needle dam just upstream from the Spreuerbrücke) maintains the water level, it receives the Kleine Emme from Entlebuch at Emmen. From here, it flows north-east through Buchrain, Root and Honau, downstream of Honau leaves the canton of Lucerne, now forming the border between Aargau and Zug, passing Dietwil, Risch-Rotkreuz, Oberrüti and Sins, Hünenberg and Mühlau, it receives the Lorze from Lake Zug downstream of Maschwanden. Downstream of this confluence, the Reuss forms the border between Aargau and Zürich, passing Merenschwand and Ottenbach, enters Aargau downstream of Ottenbach. Within Aargau, the Reuss flows past Aristau, Rottenschwil, Hermetschwil-Staffeln, here forming Flachsee, onward to Zufikon, Bremgarten; the Reussbrücke at Bremgarten was first built c. 1270, first mentioned 1281. From Bremgarten, the Reuss meanders between the villages of Eggenwil, Fischbach-Göslikon, Künten, Niederwil, to Stetten, flowing past Tägerig, Birrhard, Mülligen and between Windisch and Gebenstorf joining the Aare just downstream of Brugg, at 327 m.
After the confluence the river continues as the Aare. The catchment area of 3,426 km2 covers Central Switzerland; the catchment area of the upper Reuss includes the entire canton of Uri (with the exception of the Urner Boden, in the uppermost part of the Gotthardreuss a portion of Ticino. The highest point of the drainage basin is the summit of Dammastock, at elevation 3,630 m; the basin of the lower Reuss adds the catchment areas of other tributaries of Lake Lucerne as well as that of the Kleine Emme, including most of Nidwalden and Obwalden, parts of Schwyz and Zug. Downstream of Lucerne, further tributaries add other parts of Zug as well as parts of Zürich and Aargau. Reuss and its tributaries, with length and catchment area, from mouth to source: Reuss - 164 km - 3,426 km² Mülibach - 8 km² Jonen - 46 km2 Lorze - 390 km2 Haselbach Rigi-Aa - 18.6 km2 Hüribach - 12.8 km2 Sinserbach - 16 km2 Ron - 22.5 km2 Kleine Emme - 58 km - 477 km2 Ränggbach Rümlig Wigger Fontannen Entlen Grosse Entlen - 16 km Eibach Rotbach Kleine Entlen Headwaters Wiss Emme Waldemme Lake Lucerne - 113.6 km2 - 2,238 km² Würzenbach - 7.7 km - 39 km2 Sarner Aa/Dreiwässerkanal/Aa/Lauibach - 28 km - 267 km2 Grosse Schliere - 17 km - 28.8 km2 Grosse Melchaa Melbach - 18 km2 Engelberger Aa - 50 km - 230 km2 Muota - 316 km2 Isitalerbach - 60 km2 Altdorfer Dorfbach Upper Reuss - 832 km2 Schächen - 109 km2 Alpbach - 32 km2 Kärstelenbach - 116 km2 Meienreuss - 71 km2 Göschenenalpreuss - 92 km2 Voralpreuss Unteralpreuss Oberalpreuss Headwaters at Hospental: Furkareuss - 12 km Witenwasserenreuss Muttenreuss Tiefenbach Sidelenbach Gotthardreuss Ptolemy records the river's pre-Germanic name as Silana.
The Germanic name is attested as Rusa, Rusia from the 9th century, from an early Germanic *Rūsi, oblique *Rūsjō-. Greule interprets the name as an Old European hydronym, directly cognate with Riß; because of Ptolemy's record of the pre-Germanic name Silana, it is possible that only part of the river was known as *Rūsi in antiquity. Until the 13th century, the Schöllenen Gorge was impassable, separating Urseren from Uri. Urseren was accessible via Furka and Oberalp, was under the influenc
A Fachhochschule, abbreviated FH, or University of Applied Sciences is a German tertiary education institution, specializing in topical areas. Fachhochschulen were first founded in Germany, were adopted in Austria, Switzerland and Greece. An increasing number of Fachhochschulen are abbreviated as Hochschule, the generic term in Germany for institutions awarding academic degrees in higher education, or expanded as Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaften. Universities of Applied Sciences are designed with a focus on teaching professional skills. Swiss law calls Fachhochschulen and Universitäten "separate but equal". Due to the Bologna process, Universitäten and Fachhochschulen award equivalent academic bachelor's and master's degrees. Fachhochschulen do not award doctoral degrees themselves. Combined with the rule that they appoint only professors with a professional career of at least three years outside the university system, those are the two major ways in which they differ from traditional universities.
