National Association of Colored Women's Clubs
From 1896 to 1904 it was known as the National Association of Colored Women. It adopted the motto Lifting as we climb, to demonstrate to an ignorant and suspicious world that our aims, when incorporated in 1904, NACW became known as the National Association of Colored Womens Clubs. “In 1895 an obscure man in an obscure Missouri town sent a letter broad-cast over this country and England, reflecting upon the character, so utterly false were the vile statement, that the women were aroused as never before and when Mrs. Josephine St. The National Federation of Colored Women’s Club was the result of that meeting and this joint session was attended by some of the most notable women of our Race, among whom were Harriet Tubman. Francis E. W. Harper and writer, Victoria E. Matthews, founder of the White Rose Mission of New York, Josephine S. Yates and writer, an others. Wells Barnett and Elizabeth Lindsay Davis were the delegates from Illinois. ”Historian,1933 The National Association of Colored Women was established in Washington and this first of what would become biennial convention meetings of the association was held at the Nineteenth Street Baptist Church.
These organizations and others across the country merged to form the National Association of Colored Women, the organization helped all African-American women by working on issues of civil rights and injustice, such as women’s suffrage and Jim Crow laws. Founders of the NACWC included Harriet Tubman, Margaret Murray Washington, Frances E. W. Harper, Ida Bell Wells-Barnett and its two leading members were Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin and Mary Church Terrell. Their original intention was to furnish evidence of the moral and material made by people of color through the efforts of our women. During the next ten years, the NACWC became involved in campaigns in favor of suffrage and against lynching. They led efforts to education, and care for both children and the elderly. By 1918, when the United States entered the First World War, both women were educated and had economically successful parents. Born on August 31,1842, in Boston, Josephine St. Pierre was the daughter of John St. Pierre and her parents supported her going to school in Salem for its integrated schools, rather than attend segregated ones in Boston.
At the age of 16, she married George Lewis Ruffin, among their early activities was recruiting black soldiers for the Union Army during the Civil War. After her husband died in 1886, Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin used part of her estate to fund Woman’s Era and she was a vice-president of the National Association of Colored Women. In 1910 Ruffin enlarged her social activism by helping form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Mary Church Terrell was the daughter of Robert Church, Sr. a former slave and reputed son of a white master. Church, Sr. built a business and became one of the wealthiest black men in the South and he was able to send Mary to Oberlin College, where she earned both bachelors and masters degrees. Years Mary Church Terrell spoke at the Berlin International Congress of Women, giving her speech in fluent German and French and she was the only black woman at the conference
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California. It is named after the 18th-century Anglo-Irish bishop and philosopher George Berkeley and it borders the cities of Oakland and Emeryville to the south and the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington to the north. Its eastern border with Contra Costa County generally follows the ridge of the Berkeley Hills, the 2010 census recorded a population of 112,580. It has the Graduate Theological Union, one of the largest religious studies institutions in the world and it is one of the most politically liberal cities in the United States. The site of todays City of Berkeley was the territory of the Chochenyo/Huchiun band of the Ohlone people when the first Europeans arrived, other artifacts were discovered in the 1950s in the downtown area during remodeling of a commercial building, near the upper course of the creek. The first people of European descent arrived with the De Anza Expedition in 1776, this is noted by signage on Interstate 80, which runs along the San Francisco Bay shoreline of Berkeley.
The De Anza Expedition led to establishment of the Spanish Presidio of San Francisco at the entrance to San Francisco Bay, luis Peralta was among the soldiers at the Presidio. For his services to the King of Spain, he was granted a vast stretch of land on the east shore of San Francisco Bay for a ranch, luis Peralta named his holding Rancho San Antonio. The primary activity of the ranch was raising cattle for meat and hides, Peralta gave portions of the ranch to each of his four sons. What is now Berkeley lies mostly in the portion that went to Peraltas son Domingo, with a little in the portion that went to another son, no artifact survives of the Domingo or Vicente ranches, but their names survive in Berkeley street names. However, legal title to all land in the City of Berkeley remains based on the original Peralta land grant, the Peraltas Rancho San Antonio continued after Alta California passed from Spanish to Mexican sovereignty after the Mexican War of Independence. The lands of the brothers Domingo and Vicente were quickly reduced to reservations close to their respective ranch homes, the rest of the land was surveyed and parceled out to various American claimants.
