2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade
The 2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade was a parade that took place in Red Square in Moscow on 9 May 2015 to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. Being a landmark jubilee parade honoring the 70th anniversary of the Allied victory in the European continent, col. Gen. Oleg Salyukov, the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Ground Forces, was the 2015 commander. Following the official parade, over 500,000 Russians and foreign attendees marched through central Moscow in commemoration of those who perished and it is estimated that up to 12 million Russians participated nationwide in the 2015 March of the Immortal Regiment. In all, around 30 international leaders attended the parade, including heads of UNESCO, the UK was represented by the grandson of World War II leader British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Nicholas Soames. A number of World War II veterans from the US and UK were present at the victory day celebrations as private attendees. Three days after the Victory Day parade, US secretary of state John Kerry laid a wreath at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Sochi with Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov.
Also, several vehicles that drove through the Red Square in the 1945 Victory Parade are being readied for their drivepast in other major Russian cities. Some of the big parades featured an air fly past for the first time, beginning in November/December 2014, preparations for the parade were well attended at the unit level. Individual unit practices were held in the military installations for all the participating units, and by March 2015. Before the first parade dry run, there was the first practice drivepast of the estimated 200 mobile column vehicles in attendance this year, the first parade practice run on 3 April 2015 kicked off officially the preparation for the big parade, despite the snowy weather that day. This was followed by the first test run of the flypast column in the Alabino training grounds on 9 April, with the more than 150 aircraft taking part in that first run-through of the flypast segment. The unit marching for this comes from the ranks of the Kuban Cossacks. The 2nd dry run for the flypast was done on 21 April, Gen.
Salyukov leading the marchers on Red Square and General of the Army Shoygu inspecting, just as they would be doing in the actual parade in 2 days time. All of them are open to the public, with the 7 May final practice run being open for war veterans. At the same time, final practice runs are being made for joining the parades on 9 May in 26 other major cities in Russia plus 50 other towns. During the 7 May general practice run one of the T-14 Armata tanks stopped in the middle of the square because of drivers mistake, there was one incident with a T-15 APC which could drive on the platform only after the second attempt. All the 145 aircraft taking part in the flypast took their practice run on 5 May that drew a great reception from the crowds in Red Square, Manege Square and Tver Street that watched the dry run. Bold indicates first appearance, italic indicates multiple appearances and italic indicate returning appearance, all indicated unless otherwise noted
2000 Moscow Victory Day Parade
The Moscow Victory Day Parade of 2000 was held on 9 May 2000 to commemorate the 55th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The parade marks the Soviet Unions victory in the Great Patriotic War, the parade was commanded by Colonel General Ivan E Puzanov, Commander of the Moscow Military District, and reviewed by Marshal of the Russian Federation Igor Sergeyev, Minister of Defence. The historical part of the parade was commanded by the former Moscow Military District commander General of the army Vladimir Govorov, a speech was made by the newly elected president Vladimir Putin. This parade was the last to feature the old national anthem of Russia and these were followed by veterans of the Baltic and Black Sea Fleets of the Soviet Union. Armed Forces of the Russian Federation Border Guard Service of Russia Troops of the Ministry for Internal Affairs Watch the entire parade here, https, //www. youtube. com/watch. v=h0vgIoBXrks
The Russian Knights is an aerobatic demonstration team of the Russian Air Force. The team now performs with four Su-27Ps and two Su-27UBs, the Kubinka air force base located 60 km west of Moscow is well known both in Russia and abroad. For years, it has known as the Air Force installation used for demonstrating advanced combat aircraft to national. Nowadays, Kubinka AFB is known as the best aerobatics school where the Russian Knights and Swifts aerobatics teams are stationed, Kubinka is a major base of the Russian Air Force in the Moscow region. The cause of the crash is attributed to a misinterpretation of approach-pattern instructions, on August 16,2009, two Su-27s rehearsing acrobatic maneuvers collided near Moscow, killing one pilot and sending the jets crashing into nearby vacation homes. The dead pilot was identified as the Russian Knights commander, Guards Colonel Igor Tkachenko, on June 9,2016, one Su-27 pilot was killed near Moscow as he failed to eject, trying to save homes
Moscow Oblast, or Podmoskovye, is a federal subject of Russia. With a population of 7,095,120 living in an area of 44,300 square kilometers, the oblast has no official administrative center, its public authorities are located in Moscow and across other locations in the oblast. In the center stands the city of Moscow, which is a separate federal subject in its own right. The oblast is highly industrialized, with its main branches being metallurgy, oil refining, and mechanical engineering, energy. The oblast is flat, with some hills with the height of about 160 meters in the western. The western and northern parts of the oblast contain the Moscow Uplands and their average height peaks at about 300 meters near Dmitrov and the upper point of 310 meters lies near the village of Shapkino in Mozhaysky District. The northern part of the Moscow Uplands is steeper than the southern part, the uplands contain lakes of glacial origin, such as Lakes Nerskoye and Krugloye. To the north of the Moscow Uplands lies the alluvial Verhnevolzhsk Depression, It is marshy, to the south stretches a hilly area of the Moskvoretsko-Oksk plain.