However, they may run doctoral programs. Due to the Bologna process, most German Universitäten and Fachhochschulen have ceased admitting students to programs leading to the traditional German Diplom, but now apply the new degree standard of Bachelor's and Master's degrees. In line with the Bologna process, bachelor's and master's degrees awarded by both types of universities are equivalent. With a Master's from either, one can now enter a doctoral degree program at a Universität, but a graduate with a bachelor's degree from either is unable to proceed directly to a doctoral degree program in Germany. With the master's degree of either of the institutions a graduate can enter the höheren Dienst career for civil servants; the Fachhochschule or University of Applied Sciences and Arts is a type of German institution of higher education that emerged from the traditional Engineering Schools and similar professional schools of other disciplines. It differs from the traditional university through its more practical orientation.
Subjects taught at Fachhochschulen include engineering, computer science and management, arts and design, communication studies, social service, other professional fields. The traditional degree awarded at a Fachhochschule was the Diplom. Coursework totaled eight semesters of full-time study, with various options for specialization. In addition, there were one or two practical training semesters to provide hands-on experience in real working environments; the program concluded after five years, with the final examination and a thesis, an extensive project on a current practical or scientific aspect of the profession. In an effort to make educational degrees more compatible within Europe, the German Diplom degrees were phased out by 2010 and replaced by the European bachelor's and master's degree; the Fachhochschule represents a close relationship between higher education and the employment system. Their practical orientation makes them attractive to employers. Today, Fachhochschulen conduct research.
Research projects sponsored by industry. In Germany the right to confer doctoral degrees is still reserved to Universitäten. In 2016, Fulda University of Applied Sciences became the first Fachhochschule to be conferred this right for its graduate center for social sciences. Several Fachhochschulen run doctoral programs where the degree itself is awarded by a partner university in Germany or abroad. There are a few universities, such as Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt and Bundeswehr University Munich, which run Fachhochschule courses in addition to their normal courses; the Austrian government decided to establish Fachhochschulen in 1990. In the academic year of 2010/11, there were twenty-one institutions considered as Fachhochschulen plus a number of other providers of Fachhochschulstudiengängen with a total of over 27,000 students. About a third of the 136 Fachhochschulstudiengänge are organized as part-time courses of studies; the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences UAS are vocational universities established in Switzerland in 1995 following the model of the German Fachhochschulen.
They are called Fachhochschule in German, Haute école specialisée in French and scuola universitaria professionale in Italian. The Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences offer third level education, continuing education, services businesses and institutions, produce applied research activities. In 2013 there are seven public UAS approved by the Swiss Federal Council in 1998 and two private UAS approved by the Federal Council in 2005 and 2008; the public UAS are run by one or more cantons. UAS have the institutional mandate to provide degree programmes, continuing education and training, to conduct applied research and to offer services to companies and institutions. Students with a finished apprenticeship and a Fachmatura and students with the Matura and a practical year in a company can access further education within the Universities for Applied Science; the UAS and their Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees are federally accredited. The Federal Department of Eco
Birmensdorf is a municipality in the district of Dietikon in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. Birmensdorf is first mentioned in 876 as Piripoumesdorf. Birmensdorf has an area of 11.5 km2. Of this area, 41% is used for agricultural purposes, while 38.3% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 20.2% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. In 1996 housing and buildings made up 12.8% of the total area, while transportation infrastructure made up the rest. Of the total unproductive area, water made up 0.4% of the area. As of 2007 14.1% of the total municipal area was undergoing some type of construction. The municipality is located in the Reppischtal, it includes the hamlet of numerous scattered farm houses. The village of Birmensdorf includes the former hamlets of Schüren, Güpf, Uf Dorf and Risi; the Wüeribach stream empties into the Reppisch near Birmensdorf. Birmensdorf has a population of 6,414; as of 2007, 19.0% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. As of 2008 the gender distribution of the population was 49.8% male and 50.2% female.
Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 13.7%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most French being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP which received 41% of the vote; the next three most popular parties were the SPS, the FDP and the CVP. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 19% of the population, while adults make up 67.6% and seniors make up 13.3%. The entire Swiss population is well educated. In Birmensdorf about 80.3% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. There are 2508 households in Birmensdorf. Birmensdorf has an unemployment rate of 2.38%. As of 2005, there were 78 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 27 businesses involved in this sector. 440 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 66 businesses in this sector. 1270 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 188 businesses in this sector.