Politically, the area that became Berkeley was initially part of a vast Contra Costa County, on March 25,1853, Alameda County was created from a division within Contra Costa County, as well as from a small portion of Santa Clara County. The area of Berkeley was at this period mostly a mix of land and ranches. It was not yet Berkeley, but merely the part of the Oakland Township subdivision of Alameda County. In 1866, Oaklands private College of California looked for a new site, according to the Centennial Record of the University of California, In 1866…at Founders Rock, a group of College of California men watched two ships standing out to sea through the Golden Gate. Although the philosophers name is pronounced bark-lee, the pronunciation of the name has evolved to suit American English as burk-lee. The College of Californias College Homestead Association planned to raise funds for the new campus by selling off adjacent parcels of land, to this end, they laid out a plat and street grid that became the basis of Berkeleys modern street plan
Los Angeles Nurses' Club
Los Angeles Nurses Club is a clubhouse and apartment building for nurses located in the Westlake district of Central Los Angeles, California. The large building was built in 1924 by the Los Angeles Nurses Club, the club was organized and incorporated as a non-profit corporation in 1921. The clubs members conducted several bazaars, some parties, and a dance, raising funds to buy a lot. By 1923, the club had raised sufficient funds to purchase a lot at the corner of Third Street and Lucas Street. The clubhouse was intended to provide a place where registered nurses may live, architect John J. Frauenfelder was hired to design the building. Frauenfelder designed a structure consisting of four stories and a basement, the ground floor had a large living room with a library and fireplace, which was intended to lend a home-like atmosphere to the clubhouse. Frauenfelders plans included an auditorium for lectures and motion pictures, a garden was built at the rear of the building with views of the mountains.
The structure included housing for 100 nurses and was the headquarters of the professional activities. When completed in 1924, the building was the first clubhouse in the United States to be financed and built by. The cost of building the structure was $160,000, the Angelus Sextette, composed of nurses from the Angelus Hospital, sang at the dedication ceremony in 1924. The Los Angeles Nurses Club building was designated a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument by the Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Board in April 1988 and it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1995. List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in the Wilshire and Westlake areas National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles Facebook, Nurses Club & Apartments - Los Angeles, California You-are-here. com, Photograph of Nurses Club
Women's Trade Union League
The roots of the WTUL come from a British organization of the same name founded thirty years earlier. Its first American supporter was the socialist William English Walling who met with British WTUL leaders in 1902 and its first president was Mary Morton Kehew, a labor and social reformer from Boston. By 1907, the WTUL saw its purpose as supporting the AFL and encouraging women’s membership in the organization. In its constitution that year, the WTUL defined its purpose in assisting “in organizing women into trade unions. such unions to be affiliated, where practicable, with the American Federation of Labor. ”In response, the AFL leadership generally ignored the League. When the WTUL decided to hold its annual conference at a different location than the AFL in 1905, Samuel Gompers was furious, the League did push the AFL towards a pro-suffrage position and did manage to organize more women into the Federation than at any previous time. But the heyday of the League came between 1907 and 1922 under the presidency of Margaret Dreier Robins, during that period, the WTUL led the drive to organize women workers into unions, secured protective legislation, and educated the public on the problems and needs of working women.
The League supported a number of strikes in the first few years of its existence, some observers made light of the upper-class women members of the WTUL who picketed alongside garment workers, calling them the mink brigade. These distinctions split strikers from their upper-class benefactors as well, a contingent of strikers challenged Alva Belmont concerning her reasons for supporting the strike. The strike was, less than successful, Italian workers crossed the picket lines in large numbers. In addition, although activists within the WTUL, including William E. Walling, even so, the strike produced some limited gains for workers, while giving both the WTUL and women garment workers a practical education in organizing. The WTUL trained women as leaders and organizers at its school founded in Chicago in 1914. At this time the WTUL began to work for reforms, in particular the eight-hour day. The WTUL was active in demanding safe working conditions, both before and after the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in 1911 in which 146 workers were killed and we have tried you good people of the public and we have found you wanting.