Its greatest height of 254 meters lies in the area of Tyoply Stan, the plain has clearly defined river valleys, especially in the south parts, and occasional karst relief, mostly in Serpukhovsky District. In the extreme south, after the Oka River, lies the Central Russian Upland and it contains numerous gullies and ravines and has average height above 200 m with the maximum of 236 m near Pushchino. Most of the part of Moscow Oblast is taken by the vast Meshchera Lowlands with much wetland in their eastern part. Their highest hill peaks at 214 meters but the heights are 120–150 meters. Most lakes of the lowlands, such as Lakes Chyornoye and Svyatoye, are of glacial origin, here lies the lowest natural elevation of the region, the water level of Oka River at 97 meters. Moscow Oblast is located in the part of the East European craton. Like all cratons, the latter is composed of the crystalline basement, the basement consists of Archaean and Proterozoic rocks and the cover is deposited in the Palaeozoic and Cenozoic eras.
The lowest depth of the basement is to the south of Serebryanye Prudy, in the south area of the oblast. Tertiary deposits are almost absent within the oblast, significantly more abundant are deposits of the Carboniferous and Jurassic periods. In the Cretaceous period, a sea was covering Moscow Oblast, as evidenced by phosphate deposits, Cretaceous sediments are most common in the north of the oblast
2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade
The Moscow Victory Day Parade of 2010 was held on 9 May 2010 to commemorate the 65th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945. The parade marks the Soviet Unions victory in the Great Patriotic War, taking part for the first time were the Yakovlev Yak-130 jet trainer aircraft and the Mil Mi-26 heavy helicopter. The mobile ICBM Topol-M missile, that first appeared at the 2009 parade, was here again for the second consecutive year. The 2010 Parade marked the first time that foreign and Commonwealth of Independent States soldiers joined Russian forces on Red Square for the parade, battalions from the CIS included Armenia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova and Ukraine among them. Upon request from the government of Turkmenistan, the contingent from Turkmenistan was led by an officer riding on horseback, Poland was represented by the Representative Battalion of the Polish Armed Forces. The United States was represented by the 2nd Battalion of the 18th Infantry Regiment, France was represented by pilots and aircraft from the Normandie-Niemen Air Regiment.
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev called the inclusion of troops in the parade recognition of their common victory in World War II. The inclusion of troops in the parade was not without controversy. The Communist Party of the Russian Federation held a May Day rally in Moscow, a poll run by the Levada Center saw 20 percent of respondents disapproving of the presence of foreign troops, with 8 percent being strongly opposed. Only the victorious are going, what will the defeated do there, king Michael of Romania, one of the last heads of state alive from World War II, was invited by Russian president Medvedev to attend the ceremony. German Chancellor Angela Merkel confirmed her attendance on 30 April, as did Acting President of Poland Bronisław Komorowski, chinese President Hu Jintao confirmed his attendance at the parade on 3 May. The following day Slovak President Ivan Gašparovičs attendance was confirmed, on 8 May Sarkozy and Berlusconi announced that they wouldnt be attending the parade in Moscow, so that they could tackle the European sovereign debt crisis.