As of 2007 43.6% of the working population were employed full-time, 56.4% were employed part-time. As of 2008 there were 2227 Protestants in Birmensdorf. In the 2000 census religion was broken down into several smaller categories. From the 2000 census, 46.5% were some type of Protestant, with 44.6% belonging to the Swiss Reformed Church and 1.9% belonging to other Protestant churches. 30.1% of the population were Catholic. Of the rest of the population, 0% were Muslim, 5.2% belonged to another religion, 3.2% did not give a religion, 14% were atheist or agnostic. The historical population is given in the following table: Birmensdorf railway station is a stop of the Zürich S-Bahn on the lines S5 and S14, it is an 18 minute ride from Zürich Hauptbahnhof. The municipality is located on the A3 motorway. Birmensdorf Online Official website Birmensdorf in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Birmensdorf in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Canton of Aargau
The canton of Aargau is one of the more northerly cantons of Switzerland. It is situated by the lower course of the Aare, why the canton is called Aar-gau, it is one of the most densely populated regions of Switzerland. The area of Aargau and the surrounding areas were controlled by the Helvetians, a member of the Celts, as far back as 200 BC being occupied by the Romans and by the 6th century, the Franks; the Romans built. The reconstructed Old High German name of Aargau is Argowe, first unambiguously attested in 795; the term described a territory only loosely equivalent to that of the modern canton, including the region between Aare and Reuss, including Pilatus and Napf, i.e. including parts of the modern cantons of Berne, Basel-Landschaft, Lucerne and Nidwalden, but not the parts of the modern canton east of the Reuss, which were part of Zürichgau. Within the Frankish Empire, the area was a disputed border region between the duchies of Alamannia and Burgundy. A line of the von Wetterau intermittently held the countship of Aargau from 750 until about 1030, when they lost it.
This division became the ill-defined outer border of the early Holy Roman Empire at its formation in the second half of the 10th century. Most of the region came under the control of the ducal house of Zähringen and the comital houses of Habsburg and Kyburg by about 1200. In the second half of the 13th century, the territory became divided between the territories claimed by the imperial cities of Berne and Solothurn and the Swiss canton of Unterwalden; the remaining portion corresponding to the modern canton of Aargau, remained under the control of the Habsburgs until the "conquest of Aargau" by the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1415. Habsburg Castle itself, the original seat of the House of Habsburg, was taken by Berne in April 1415; the Habsburgs had founded a number of monasteries, the closing of which by the government in 1841 was a contributing factor to the outbreak of the Swiss civil war – the "Sonderbund War" – in 1847. When Frederick IV of Habsburg sided with Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, Emperor Sigismund placed him under the Imperial ban.
In July 1414, the Pope visited Bern and received assurances from them, that they would move against the Habsburgs. A few months the Swiss Confederation denounced the Treaty of 1412. Shortly thereafter in 1415, Bern and the rest of the Swiss Confederation used the ban as a pretext to invade the Aargau; the Confederation was able to conquer the towns of Aarau, Lenzburg and Zofingen along with most of the Habsburg castles. Bern kept the southwest portion, northward to the confluence of the Reuss; the important city of Baden was taken by a united Swiss army and governed by all 8 members of the Confederation. Some districts, named the Freie Ämter – Mellingen, Muri and Bremgarten, with the countship of Baden – were governed as "subject lands" by all or some of the Confederates. Shortly after the conquest of the Aargau by the Swiss, Frederick humbled himself to the Pope; the Pope ordered all of the taken lands to be returned. The Swiss refused and years after no serious attempts at re-acquisition, the Duke relinquished rights to the Swiss.
Bern's portion of the Aargau came to be known as the Unteraargau, though can be called the Berner or Bernese Aargau. In 1514 Bern expanded north into the Jura and so came into possession of several strategically important mountain passes into the Austrian Fricktal; this land was directly ruled from Bern. It was divided into seven rural bailiwicks and four administrative cities, Zofingen and Brugg. While the Habsburgs were driven out, many of their minor nobles were allowed to keep their lands and offices, though over time they lost power to the Bernese government; the bailiwick administration was based on a small staff of officials made up of Bernese citizens, but with a few locals. When Bern converted during the Protestant Reformation in 1528, the Unteraargau converted. At the beginning of the 16th century a number of anabaptists migrated into the upper Wynen and Rueder valleys from Zürich. Despite pressure from the Bernese authorities in the 16th and 17th centuries anabaptism never disappeared from the Unteraargau.
Bern used the Aargau bailiwicks as a source of grain for the rest of the city-state. The administrative cities remained economically only of regional importance. However, in the 17th and 18th centuries Bern encouraged industrial development in Unteraargau and by the late 18th century it was the most industrialized region in the city-state; the high industrialization led to high population growth in the 18th century, for example between 1764 and 1798, the population grew by 35%, far more than in other parts of the canton. In 1870 the proportion of farmers in Aarau, Lenzburg and Zofingen districts was 34–40%, while in the other districts it was 46–57%; the rest of the Freie Ämter were collectively administered as subject territories by the rest of the Confederation. Muri Amt was assigned to Zürich, Schwyz, Unterwalden and Glarus, while the Ämter of Meienberg and Villmergen were first given to Lucerne alone; the final boundary was set in 14