The old Inquisition had its rack and its thumbscrews and its instruments of torture with iron teeth and this is not the first time girls have been burned alive in the city. Every week I must learn of the death of one of my sister workers. Every year thousands of us are maimed, the life of men and women is so cheap and property is so sacred. There are so many of us for one job it matters little if 146 of us are burned to death. We have tried you citizens, we are trying you now, but every time the workers come out in the only way they know to protest against conditions which are unbearable the strong hand of the law is allowed to press down heavily upon us
For other uses, including specific buildings and chapters, see Young Womens Christian Association. The World Young Womens Christian Association is a global movement working for the empowerment and rights of women, young women, the members and supporters include women from many different faiths, backgrounds and cultures. The World office is based in Geneva, Switzerland. The YWCA is independent of the YMCA, but many local YMCA and YWCA associations have merged into YM/YWCAs or YMCA-YWCAs, today, YWCAs in 70 countries have programs related to HIV, including prevention, treatment and support, and addressing stigma. The YWCA works closely with HIV-positive women on a grassroots level, initiatives within the YWCA by HIV-positive women have allowed for the tailoring of programs to meet the specific needs of their communities. Along with HIV prevention, the World YWCA has strongly promoted access to the female condom, according to a statement made by Dr. Musimbi Kanyoro, former General Secretary of the World YWCA “Accelerated female condom distribution and education is essential. HIV infection rates among women are rising disproportionately to men in every region of the world, and when AIDS affects women, it affects entire families and communities, tearing apart social safety nets and fueling instability and conflict.
The World YWCA recently held the first international conference on Women and HIV, the International Womens Summit on HIV and AIDS featured speakers from UNAIDS, YWCAs and other global leaders. The Positive Womens Forum, held on the first day, was organised by and for HIV-positive women, while the YWCAs had, on various levels, been active with refugees for some time, the issue took a central focus during Israels War of Independence. Since there have been programs to provide income and to meet the needs of those living in refugee camps, such as adequate healthcare and literacy programs. Underpinning refugee work has been the movement for peace and justice, with its policy rooted in the 1920s, the World YWCA has emphasized peace education and justice as an integral part of the movement’s promotion of human rights. Sustainable development has been a priority for the YWCA. In 1987, the World YWCA stated its commitment to development that empowers women to become decision-makers and community leaders.
”The movement has emphasized a gender and human rights approach, acknowledging the exploitative. Racial equality and anti-lynching initiatives Throughout the course of its existence, in coordination with this imitative, the YWCA focused on creating campaigns and writing letters to legislators, with the intention of passing anti-lynching legislation. The YWCA’s participation in this movement peaked during the 1940s, shortly after the start of the second World War, “In 1940, a National Board commission was charged with mobilizing decisively integration work in the YWCA. This group devised an ‘Interracial Charter’ calling for the integration of black women into YWCA life and pledging the efforts of the collective YWCA to fight racial prejudice. ”While these efforts weren’t successful on a National level, they did raise awareness. It is a member of CONGO, Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations in a Consultative Relationship with the United Nations, each year during the third week in October, YWCAs worldwide focus on raising awareness on violence against women.