Both the United Kingdom and the United States had planned to send high-profile representatives, according to The Guardian, both figures were rejected by Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, however, in what both countries perceived as a diplomatic snub. The UK and US were instead represented by their ambassadors to Russia, Dame Anne Pringle, the event began with the display of the flag of Russia and the Victory Banner. At 10, 14am, Serdyukov reported to Supreme Commander-in-Chief, and Russian President, after this President Medvedev made a speech in which he stated, Sixty-five years ago Nazism was vanquished. The machine that was wiping out whole nations was stopped, peace returned to our country and to Europe as a whole. An end was put to the ideology that was destroying the fundamentals of civilisation, Medvedev emphasised the role the Soviet Union played in the war, bearing the brunt of Nazi attacks, in which some three-quarters of their military forces participated. Some 10,500 thousand troops marched, and approximately 1,000 troops from the Commonwealth of Independent States, the United Kingdom and the United States marched
Ryazan is a city and the administrative center of Ryazan Oblast, located on the Oka River 196 kilometers southeast of Moscow. It is argued that the Ryazan kremlin was founded in 800, by Slavic settlers, initially it was built of wood, gradually replaced by masonry. The oldest preserved part of the dates back to the 12th century. However, the first written mention of the city, under the name of Pereslavl, at that time, the city was part of the independent Principality of Ryazan, which had existed since 1078 and which was centered on the old city of Ryazan. The first ruler of Ryazan was supposedly Yaroslav Sviatoslavich, Prince of Ryazan, by the end of the 12th century, the capital of Duchy was burnt several times by the armies of Suzdal. Ryazan was the first Russian city to be sacked by the Mongol horde of Batu Khan, on December 21,1237, it was thoroughly devastated and never fully recovered. As result of the sack, the seat of the principality was moved about 55 kilometers to the town of Pereslavl-Ryazansky, the site of the old capital now carries the name of Staraya Ryazan, close to Spassk-Ryazansky.
Late in the 13th century, the Princes of Ryazan moved their capital to Pereslavl, the principality was finally incorporated into that of Moscow in 1521. Immediately after World War II, rapid development of the city began, Ryazan became a major industrial and military center of the European part of Russia. Massive factories were constructed in the city, occupying the urban areas. Leading areas of industry are heavy and non-ferrous metallurgy, oil refining and machine-tool industry, mechanical engineering, more than half of the plants produce for export. Several positioned MANPADS protect the urban sky, besides the Airborne School, Ryazan hosts the Automobile School and Institute of Communications, a regiment of railway troops, airbase strategic bombers, and a training center in Diaghilev. Ryazan developed particularly rapidly while Nadezhda Nikolaevna Chumakova served as Chair of the Council of Peoples Deputies of Ryazan and Ryazan mayor, under Chumakova, the citys population increased more than seven times, from 72 to 520 thousand people.
Chumakova oversaw the construction of social and cultural amenities, more than 20 urban areas, landscaping became a fundamental strategy for the development of the city at that time. Ryazan repeatedly won recognition among the cities of the Soviet Union for its landscaping, during her 26 years in office, Nadezhda Chumakova often accepted awards of the Red Banner of the USSR on behalf of Ryazan. In September 1999, Ryazan became one of the involved in the Russian apartment bombings episode. In the Political system of Ryazan, the legislature, a city council is the Ryazan City Duma, kind of the lower house of the municipality - Youth Parliament, preparing draft legislative initiatives. Executive power in the city of Ryazan carried by the administration headed by the city manager, control over the activities of the authorities is administered by the Public Chamber of the city of Ryazan, work with youth involved in the headquarters of youth activists
National anthem of Russia
The State Anthem of the Russian Federation is the name of the official national anthem of Russia. Its musical composition and lyrics were adopted from the State Anthem of the Soviet Union, composed by Alexander Alexandrov, the Soviet anthem was used from 1944, replacing The Internationale with a more Sovietcentric and Russiacentric song. The anthem had no lyrics after 1956, due to the lyrics having references to former leader Joseph Stalin. New lyrics were introduced in 1977 by Mikhalkov with lyrics placing less emphasis on World War II, the Russian SFSR was the only republic of the USSR without its own anthem, although most republics within the federation did have anthems of their own. The government sponsored contests to create lyrics for the unpopular anthem, Glinkas anthem was replaced soon after Yeltsins successor as President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin, first took office on 7 May 2000. Yeltsin criticized Putin for supporting the reintroduction of the Soviet-era national anthem even though opinion polls showed that many Russians favored this decision, Public perception of the anthem is mixed among Russians.
