England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Birmingham New Street railway station
Birmingham New Street is the largest and busiest of the three main railway stations in the Birmingham City Centre, England. It is a central hub of the British railway system, it is a major destination for Virgin Trains services from London Euston, Glasgow Central and Edinburgh Waverley via the West Coast Main Line, the national hub of the CrossCountry network – the most extensive in Britain, with long-distance trains serving destinations from Aberdeen to Penzance. It is a major hub for local and suburban services within the West Midlands, including those on the Cross City Line between Lichfield Trent Valley and Bromsgrove, the Chase Line to Walsall and Rugeley Trent Valley; the station is named after New Street, which runs parallel to the station, although the station has never had a direct entrance to New Street except via the Grand Central shopping centre. The main entrance to the station was on Stephenson Street, just off New Street. Today the station has entrances on Stephenson Street, Smallbrook Queensway, Hill Street and Navigation Street.
New Street is the sixth busiest railway station in the UK and the busiest outside London, with 43.7 million passenger entries and exits between April 2017 and March 2018. It is the busiest interchange station outside London, with nearly 6.8 million passengers changing trains at the station annually. In 2018 New Street had a passenger satisfaction rating of 92%, the third highest in the UK; the original New Street station opened in 1854. At the time of its construction, the station had the largest single-span arched roof in the world, In the 1960s, the station was rebuilt. An enclosed station, with buildings over most of its span and passenger numbers more than twice those it was designed for, the replacement was not popular with its users. A £550m redevelopment of the station named Gateway Plus opened in September 2015, it includes a new concourse, a new exterior facade, a new entrance on Stephenson Street. Around 80% of train services to Birmingham go through New Street; the other major city-centre stations in Birmingham are Birmingham Moor Street and Birmingham Snow Hill.
Outside Birmingham, in Solihull, is Birmingham International, which serves Birmingham Airport and the National Exhibition Centre. Since 30 May 2016, New Street has been served by the West Midlands Metro tram line, when the adjacent Grand Central tram stop opened outside the station's main entrance on Stephenson Street as the new terminus of Line 1, following the opening of the city-centre extension from Birmingham Snow Hill. New Street station was built by the London and North Western Railway between 1846 and 1854. Samuel Carter, solicitor to both LNWR and the Midland Railway, managed the conveyancing, it was built in the centre of Birmingham, replacing several earlier rail termini on the outskirts of the centre, most notably Curzon Street, which had opened in 1838, was no longer adequate for the level of traffic. Until 1885 the LNWR shared the station with the Midland. However, in 1885 the Midland Railway opened its own extension alongside the original station for the exclusive use of its trains creating two stations side-by-side.
The two companies stations were separated by a central roadway. Traffic grew and by 1900 New Street had an average of 40 trains an hour departing and arriving, rising to 53 trains in the peak hours; the London and North Western Railway had obtained an Act of Parliament in 1846, to extend their line into the centre of Birmingham, which involved the acquisition of some 1.2 hectares of land, the demolition of 70 or so houses in Peck Lane, The Froggery, Queen Street, Colmore Street. The Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion chapel, on the corner of Peck Lane and Dudley Street, which had only been built six years before, was demolished; the station was formally opened on 1 June 1854, although the uncompleted station had been in use for two years as a terminus for trains from the Stour Valley Line, which entered the station from the Wolverhampton direction. On the formal opening day, the LNWR's Curzon Street station was closed to regular passenger services, trains from the London direction started using New Street.
The station was constructed by Messrs. Fox, Henderson & Co. and designed by Edward Alfred Cowper of that firm, who had worked on the design of The Crystal Palace. When completed, it had the largest arched single-span iron and glass roof in the world, spanning a width of 211 feet and being 840 ft long, it held this title for 14 years until St Pancras station opened in 1868. It was intended to have three spans, supported by columns, however it was soon realised that the supporting columns would restrict the workings of the railway. Cowper's single-span design, was therefore adopted though it was some 62 feet wider than the widest roof span at that time. George Gilbert Scott praised Cowper's roof at New Street, stating “An iron roof in its most normal condition is too spider-like a structure to be handsome, but with a little attention this defect is obviated; the most wonderful specimen is that at the great Birmingham Station... ” When first opened, New Street was described as the "Grand Central Station at Birmingham".
The internal layout of tracks and platforms was designed by Robert Stephenson and his assistants. The main entrance building on Stephenson Street incorporated Queen's Hotel, designed by John William Livock, opened on the same day; the Queen's Hotel was built in an Italianate style and was provided with 60 rooms. The hotel was expanded several times over the years, reached its final form in 1917 with t
Canley is a suburban neighbourhood located in southwest Coventry, England. Canley became part of Coventry as a result of successive encroachment of the latter's boundaries between 1928 and 1932, having been part of the Stoneleigh parish. Electorally, it is split between the Wainbody and Earlsdon wards; the area is home to a large number of students attending the nearby University of Warwick. There was a level crossing adjacent to Canley railway station until 2003, when the road was closed and a foot bridge was built over the railway; the suburb is bisected by the A45 dual-carriageway, with a major state housing development lying to the south and an area of private housing situated north of this road towards Canley rail station. Adjacent districts include Cannon Park and Cannon Hill to the east, Tile Hill South to the north and Westwood Heath to south. Canley is known as the site of the main factory of the Standard Motor Company and was all open farmland before 1916; the initial factory was built around'Ivy Cottage', near the Canley Train Halt and was first used in 1916 to build First World War fighter aircraft.'Standard' cars were produced there from 1918 onwards.
