The Ringbahn is a 37.5 km long railway line of the Berlin S-Bahn network in Germany, around the city centre. The circle route is made up of the parallel freight ring. S-Bahn service on the line is provided by lines S 42, carrying 400,000 passengers a day. Due to its distinctive shape, the line is referred to as Hundekopf; the Ring is structured by the east-west railway thoroughfare called the Stadtbahn, crossing the Ring in the west at Westkreuz and in the east at Ostkreuz into a Südring and a Nordring, by the north-south S-Bahn link crossing at Gesundbrunnen station in the north and both Schöneberg station and Südkreuz in the south into a Westring and an Ostring. These four sections served as tariff zones of the railway Berlin suburban fare structure before the previous world war. Today, the Ringbahn is the boundary of the "A" zone in the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg transport association's fare structure, the road traffic control zone for the low emissions established on 1 January 2008.
In 1851 the Königliche Bahnhofs-Verbindungsbahn was completed between the termini of some railroads terminating in Berlin: the Stettiner Bahnhof and the Anhalter Bahnhof, but to include the Schlesischer Bahnhof. It was laid in disrupting traffic and disturbing residents. In order to minimise disruption of traffic, trains ran at night, with the train bell being rung constantly. Plans were soon developed to build a ring line for freight, running outside the city limits. Funding for construction was possible only after the victory in the war with Austria of 1866; the Lower Silesia-March Railway Company was commissioned to construct and manage the line: construction began in 1867 and was completed in 1877. The first section opened on 17 July 1871 from Moabit through Gesundbrunnen, Central-Viehhof, Stralau-Rummelsburg and Schöneberg to Potsdamer ring station, an annex of Potsdamer station. From there, trains returned in the opposite direction; the line crossed the Anhalt Railway on bridges. With the opening of the section from Schöneberg through the still-independent city of Charlottenburg to Moabit on 15 November 1877, the ring was complete for freight and long distance trains, while the suburban trains running on the Ring would still visit and reverse at Potsdamer station in the city centre, turning north from the ring, running in parallel to the Berlin–Potsdam–Magdeburg Railway.
This section from the actual ring into the Potsdamer ring station became known as the Südringspitzkehre, reflecting the need for trains to reverse there to continue their trip around the ring. Passengers could change at the Kolonnenstraße station across the platform to continue to ride on the Ring without going all the way to the Potsdamer Ringbahnhof. From 1 January 1872, freight was carried on the line to freight yards separate from the passenger stations; the line was electrified in 1926. In 1930, ring line operation was combined with the Stadtbahn and suburban services as the Berlin S-Bahn. Since the trains were pulled by steam locomotives, they had to be refilled with water and coal and serviced at short intervals. After electrification, the management of the railway company wanted to spare the passengers the need to change at the Papestraße or Schöneberg stations to an well-filled train coming from the suburbs to reach the city centre. There were not the necessary rails for continuing on the Ring between Schöneberg and Papestraße stations.
The Reichsbahn planned to replace the level crossings between the Ring and Südringspitzkehre by over- and underpasses together with the building of the north-south S-Bahn line in the late 1930s, but this was omitted as one of many planned changes after the proclamation of Hitler's Welthauptstadt Germania on 30 January 1937. In World War II, the Potsdamer and Anhalter stations were bombed. From 1944 until the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, S-Bahn trains ran over the direct line between Papestraße and Schöneberg opened in 1933, making a complete circle. With the building of the Wall, the line was broken in two places: In West Berlin a separate line on a three-quarter ring ran between Gesundbrunnen and Sonnenallee or Köllnische Heide. In East Berlin the remaining section ran between Schönhauser Allee and Treptower Park, on the suburban lines to Bernau and Königs Wusterhausen or Schönefeld Airport; the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961 prevented continuous operation, after which passenger numbers on the West Berlin side, between Gesundbrunnen and Sonnenallee, declined.