The anthem reminds some of the best days of Russia and past sacrifices, the Russian government maintains that the anthem is a symbol of the unity of the people, and that it respects the past. A2009 poll showed that 56% of respondents felt proud when hearing the anthem, before Molitva russkikh was chosen as the national anthem of Imperial Russia in 1816, various church hymns and military marches were used to honor the country and the Tsars. Songs used include Grom pobedy, razdavaysya. and Kol slaven, Molitva russkikh was adopted around 1816, and used lyrics by Vasily Zhukovsky set to the music of the British anthem, God Save the King. Russias anthem was influenced by the anthems of France and the Netherlands, in 1833, Zhukovsky was asked to set lyrics to a musical composition by Prince Alexei Lvov called The Russian Peoples Prayer. Known more commonly as God Save the Tsar and it was well received by Nicholas I, who chose the song to be the next anthem of Imperial Russia. The song resembled a hymn, and its style was similar to that of other anthems used by European monarchs.
God Save the Tsar. was performed for the first time on 8 December 1833 and it was played at the Winter Palace on Christmas Day, by order of Nicholas I. Public singing of the anthem began at opera houses in 1834, God Save the Tsar. was used until the February Revolution, when the Russian monarchy was overthrown. Upon the overthrow, in March 1917, the Workers Marseillaise, the modifications Lavrov made to La Marseillaise included a change in meter from 2/2 to 4/4 and music harmonization to make it sound more Russian. It was used at meetings, welcoming ceremonies for diplomats. After the Bolsheviks overthrew the government in the 1917 October Revolution. Kots changed the grammatical tense of the song, to make it more decisive in nature, the first major use of the song was at the funeral of victims of the February Revolution in Petrograd
Russian Airborne Troops
The Russian Airborne Troops or VDV is a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. They are a force, on par with the Strategic Rocket Forces. The force was split after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, losing divisions to Belarus and Ukraine, Russian airborne forces have traditionally worn a blue beret and blue-striped telnyashka and are called desant from the French Descente. The first airborne forces parachute jump is dated to 2 August 1930, Airborne landing detachments were established after the initial 1930 experimental jump, but creation of larger units had to wait until 1932–33. On 11 December 1932, a Revolutionary Military Council order established an airborne brigade from the detachment in the Leningrad Military District. V. Two further airborne brigades and three regiments were created in 1936. In March and April 1941, five Airborne Corps were established on the basis of the existing 201st, 204th, 211th, 212th, and 214th Airborne Brigades. The number of Airborne Corps rose from five to ten in late 1941, the Soviet airborne forces were mostly used as foot infantry during the war.
Only a few small airborne drops were carried out in the first desperate days of Operation Barbarossa, in the vicinity of Kiev, Glantz writes, After the extensive airborne activity during the winter campaign of 1941–42, airborne forces underwent another major reorganization the following summer. Furthermore, the Stavka converted all ten airborne corps into guards rifle divisions to bolster Soviet forces in the south, nine of these divisions participated in the battles around Stalingrad, and one took part in the defense of the northern Caucasus region. The Stavka still foresaw the necessity of conducting actual airborne operations during the war, to have the Stavka created eight new airborne corps in the fall of 1942. Beginning in December 1942, these corps became ten guards airborne divisions, the new guards airborne divisions trained in airborne techniques, and all personnel jumped three to ten times during training, though many were from jump towers. After the defeat of German forces at Kursk, the bulk of the airborne divisions joined in the pursuit of German forces to the Dnepr River, even as ten guards airborne divisions fought at the front, new airborne brigades formed in the rear areas.
In April and May 1943, twenty brigades formed and trained for airborne operations. Most of these brigades had become six new guards airborne divisions by September 1943, the Stavka however, earmarked three of these airborne brigades for use in an airborne operation to cross the Dnepr River, which was unsuccessful. David Glantz wrote in 1984, In August, the Stavka formed the 37th, 38th, by October, the newly formed corps had combined into a separate airborne army under Maj. Gen. I. I. However, because of the growing need for well-trained ground units, in December, separate airborne army the Stavka reorganized the separate airborne army into the 9th Guards Army of Col. Gen. V. V. Glagolev, and all divisions were renumbered as guards rifle divisions. As testimony to the nature of airborne-trained units, the Stavka held the 9th Guards Army out of defensive actions