The factory continued to expand over the site throughout the 1920s and most just before the Second World War when two additional Shadow Factories were added. Production of Standard and Triumph cars continued until car production ceased in August 1980 as part of British Leyland's rationalisation; some of the site was retained as a technical centre until the mid-1990s but was successively demolished thereafter. A commemorative sculpture of the Standard-Triumph badge now stands on the site of the works, on Herald Avenue, close to the Standard Triumph Club, now the only remaining building of the industrial complex where thousands of Coventry people once worked. Sir Henry Parkes, Australian statesman and five times Premier of New South Wales, was born in Canley, in a cottage off Moat House Lane. Canley Fire Station is in Sir Henry Parkes Road near to the A45. A school named after him in Canley has been demolished; the Westwood School, a comprehensive secondary school Charter Primary School WMG Academy for Young Engineers, Coventry Some of the notable landmarks in the Canley area include: The Phantom Coach public house The Sovereign public house Cannon Park Shopping Centre Canley Fire Station Canley Community Centre Canley Library Canley Evangelical Church St Stephens Church Xcel Leisure Centre Coventry Technical Rugby Club Canley Railway Station Canley Social Club Charter Avenue Industrial EstateThe University of Warwick is situated directly to the south of Canley.
Many of the ex-council houses have been bought by private landlords and converted by loft extensions to house as many as nine students in one dwelling. This has led to Canley being nicknamed'Student Village' and has led to pressure on roadside parking spaces in some areas of Canley close to the A45 and Cannon Park. Austin Rover Group Triumph Motorcycles Canley railway station Canley: Communities in Profile Report Parkes Foundation website Coventry City Council's renewal project for Canley Cannon Park Shopping - Canley's Shopping Centre
Tile Hill railway station
Tile Hill railway station is situated in the west of Tile Hill, Coventry, in the West Midlands of England. The station, all trains serving it, are operated by West Midlands Trains; the station was opened in 1850, was known as Allesley Lane, in 1857 it was renamed Allesley Gate, it assumed its current name of Tile Hill in 1864. The station was located at a point, it had staggered platforms, with one platform on one side of the level crossing, the other on the other side. The station was rebuilt when the line was electrified in the 1960s in its present more conventional form; the level crossing adjacent to the station lasted until 2004, when a large bridge was built to carry road traffic over the railway and a footbridge built to connect the station platforms. Level crossings at the Berkswell railway station and the Canley railway station have been removed to upgrade the line to carry more high speed trains. In 2009 the railway platform was extended doubling the size; this was the case for a number of smaller stations on this route.
This has been a busy railway station used by many local and non local residents, however after the sale of the overflow carpark to developers there continues to be substantial parking issues at the station and in and around the neighbouring roads. Tile Hill is served by three trains per hour each way Mon-Sat, to Birmingham New Street northbound and to London Euston via Coventry & Northampton southbound; some services start/terminate at either Coventry or Northampton during the early morning & late evening. On Sundays, the service is hourly during every 30 minutes in the afternoon. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Nationalised Railway Atlas. Penryn, Cornwall: Atlantic Transport Publishers. ISBN 978-0-906899-99-1. OCLC 228266687. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day.
Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. Station on navigable O. S. map Tile Hill Station - On Warwickshirerailways.com
Hampton-in-Arden railway station
Hampton-in-Arden railway station serves the village of Hampton-in-Arden in the West Midlands of England. It is situated on the West Coast Main Line between Birmingham; the station, all trains serving it, are operated by West Midlands Trains. The present station dates from 1884, when it was built by the North Western Railway, it replaced an earlier station dating from the opening of the London and Birmingham Railway in 1837, located approxiamtely 470 metres further north-west. From 1839, Hampton-in-Arden became a junction at the southern end of the Stonebridge Railway; this line, which connected with the Birmingham-Derby line at Whitacre Heath, closed to passengers in 1917 and in 1935. Prior to the opening of nearby Birmingham International station in 1976, fast trains between Birmingham New Street and London Euston called at Hampton-in-Arden, to provide a stop between Birmingham and Coventry and to serve Birmingham Airport. Evidence of the stopping of these longer trains remains with the exceptionally long platforms.