The YWCA Week Without Violence was launched in 1995 and has grown from an initiative into a global movement with women and children participating in events in over 20 countries
Women's National Republican Club
The club built its third and current home on 51st street in 1934. That Neo-Georgian style building was built on the site of Andrew Carnegies home and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013. The club continues to serve its members with guest rooms and dining and it allows men to join as associate members
Alameda County, California
Alameda County is a county in the state of California in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,510,271, Alameda County is included in the San Francisco Bay Area, occupying much of the East Bay region. The county was formed on March 25,1853, from a portion of Contra Costa County. The Spanish word alameda means a place where trees grow. The willow and sycamore trees along the banks of the river reminded the early explorers of a road lined with trees, the county seat at the time it was formed was located at Alvarado, now part of Union City. In 1856 it was moved to San Leandro, where the county courthouse was destroyed by the devastating 1868 quake on the Hayward Fault, the county seat was re-established in the town of Brooklyn from 1872-1875. Brooklyn is now part of Oakland, which has been the county seat since 1873, much of what is now considered an intensively urban region, with major cities, was developed as a trolley car suburb of San Francisco in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The annual county fair is held at the Alameda County Fairgrounds in Pleasanton, the fair runs for three weekends from June to July. Attractions include horse racing, carnival rides, 4-H exhibits, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 821 square miles, of which 739 square miles is land and 82 square miles is water. The San Francisco Bay borders the county on the west, the crest of the Berkeley Hills form part of the northeastern boundary, and reach into the center of the county. A coastal plain several miles wide lines the bay, and is Oaklands most populous region, Livermore Valley lies in the eastern part of the county. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge A2014 analysis found Alameda County to be the 4th most racially diverse county in the United States, the 2010 United States Census reported that Alameda County had a population of 1,510,271. The population density was 2,047.6 people per square mile, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 339,889 persons,16.
4% Mexican,0. 8% Puerto Rican,0. 2% Cuban,5. 1% Other Hispanic. 26. 0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7. 3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.31. In the county, the population was out with 24. 6% under the age of 18,9. 6% from 18 to 24,33. 9% from 25 to 44,21. 7% from 45 to 64. The median age was 34 years, for every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males, the median income for a household in the county was $55,946, and the median income for a family was $65,857. Males had an income of $47,425 versus $36,921 for females
Daughters of the American Revolution
The Daughters of the American Revolution is a lineage-based membership service organization for women who are directly descended from a person involved in the United States struggle for independence. A non-profit group, they work to promote preservation, education. It currently has approximately 180,000 members in the United States and its motto is God and Country. The DAR is a white organization with a record of excluding African American women. In 1889 the centennial of President George Washingtons inauguration was celebrated, out of the renewed interest in United States history, numerous patriotic and preservation societies were founded. The first meeting of the society was held August 9,1890, the first DAR chapter was organized on October 11,1890, at the Strathmore Arms, the home of Mary Smith Lockwood, one of the DARs four co-founders. Other founders were Eugenia Washington, a great-grandniece of George Washington, Ellen Hardin Walworth and they had held organizational meetings in August 1890.
The First Lady, Caroline Lavina Scott Harrison, wife of President Benjamin Harrison, lent her prestige to the founding of DAR, having initiated a renovation of the White House, she was interested in historic preservation. She helped establish the goals of DAR, which was incorporated by charter in 1896. This was in addition to fraternal and civic organizations flourishing in this period. The DAR chapters raised funds to initiate a number of historic preservation and they began a practice of installing markers at the graves of Revolutionary War veterans to indicate their service, and adding small flags at their gravesites on Memorial Day. Other activities included commissioning and installing monuments to battles and other related to the War. The DAR recognized women patriots contributions as well as those of soldiers, for instance, they installed a monument at the site of a spring where Polly Hawkins Craig and other women got water to use against flaming arrows, in the defense of Bryan Station.
In addition to installing markers and monuments, DAR chapters have purchased and operated historic houses, see DAR Historic Sites and Database for a map and database of DAR sites. Washington, D. C. had segregated facilities under laws established by a Southern-dominated Congress, in 1945, African-American jazz singer Hazel Scott was excluded from performing at Constitution Hall. In October 1945, the DAR invited First Lady Bess Truman to a tea at the hall, congressman Powell protested and asked Truman not to attend the tea. She chose to go, but said publicly that she opposed discrimination, the White House received letters asking Bess Truman to resign from the DAR in protest of their policy, she declined to do so. Other letters supported her having attended the tea, the DAR did not officially reverse its white performers only policy until 1952
Julia Morgan was an American architect in California. She designed more than 700 buildings in California during a long and she is best known for her work on Hearst Castle in San Simeon, California. Morgan was the first woman to be admitted to the program at lÉcole nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris. She designed many buildings for institutions serving women and girls including YWCA buildings and buildings for Mills College, Morgan embraced the Arts and Crafts Movement and used various producers of California pottery to adorn her buildings. Julia Morgan is the first woman to receive the AIA Gold Medal, Morgans father, Charles Bill Morgan, was born into a prominent East Coast family that included successful military men and influential businessmen. He studied to be an engineer, in 1867, he sailed for San Francisco, California, to speculate in mines. He returned the year to marry Eliza Woodland Parmelee, the favored daughter of Albert O. Parmelee. The wedding was in Brooklyn, New York, where she had grown up, as a wedding present, Parmelee gave his daughter an envelope full of money so that she could raise a family in comfort.