This was caused by a politically motivated call for a boycott, because revenue from the West Berlin S-Bahn, operated by East German railways, supported the East German government. The East Berlin section, from Schönhauser Allee to Treptower Park, remained in operation as it formed part of a major north-south tangent. After the 1980 S-Bahn strike, service on the western part of the ring was suspended for about 13 years. On 9 January 1984, a treaty between East Germany and the West Berlin Senate came into force and turned over responsibility for operation of the S-Bahn in West Berlin to
Koblenz Hauptbahnhof is a railway station in the city of Koblenz in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. It is the focal point of rail transport in the Rhine-Moselle-Lahn area, it is a through station in southern Koblenz built below Fort Großfürst Konstantin and opened in 1902 in the Neustadt, built after the demolition of the city walls in 1890. The station replaced two former stations on the Left Rhine railway, which were only 900 m apart, the former Moselle line station. Koblenz-Stadtmitte station opened in April 2011 in the old centre of Koblenz. Koblenz Hauptbahnhof is on the West Rhine Railway and connects to the Moselle line, the East Rhine Railway and to the Lahn Valley Railway, it is used daily by visitors. In the station forecourt are a pavilion. Since 2002, the station has been part of the Upper Middle Rhine Valley UNESCO World Heritage site; the Bonn-Cologne Railway Company opened its line between Cologne and Bonn in 1844, extended it to Rolandseck in 1856. This company was taken over by the Rhenish Railway Company in 1857, which extended the line to Koblenz in 1858.
On 11 November 1858, the first train, hauled by the locomotive Windsbraut ran over the newly built Moselle railway bridge on the Left Rhine line to a provisional station in the street of Fischelstraße. The construction of the bridge and the line was made possible by the first demolition of the Prussian city walls. In 1859, the route was extended from Koblenz to Bingerbrück and the Rhenish station was expanded. In 1864 the Pfaffendorf Bridge was opened over the Rhine in Koblenz, it was built for trains only, connecting the Left and the Right Rhine lines. The last trains crossed the Pfaffendorf Bridge at the beginning of the First World War in August 1914. In October 1878 the Güls railway bridge was inaugurated on the Moselle line and a year this was followed by the completion of the Horchheim rail bridge over the Rhine. In 1879, Moselle line was put into operation and its station was opened below Fort Constantin, near the modern Hauptbahnhof; this line completed the expansion of the Koblenz rail network and was a section of the strategic railway line between Berlin and Metz, the so-called Cannons Railway.
The Prussian fortifications of Koblenz were abandoned and torn down from 1890. The built up area of the city spread outside the small area inside the old walls for the first time. South of the walls a new urban area grew up along with the southern suburbs; the maintenance of two stations proved to be complicated, because through trains had to stop twice within 900 m and passengers coming from Trier and wanting to travel on the right Rhine line to the north had to take a horse-drawn cab or walk between the Moselle and the Rhenish station. Thus demands for a central station became louder and planning started on the construction of a new and larger passenger station; the small Rhenish station in Fischelstraße was abandoned and a magnificent new station was built in the new southern suburbs near the Moselle station from 1899 to 1902 to a design by Fritz Klingholz. The Central Station, as it was called at that time, was opened on 1 May 1902; the through station was built like a palace with central and side pavilions, although for functional reasons it was not symmetrical.
The facades were made of tuff and yellow sandstone in a neo-baroque style. The station building has a length of 96 m. A hall was built over the platforms; the northern wing of the royal room was richly decorated and had direct access via a flight of stairs to platform 1, on which the Emperor arrived in Koblenz in 1905. The station building and the railway tracks were damaged in air raids during the Second World War. Reconstruction began in 1946; the station lost the hall structure over its tower building. The reconstructions were different from the original buildings built and without ornamentation. Functional roofs were installed over the platforms. In 1957 the Rhine line was electrified. In 1967 a new railway station signal box was opened and in 1977 the lobby was renovated; the travel centre was opened in 1984. In 1998 renovation of the station began and it is still continuing. Koblenz station has a total of ten platform tracks on four platforms, seven of which are through-tracks and three are terminal tracks.
Trains on the Left Rhine line from the north can use all tracks, while Mosel line trains only use the three western tracks. Trains on the Left Rhine line from the south can use only the eastern tracks, while Lahn Valley Railway and Right Rhine line trains can use all tracks. In long-distance traffic, Koblenz is served by Intercity-Express and EuroCity trains, thus every major city in Germany can be reached directly from Koblenz. Regional services consist of Regional-Express and Regionalbahn trains to cities within 200 kilometres towards Saarbrücken and the Ruhr, Emmerich / Wesel and Mainz-Frankfurt am Main. DB Regio Südwest operates trains from Koblenz via the Lahn Valley Railway to Limburg and and to Andernach and Mayen Ost; the trans regio company operates trains on the Left Rhine line from Cologne to Koblenz, from Koblenz to Mainz. Here is an overview of all regional services, stopping in Koblenz. Only 3 of the 11 lines continue through the station, the VIAS-operated RheingauLinie, the trans regio-operated Mittelrheinbahn and the DB Regio-operated Lahn-Eifel-Bahn.