The original L&BR station booking hall building still stands today on Old Station Road. This small red brick building is a Grade II listed building and is a rare surviving example of architecture from the beginning of the railway age, it is one of two remaining intermediate station buildings in Britain from the early railways, the other being the original Watford station in Hertfordshire. On Mondays to Saturdays, Hampton-in-Arden is served by two trains an hour to Birmingham New Street and two to London Euston; some peak period and evening trains start or terminate at Coventry or Northampton and there is a single late evening through train to Wolverhampton and Crewe. On Sundays, there is an hourly service between Birmingham New Euston via Northampton. Train times and station information for Hampton-in-Arden railway station from National Rail Rail Around Birmingham and the West Midlands: Hampton-in-Arden station Hampton in Arden Station at WarwickshireRailways.com
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England. Part of Warwickshire, Coventry is the 9th largest city in England and the 12th largest in the United Kingdom, it is the second largest city in the West Midlands region, after Birmingham. Coventry is 19 miles east-southeast of Birmingham, 24 miles southwest of Leicester, 11 miles north of Warwick and 94 miles northwest of London. Coventry is the most central city in England, being only 11 miles south-southwest of the country's geographical centre in Leicestershire; the current Coventry Cathedral was built after the majority of the 14th century cathedral church of Saint Michael was destroyed by the Luftwaffe in the Coventry Blitz of 14 November 1940. Coventry motor companies have contributed to the British motor industry; the city has two universities, Coventry University in the city centre and the University of Warwick on the southern outskirts. On 7 December 2017, the city won the title of UK City of Culture 2021, after beating Paisley, Stoke-on-Trent and Sunderland to the title.
They will be the third title holder, of the quadrennial award which began in 2013. The Romans founded a settlement in Baginton, next to the River Sowe, another formed around a Saxon nunnery, founded c. AD 700 by St Osburga, left in ruins by King Canute's invading Danish army in 1016. Earl Leofric of Mercia and his wife Lady Godiva built on the remains of the nunnery and founded a Benedictine monastery in 1043 dedicated to St Mary. In time, a market was established at the settlement expanded. Coventry Castle was a bailey castle in the city, it was built in the early 12th century by 4th Earl of Chester. Its first known use was during The Anarchy when Robert Marmion, a supporter of King Stephen, expelled the monks from the adjacent priory of Saint Mary in 1144, converted it into a fortress from which he waged a battle against the Earl. Marmion perished in the battle, it was demolished in the late 12th century and St Mary's Guildhall was built on part of the site. It is assumed. By the 14th century, Coventry was an important centre of the cloth trade, throughout the Middle Ages was one of the largest and most important cities in England.
The bishops of Lichfield were referred to as bishops of Coventry and Lichfield, or Lichfield and Coventry. Coventry claimed the status of a city by ancient prescriptive usage, was granted a charter of incorporation in 1345, in 1451 became a county in its own right; the plays that William Shakespeare witnessed in Coventry during his boyhood or'teens' may have influenced how his plays, such as Hamlet, came about. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Coventry became one of the three main British centres of watch and clock manufacture and ranked alongside Prescot, in Lancashire and Clerkenwell in London; as the industry declined, due to competition from Swiss Made clock and watch manufacturers, the skilled pool of workers proved crucial to the setting up of bicycle manufacture and the motorbike, machine tool and aircraft industries. In the late 19th century, Coventry became a major centre of bicycle manufacture; the industry energised by the invention by James Starley and his nephew John Kemp Starley of the Rover safety bicycle, safer and more popular than the pioneering penny-farthing.
The company became Rover. By the early 20th century, bicycle manufacture had evolved into motor manufacture, Coventry became a major centre of the British motor industry; the research and design headquarters of Jaguar Cars is in the city at their Whitley plant and although vehicle assembly ceased at the Browns Lane plant in 2004, Jaguar's head office returned to the city in 2011, is sited in Whitley. Jaguar is owned by Tata Motors. With many of the city's older properties becoming unfit for habitation, the first council houses were let to their tenants in 1917. With Coventry's industrial base continuing to soar after the end of the Great War a year numerous private and council housing developments took place across the city in the 1920s and 1930s; the development of a southern by-pass around the city, starting in the 1930s and being completed in 1940, helped deliver more urban areas to the city on rural land. Coventry suffered severe bomb damage during the Second World War. There was a massive Luftwaffe air raid that the Germans called Operation Moonlight Sonata, part of the "Coventry Blitz", on 14 November 1940.
Firebombing on this date led to severe damage to large areas of the city centre and to Coventry's historic cathedral, leaving only a shell and the spire. More than 4,000 houses were damaged or destroyed, along with around three quarters of the city's industrial plants. More than 800 people were killed, with thousands injured and homeless. Aside from London and Plymouth, Coventry suffered more damage than any other British city during the Luftwaffe attacks, with huge firestorms devastating most of the city centre; the city was targeted due to its high concentration of armaments, munitions and aero-engine plants which contributed to the British war effort, although there have been claims that Hitler launched the attack as revenge for the bombing of Munich by the RAF six days before the Coventry Blitz and chose the Midlands city because its medieval heart was regarded as one of the finest in Britain. Following the raids, the majority of Coventry's historic buildings could not be saved as they were in ruinous states or were deemed unsafe for any future use.
Several structures were demolished to make way for