Berkeley, California

Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California. It is named after philosopher George Berkeley, it borders the cities of Oakland and Emeryville to the south and the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington to the north. Its eastern border with Contra Costa County follows the ridge of the Berkeley Hills; the 2010 census recorded a population of 112,580. Berkeley is home to the oldest campus in the University of California system, the University of California and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, managed and operated by the University, it has the Graduate Theological Union, one of the largest religious studies institutions in the world. Berkeley is considered one of the most liberal cities in the United States; the site of today's City of Berkeley was the territory of the Chochenyo/Huchiun band of the Ohlone people when the first Europeans arrived. Evidence of their existence in the area include pits in rock formations, which they used to grind acorns, a shellmound, now leveled and covered up, along the shoreline of San Francisco Bay at the mouth of Strawberry Creek.

Other artifacts were discovered in the 1950s in the downtown area during remodeling of a commercial building, near the upper course of the creek. The first people of European descent arrived with the De Anza Expedition in 1776; the De Anza Expedition led to establishment of the Spanish Presidio of San Francisco at the entrance to San Francisco Bay. Luis Peralta was among the soldiers at the Presidio. For his services to the King of Spain, he was granted a vast stretch of land on the east shore of San Francisco Bay for a ranch, including that portion that now comprises the City of Berkeley. Luis Peralta named his holding "Rancho San Antonio"; the primary activity of the ranch was raising cattle for meat and hides, but hunting and farming were pursued. Peralta gave portions of the ranch to each of his four sons. What is now Berkeley lies in the portion that went to Peralta's son Domingo, with a little in the portion that went to another son, Vicente. No artifact survives of the Domingo or Vicente ranches, but their names survive in Berkeley street names.

However, legal title to all land in the City of Berkeley remains based on the original Peralta land grant. The Peraltas' Rancho San Antonio continued after Alta California passed from Spanish to Mexican sovereignty after the Mexican War of Independence. However, the advent of U. S. sovereignty after the Mexican–American War, the Gold Rush, saw the Peraltas' lands encroached on by squatters and diminished by dubious legal proceedings. The lands of the brothers Domingo and Vicente were reduced to reservations close to their respective ranch homes; the rest of the land was parceled out to various American claimants. Politically, the area that became Berkeley was part of a vast Contra Costa County. On March 25, 1853, Alameda County was created from a division of Contra Costa County, as well as from a small portion of Santa Clara County; the area that became Berkeley was the northern part of the "Oakland Township" subdivision of Alameda County. During this period, "Berkeley" was a mix of open land and ranches, with a small, though busy, wharf by the bay.

In 1866, Oakland's private College of California looked for a new site. It settled on a location north of Oakland along the foot of the Contra Costa Range astride Strawberry Creek, at an elevation about 500 feet above the bay, commanding a view of the Bay Area and the Pacific Ocean through the Golden Gate. According to the Centennial Record of the University of California, "In 1866…at Founders' Rock, a group of College of California men watched two ships standing out to sea through the Golden Gate. One of them, Frederick Billings, thought of the lines of the Anglo-Irish Anglican Bishop George Berkeley,'westward the course of empire takes its way,' and suggested that the town and college site be named for the eighteenth-century Anglo-Irish philosopher." The philosopher's name is pronounced BARK-lee, but the city's name, to accommodate American English, is pronounced BERK-lee. The College of California's College Homestead Association planned to raise funds for the new campus by selling off adjacent parcels of land.

To this end, they laid out a plat and street grid that became the basis of Berkeley's modern street plan. Their plans fell far short of their desires, they began a collaboration with the State of California that culminated in 1868 with the creation of the public University of California; as construction began on the new site, more residences were constructed in the vicinity of the new campus. At the same time, a settlement of residences and various industries grew around the wharf area called "Ocean View". A horsecar ran from Temescal in Oakland to the university campus along; the first post office opened in 1872. By the 1870s, the Transcontinental Railroad reached its terminus in Oakland. In 1876, a branch line of the Central Pacific Railroad, the Berkeley Branch Railroad, was laid from a junction with the mainline called Shellmound into what is now downtown Berkeley; that same year, the mainline of the transcontinental railroad into Oakland was re-routed, putting the right-of-way along the bay shore through Ocean View.