Energieversorgung Mittelrhein GmbH, ed.. Geschichte de
Rostock Hauptbahnhof Rostock Central Station, is the main railway station in the German city of Rostock. It is situated well to the south of the city centre; the station was opened in 1886 by the Deutsch-Nordischer Lloyd, operating a combined railway/ferry line to Nykøbing Falster in Denmark. The station was expanded in 1913 and 1922, but was damaged in World War II; the importance of the traditional route to Hamburg and Copenhagen diminished after the post-World War II division of Germany, with long-distance services instead focusing on cities within the German Democratic Republic. Electrification reached the station in 1985. After German reunification, the station was extensively modernised. Today's station was opened in 1886 by the Deutsch-Nordische-Lloyd Railway Company as the Lloyd-Bahnhof; the company operated the Lloyd Railway on the Neustrelitz–Rostock–Warnemünde route and the subsequent mail steamer connection to Nykøbing Falster. In 1894, the Lloyd Railway was acquired by the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and incorporated in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg Friedrich-Franz Railway, which owned a large station in Rostock.
The parallel operation of passenger and freight traffic proved to be inefficient. In 1896, the station of the Lloyd Railway was assigned to handle most of the movement of passengers and was converted into the Central-Bahnhof and after the turn of the 20th century it was renamed Rostock Hauptbahnhof. With the establishment of the train ferry between Warnemünde and Gedser in 1903, long-distance express trains between Berlin and Copenhagen stopped at the station. After the reconstruction of the approach of the line towards Stralsund, trains to and from Stralsund no longer stopped at the station of the Friedrich-Franz Railway, which subsequently became the Rostock freight yard. In 1913, station the entrance hall was redeveloped with Art Nouveau elements and small balustrades to a design by Paul Korff; the platform facilities were extended in 1922 to include two platform tracks and the station subway was extended accordingly. The station was damaged by bombing in the Second World War. There was a temporary reconstruction.
The importance of Rostock and the station increased as a result of the division of Germany. Passenger numbers rose especially after the establishment of new industrial enterprises and residential areas in the north-west of the city; the importance of north–south long-distance connections to Dresden and Berlin grew. Direct trains were established to Budapest. Rostock's "traditional" long-distance connections to Hamburg and Copenhagen were limited after the division of German in 1949. Improvisation was required for the expansion of the station, while avoiding another move in its location. More platforms were built to cope with the increasing ridership. An exit was built on the station subway towards the south of the city; the station was connected to the electrified network of Deutsche Reichsbahn in 1985. There was a shift of traffic flows with the reunification of Germany. On the one hand, traffic moved from the railways to the road and, on the other hand, the importance of connections to Hamburg and Kiel grew strongly.
The direct long-distance connections to Dresden and Leipzig were abandoned up to the mid-1990s and the connection to Copenhagen was abandoned with the closing of the rail ferry away to Gedser. The Rostock–Berlin connection became a regional service. Due to the limited capacity of the station there were plans in the East German period for a renovation of the station or the building of a new central station. In the general transport plan of the 1960s for the city, a new through station was provided near the suburb of Brinckmansdorf where trains from Stralsund could continue towards the south without reversing. Freight traffic would have been separated from passenger traffic; the project was not realized. Planning around 1980 provided for the demolition of the station building, built between the tracks to make room for island platforms. A new platform would have been built on the north side of the station; the entrance would have stayed there, but the main entrance would have moved to the south side of the station, where a new station building was planned.