He indicated that more money would follow, the newlyweds traveled to San Francisco and settled downtown in a family-oriented but luxurious residential hotel. In April 1870, a son was born and named Parmelee Morgan, on January 20,1872, Julia Morgan was born. Three more children were born to the family in Oakland, Charles Morgan was not successful in any of his business ventures, so the family relied upon money from grandfather Parmelee. Eliza Morgan ran the household with a hand, providing young Julia with a role model of womanly competence and independence. In mid-1878, Eliza took the children to live near the Parmelees in New York for a year while Charles worked in San Francisco, in New York, Julia was introduced to her older cousin Lucy Thornton, who was married to successful architect Pierre Le Brun. After returning to Oakland, Julia kept in contact with Le Brun, in New York, Julia got sick with scarlet fever and was kept in bed for a few weeks. As a result of illness, throughout her adult life she was prone to ear infections.
In July 1880, grandfather Parmelee died, grandmother Parmelee moved into the Oakland house, bringing with her the Parmelee wealth. This reinforced Julias impression that women provided the foundation of social means, Morgan resisted her mothers suggestion that she have a debutante party to celebrate her availability for marriage. She argued that she should first gain a career and her parents were supportive of this wish
Ebell of Los Angeles
The Ebell of Los Angeles is a womens club housed in a complex in the Mid-City section of Wilshire, Los Angeles, California. It includes a building and the renowned 1, 270-seat Wilshire Ebell Theatre. The complex has been owned and operated since 1927 by the Ebell of Los Angeles womens club, since 1927, the Wilshire Ebell Theatre has hosted musical performances and lectures by world leaders and top artists. Among other events, the Ebell was the site of aviator Amelia Earharts last public appearance before attempting the 1937 around-the-world flight during which she disappeared and it is the place where Judy Garland was discovered while performing as Baby Frances Gumm in the 1930s. Harriet Williams Russell Strong was a founder of the club, serving as its president for three consecutive terms, the club adopted as its motto, I will find a way or make one -- I serve. Over the years, the group has conducted classes, and hosted lectures and seminars, on topics including psychology, parliamentary law, literature, music and science.
In 1923, the announced plans to build a new clubhouse. The group commissioned architect Sumner P. Hunt of Hunt & Burns to design the new facility, the new facilities consisted of multiple structures covering a site 160 ×450 feet, surrounding a 65 ×120 foot patio area. The new facilities included a new 1, 300-seat auditorium at the rear of the property facing 8th Street, the two-story structure facing Wilshire Boulevard houses the groups clubhouse, including a large lounge, art salon, and dining room. The dining room opens to a tile-roofed colonnade walkway and fountain, the total cost was $200,000 for the site, $650,000 for the entire structure, and $120,000 for the furnishings. Another writer observed, Nowhere in America is there a more magnificent womens club house than the new home of Ebell, every modern convenience and appliance, together with furnishings of the finest quality, are within its walls. It is lavish, but not flamboyantly so and it is practical and it has beauty and inspiring charm.
The 1, 300-seat theater is known for its acoustics and its Barton pipe organ, the Los Angeles Times in 2003 described the theater as the grande dame of genteel grace, a cultural centerpiece for Los Angeles, and one of the areas most striking auditoriums. In more than eighty years of productions, the Wilshire Ebell has witnessed performances by stars and celebrities. Young Judy Garland, known as Baby Frances Gumm, first auditioned on the Wilshire Ebell Theater stage, MGM producer George Sidney described Garlands first audition this way, I had made Judys first screen test. There was a theater here in Los Angeles called the Wilshire-Ebell, hey used to put on vaudeville acts on certain nights of the week. This little girl came out with her two sisters and her playing the piano. She did a number with a baseball bat