There was a strong prohibition movement in Berkeley at this time. In 1876, the state enacted the mile limit law, which forbade sale or public consumption of alco

Snorre Valen

Snorre Serigstad Valen is a Norwegian musician and politician. He was elected to the Stortinget from Sør-Trøndelag in 2009, has been deputy head of the party since November 2015. Valen worked as a communications assistant at NTNU Social Research. From 2007–2008 Valen was the head of the short-lived newspaper Arbeideravisa in Trondheim. Valen sat in the Sør-Trøndelag County Council and in Trondheim City Council from 2003 to 2007, during this period, led the foreign affairs and welfare committees in the county council. After being elected to the Norwegian parliament in 2009, he served as member of the Standing Committee on Energy and the Environment from 2009 to March 2012, he has been the second deputy chair of the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence since April 2013. In February 2011 Valen nominated the website WikiLeaks for the Nobel Peace Prize In 2013, he nominated Chelsea Manning and Edward Snowden for the 2014 Nobel peace prize, stating that Manning's leaks helped end the Iraq War while Snowden has exposed how the war on terror has led to mass surveillance of ordinary people.

As an anti-monarchist, Valen has refused to attend the yearly royal dinners for parliamentarians. Valen is a pianist and singer, has a background in Nidarosdomens Guttekor and has studied music at Trondheim katedralskole. From 2004–2008 he played in the band Gallery, released one record with the group, he now plays in the blues band Peevish Penfriend. Snorre Valen's blog Amish 82 Peevish Penfriend

Dear Wife

Dear Wife is a 1949 comedy film starring Joan Caulfield and William Holden. It is the sequel to Dear Ruth, based on the Broadway play of the same name by Norman Krasna. Miriam Wilkins is a teenage girl going door-to-door, trying to get Bill Seacroft, her brother-in-law, elected to the state senate. However, Bill has no idea that Miriam is doing this, he has no wish to become a senator, he is a middle-aged war veteran. He is frustrated by having to live with his wife Ruth's family. Bill wants to stand on his own two feet. Ruth's father, the Honorable Judge Harry Wilkins, has been nominated for state senator; the whole Wilkins family goes into shock when they learn that Bill will run against him in the election. Harry comes to terms with the situation. However, Harry becomes upset by his daughter Miriam's disloyalty when she publishes an article in the local newspaper in which he is described as a political "fathead"; the Wilkins' household faces some serious dissension among its members. As the two campaigns start off, Bill's wife Ruth soon becomes jealous of Tommy Murphy, a beautiful woman who serves as campaign manager for Bill.

Harry hires a man named Albert Krummer, Ruth's former fiancé and Bill's current boss, as his campaign manager. The conflict between the two campaign camps deepens. Albert, still in love with Ruth, pours gasoline on the rising conflict between her and Bill. Bill starts to take his campaign and publicly airs his views on Harry's policy concerning a new local airport. Bill states. Miriam is secretary of the Civic Betterment Committee, one day she decides to use her influence to arrange a live radio broadcast from her home, in support of Bill's campaign; the broadcast is a complete everyone is in conflict. By the end of the broadcast and Ruth have separated because she stubbornly refuses to join him and move out of the family house. Harry disapproves of the separation, he tips off Bill about a duplex that Ruth is showing in her new job as a real estate agent. Taking his father-in-law's advice, Bill rents the duplex, located in another district, he and Ruth reunite, but she still refuses to move in with him, since she is still too jealous of Bill's campaign manager Tommy.

Bill's relationship with Tommy is business, but one day, when the two are alone, Tommy admits to Bill that she has fallen for him. He rejects her advances. Ruth accepts a new job in Chicago, plans to move there. Miriam decides to reunite her older sister with her husband, since she has just had a fight with her boyfriend Ziggy, convinces Bill to take her to a dance instead. Ruth, however, is on her way to the railway station with Albert, who hopes to renew their relationship. Harry arranges for the police to arrest Albert for bad brakes on his car. Albert and Ruth are brought into court, Harry insists that they remain in town for the trial, which will not be heard until next week. Bill and Albert meet at the dance, Albert informs Bill that he has been disqualified as a candidate because he moved to another district. Harry's sponsor announces that a piece of land will be donated to any homeowner displaced by the new airport. Since Harry undoubtedly is the victor of the race to the senate, the political conflict is resolved.

Bill gets into a fight with Albert at the dance and gives him a black-eye for interfering with his marriage. Meanwhile, Harry gives Ruth a lecture about her wifely duties. After this Ruth and Bill reunite. In secret, Miriam starts a new petition to nominate Bill for state senator. Edward Arnold as Judge Wilkins Mary Philips as Mrs. Edie Wilkins Mona Freeman as Miriam Wilkins Joan Caulfield as Ruth Wilkins Seacroft William Holden as Bill Seacroft Billy De Wolfe as Albert Kummer Arleen Whelan as Tommy Murphy In 1945 Paramount paid a record $400,000 for the film rights to the hit play Dear Ruth; this included the right to use the characters in a follow up movie. In December 1947 the studio announced. Arthur Sheekman and R Richard Nash were assigned to write the script and Richard Maibaum was to direct. In October 1949 the film was put on Paramount's slate. Filming started January 1950. Dear Wife at the TCM Movie Database Dear Wife on IMDb