During the renovation of the station from 1999 to 2003, somewhat similar ideas were realized. The station building on the north side was rebuilt incorporating the old entrance hall. A new subterranean level was added with a small southern entrance building; the station building at the centre of the tracks was demolished except for a small part. A direct connection from long-distance and regional service to the tramway is now possible on two levels under the tracks. A new island platform was built for the S-Bahn and new platform numbering was introduced; the station has been served by a pair of Intercity-Express services since 11 June 2007. Since the renovation in the early 21st century, the station has a main entrance building on the north side of the railway tracks and a smaller entrance building on the south side; the platforms with eleven platform tracks are reached via a subterranean level between the two entrance buildings. The Rostock tram station with two platforms is on a second subterranean level.
The platforms are arranged as follows: south-west of the main station building is an island platform with tracks 1 and 2, which are used by the trains of the Rostock S-Bahn. This is followed by a wide island platform served by trains on through tracks 3 on the northeast s
Eberswalde Hauptbahnhof is the most important and now the only remaining station in the city of Eberswalde in the German state of Brandenburg. It was opened in the summer of 1842 outside the city limits on the Berlin–Szczecin railway; the city fathers of Eberswalde did not want a modern railway in their city, so the station was built three kilometres west of the city centre in a wooded area where the Westend district is today. Eberswalde was one of the first cities in Germany to be connected by rail. Seven years after the first German railway line was opened between Nuremberg and Fürth, it was still unusual for German cities to be connected to the new railway networks, it soon became clear that the development of the railway line was important for the supply of the city. In the following years the city grew to the west towards the station, whose buildings were designed by F. Neuhaus. In 1867, a wooden bridge was built over the tracks. On 1 May 1844 the following buildings and facilities were present at Eberswalde station: entrance building, including four official residences a two stall engine shed facility for supplying water and coke to locomotives carriage and freight sheds coke and salt shed stables restaurantEberswalde has been a junction since 1866, when a line to Wriezen was opened.
The station was extended between 1866 and 1867. In 1873, a roundhouse was built with eight stalls and the old two-stall engine shed was demolished. On 7 January 1878, the repair shop of the Berlin-Stettin Railway Company, was opened. Near the station, a line towards Joachimsthal and Templin was opened in 1898, starting from a junction at the nearby station of Britz on the Berlin–Szczecin line. Between 1906 and 1910, the station was remodelled extensively for the first time, it received a pedestrian tunnel, a large lobby and several restaurants. In the following decades Eberswalde was a popular destination for Berliners and the station restaurants were well attended; because of the construction of the Westend district in 1904, a railway bridge was built in 1910 to replace the old wooden bridge. A trolley bus line operated for a few months in 1901. From 1910 to 1940 an electric tramway operated from Eberswalde Marktplatz to the station forecourt. In 1940 the tramway was converted into a trolley bus line, now the oldest existing trolley bus line in Germany.
Until about 2004, Eberswalde Station remained in its 1910 state, few improvements had taken place. The station facilities were in a poor condition, so a complete reconstruction was carried out, which involved moving the tunnel to the north and the platforms to the south; the Eberswalde railway station bridge was replaced by a new structure. Only the main building of the former station is preserved. An old mechanical destination indicator, protected as a monument, has been returned to the platform; the station is served by the following service: Intercity-Express services Stralsund - Eberswalde - Berlin - Erfurt - Frankfurt Intercity-Express services Stralsund - Eberswalde - Berlin - Leipzig - Jena - Nuremberg - Munich Intercity services Binz - Stralsund - Eberswalde - Berlin - Hanover - Dortmund - Essen - Duisburg - Düsseldorf - Cologne Regional services RE 3 Stralsund - Greifswald - Pasewalk - Angermünde - Berlin - Ludwigsfelde - Jüterbog - Falkenberg - Elsterwerda Regional services RE 3 Schwedt - Angermünde - Berlin - Ludwigsfelde - Jüterbog - Lutherstadt Wittenberg Local services RB 24 Senftenberg - Lübben - Königs Wusterhausen - Berlin - Bernau - Eberswalde Local services RB 60 Eberswalde - Werbig - Frakfurt Local services RB 63 Eberswalde - Joachimsthal Local services RE 66 Berlin - Bernau - Eberswalde - Angermunde - Szczecin Krüger, Ronald.
Stadtverkehr Eberswalde. "Gleislose Bahn" – Straßenbahn – Obus. Berlin: GVE. ISBN 3-89218-058-X. Grusenick, Dieter. Die Berlin-Stettiner Eisenbahn. Transpress. ISBN 3-344-71046-X
German railway station categories
About 5,400 railway stations in Germany that are owned and operated by the Deutsche Bahn subsidiary DB Station&Service are assigned into seven categories, denoting the service level available at the station. Their assignment into the categories influences the amount of money railway companies need to pay to DB Station&Service for using the facilities at the stations; the 21 stations in Category 1 are considered traffic hubs. They are permanently staffed and carry all sorts of railway-related facilities as well as featuring a shopping mall in the station. Most of these stations are the central stations of large cities with 500,000 inhabitants and above, though some in smaller cities, like Karlsruhe Hauptbahnhof, are regarded as important because they are at the intersection of important railway lines. Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne, the four biggest cities in Germany, have more than one Category 1 station. Included in this category are the following stations: Berlin-Gesundbrunnen station Berlin Hauptbahnhof Berlin Ostbahnhof Berlin Südkreuz Dortmund Hauptbahnhof Dresden Hauptbahnhof Duisburg Hauptbahnhof Düsseldorf Hauptbahnhof Essen Hauptbahnhof Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof Hamburg-Altona station Hamburg Hauptbahnhof Hannover Hauptbahnhof Karlsruhe Hauptbahnhof Köln Hauptbahnhof Köln Messe/Deutz station Leipzig Hauptbahnhof München Hauptbahnhof München Ost Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof Most of the about 87 stations in Category 2 are either important junctions of long-distance traffic or offer connections to large airports.
InterCity and EuroCity trains call at these stations. All railway-related services, like a ticket hall and a service desk, are present at the station and the station is staffed during the usual times of traffic; the service is similar to Category 1 stations. Category 2 stations, by state, are: Baden-Württemberg: Bietigheim-Bissingen, Freiburg Hbf, Heidelberg Hbf, Heilbronn Hbf, Mannheim Hbf, Plochingen, Singen, Tübingen Hbf, Ulm Hbf Bavaria: Aschaffenburg Hbf, Augsburg Hbf, Bamberg, Fürth Hauptbahnhof, Ingolstadt Hbf, Landshut, München-Pasing, Regensburg Hbf, Rosenheim, Würzburg Hbf Berlin: Friedrichstraße, Potsdamer Platz, Wannsee, Zoologischer Garten Brandenburg: Cottbus, Potsdam Hbf Bremen: Bremen Hbf Hamburg: Hamburg Dammtor, Hamburg-Harburg Hesse: Darmstadt Hbf, Frankfurt Süd, Gießen, Hanau Hbf, Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe, Kassel Hbf, Wiesbaden Hbf Lower Saxony: Braunschweig Hbf, Göttingen, Hildesheim Hbf, Lüneburg, Oldenburg Hbf, Osnabrück Hbf, Wolfsburg Hbf Mecklenburg-Vorpommern: Rostock Hbf North Rhine-Westphalia: Aachen Hauptbahnhof, Bielefeld Hbf, Bochum Hbf, Bonn Hbf, Düsseldorf Flughafen, Gelsenkirchen Hbf, Hagen Hbf, Herford, Mönchengladbach Hbf, Münster Hbf, Neuss Hbf, Oberhausen Hbf, Solingen Hbf, Wuppertal Hbf Rhineland-Palatinate: Kaiserslautern Hbf, Koblenz Hbf, Ludwigshafen Hbf, Mainz Hbf, Neustadt Hbf, Trier Hbf, Worms Hbf Saarland: Saarbrücken Hbf Saxony: Chemnitz Hbf, Dresden-Neustadt Saxony-Anhalt: Halle Hbf, Magdeburg Hbf Schleswig-Holstein: Bad Oldesloe, Kiel Hbf, Lübeck Hbf, Neumünster Thuringia: Erfurt Hbf, Weimar 239 stations belong to Category 3.
These stations will feature a station hall where travellers can buy tickets and groceries, but these stations are not permanently staffed. They are main stations of cities with about 50,000 inhabitants. Examples are Görlitz station, Lichtenfels, Passau Hbf, Mülheim Hbf. Category 4 includes around 630 stations. Most of these stations have frequent connections with RegionalBahn trains, their service level is comparable to a bus station and they offer services to commuters. This category includes stations situated in major cities that see high usage of S-Bahn or RE/RB services. Examples are Balingen, Montabaur and Munich's S-Bahn stop Isartor. 1070 stations make up Category 5. These stations either belong to outlying suburban areas of major cities, their inventory is "vandal-proofed" due to the lower number of passengers. They only have local trains calling at the station. Examples are Sigmaringen, Köln-Holweide, Bremerhaven-Lehe. Category 6 includes over 2500 stations; these stations have low passenger numbers and only the most basic equipment needed is present at the station.
Examples of stations in this category are Bad Wimpfen and Hagen-Vorhalle. Most of the 870 stations in category 7, the lowest, are in rural areas; these stops, which have no more than one platform, are served by certain local trains only. Examples of stations belonging to this category are Beuron. "Die sieben Bahnhofskategorien". DB Station&Service AG. Archived from the original on 2013-04-17. Retrieved 2013-04-28. "Stationspreisliste 2019". DB Station&Service. 17 July 2018. Retrieved 10 November 2018
Neustrelitz Hauptbahnhof is a railway station in the city of Neustrelitz, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. The station lies on the Stralsund-Neubrandenburg railway, Neustrelitz–Warnemünde railway and Wittenberge–Strasburg railway; the train services are operated by Ostseeland Verkehr and Ostdeutsche Eisenbahn. Next to the main station, a separate station was built for the private railway from the Prussian border at Buschhof to Strasburg, now called Neustrelitz Süd, its entrance building and several outbuildings to the station have heritage protection. The station is located east of central Neustrelitz at kilometer 98.5 of the Berlin Northern Railway. The line from Berlin reaches Neustrelitz from the south and, north of the station, it turns to the east; the Neustrelitz–Warnemünde railway begins at the station and runs to the northwest. Neustrelitz Süd station on the Wittenberge–Strasburg railway is located east of the station; this line comes from the west, passes under the Northern Railway south of the station and first runs parallel with the Northern Railway.
In passenger transport, the Neustrelitz Süd station has no longer been used since the tracks from the direction of Mirow were diverted so that trains of this line could start from Neustrelitz Hbf. The station was called only Neustrelitz. With the commissioning of a separate station for the private railway, it was called Neustrelitz Staatsbahnhof from 1908 and Neustrelitz Reichsbahnhof from 1922. Since 15 June 1941, the station has been called Neustrelitz Hauptbahnhof. Plans for a railway line from Berlin to Stralsund via Neustrelitz the location of the court of the Mecklenburg-Strelitz, had been around since the 1850s. In 1853, the Prussian king Frederick William IV of Prussia approved a private railway line between these cities. However, the project failed because of the lack of state support. In the 1860s, these plans were revived and the Berlin Northern Railway Company was incorporated. Construction work began on the line in the spring of 1872 and on the Mecklenburg section in 1873. In 1875, the shares of the company were taken over by the Prussian government and the line from Berlin via Neustrelitz to Neubrandenburg was opened on 10 July 1877.
The line in Mecklenburg was administered by the Prussian state railways. Neustrelitz station building was built in a stately style since the city was the residence of the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Neustrelitz station became a railway junction in In 1886, when the Lloyd Railway was opened from Neustrelitz to Warnemünde. Adequate areas had been provided during the construction of the station for this purpose. Due to austerity measures, the extensions of the station for the new line were kept to a minimum. A bay platform was attached to the main platform and some transfer tracks and sidings were built. A combined residential and commercial building was built on Schwarzen Weg as the only building of the Lloyd Railway in Neustrelitz. After the nationalisation of the Mecklenburg railways and the introduction of through express trains on the Lloyd Railway from Berlin to Copenhagen there were some extensions of the railway tracks; the tracks of the Lloyd Railway were managed by the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg Friedrich-Franz Railway, while the Northern Railway was managed by the railway division of the Royal Prussian Railway in Schwerin.
After the establishment of Deutsche Reichsbahn, the border between two division ran through the station. On 18 May 1890, the Mecklenburg Friedrich-Franz Railway opened its line from Neustrelitz to Mirow. In 1895, the line was extended to the Prussian border at Buschhof where it connected with the Prussian line from Perleberg via Wittstock; the Wittenberge–Strasburg railway of the MFFE was opened in 1890 from Blankensee on the Northern Railway towards Strasburg. In 1907, the MFFE established its own line between Neustrelitz and Blankensee parallel to the Northern Railway. While the MFEE had used state railway stations in both places, it now built separate stations. In Neustrelitz, the MFEE built its own station next to the state station in Neustrelitz, called Neustrelitz Süd. In 1910, the MFEE opened the Thurow–Feldberg railway, which branched off its line to Strasburg in Thurow; the line was served by trains always running to and from Neustrelitz. The station building was destroyed during the Second World War and only the ground floor remained and it was fitted with a temporary roof.
After the war, the line from Thurow to Strasburg owned by the MFWE, was dismantled, but the line to Feldberg remained. The track of the Lloyd Railway towards Rostock was dismantled from Neustrelitz to Plaaz as reparations. However, in the late 1950s, it became clear; the new port of Rostock in particular required good links for freight trains. The reconstruction of the line began in 1958 and it was realigned for long sections; the line was relocated in the Neustrelitz area. While the original line branched off to the northwest at the northern end of the station, the new route follows the Northern Railway and only turns to the northwest; the line between Lalendorf Neustrelitz was opened as a branch line on 31 March 1961 and it was reclassified as a single-track main line on 30 May 1964. With the change of traffic to diesel-haulage from
Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof
Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof abbreviated as Frankfurt Hbf and sometimes translated as Frankfurt central station, is the busiest railway station in Frankfurt, Germany. The affix "Main" comes from the city's full name, Frankfurt am Main; because of its location in the middle of Germany and usage as a hub for long and short distance travelling, Deutsche Bahn refers to it as the most important station in Germany. In the late 19th century, three stations connected Frankfurt to the west and south, the Taunus station for the Taunusbahn, connecting Frankfurt to Wiesbaden Main-Neckar-station for the Main-Neckar-Eisenbahn to Darmstadt and Mannheim ) Main-Weser station for the Main-Weser-Bahn to Kassel and from 1860 on used by the Frankfurt-Bad Homburger Eisenbahn; those three stations were placed beside each other on the Gallustor. This situation was considered impracticable due to rising passenger figures in the 19th century, so plans were laid out as early as 1866. At first, a large scale station with up to 34 platforms was considered the number got reduced to 18.
Post and baggage handlings had their own underground facilities, the city council demanded the station to be moved further away from the city. In the end, in 1881, the German architect Hermann Eggert won the design contest for the station hall, his runner-up in the contest, Johann Wilhelm Schwedler was made chief engineer for the steel-related works; the new station was placed about 1 km to the west of the first three stations. The platforms were covered by three iron-and-glass halls; the station was built by the contractor Philipp Holzmann with construction starting in 1883. The Central-Bahnhof Frankfurt was opened on 18 August 1888. Right on the evening of the opening day, a train ran over the buffer stop and the locomotive was damaged. Over the course of the next few years, the area to the east of the new station, the Bahnhofsviertel, was built; until the completion of Leipzig Hauptbahnhof in 1915, Frankfurt station was the largest in Europe. As of today, the 24 platforms with 26 tracks on one level make it the world's largest one-level railway hall.
In 1924 two neoclassical halls were added on each side of the main hall, increasing the number of platforms to 24. During World War II, the building was damaged. In 1956 the station was electrified. One year Europe's then-largest signal box was commissioned, having been built in a contemporary style of the time has now become a listed building. Starting with the construction of the B-Tunnel for the Frankfurt U-Bahn facilities in 1971, a subterranean level was added in front of the main building, featuring the city's first public escalator and including a large shopping mall, one station each for the U-Bahn and S-Bahn trains, an air raid shelter and a public car park; the subterranean stations were opened in 1978 and were built in the cut and cover method, which involved the demolition of the second northern hall and rebuilding it after the stations were completed. Between 2002 and 2006, the roof construction, a listed building, was renovated; this involved the exchange of aged steel girders, reinstallation of windows that were replaced by panels after World War II and a general clean-up of the hall construction.
The operational part of the station is being remodeled as well. This was vital to improve capacity of the station; the new signal box became operational in late 2005 and will allow faster speeds into the station after the remodelling of the tracks. The appearance of the station is divided into vestibule. Dominant in those parts built in 1888 are Neo-Renaissance features, the outer two halls, added in 1924 follow the style of neoclassicism; the eastern façade of the vestibule features a large clock with two symbolic statues for day and night. Above the clock, the word Hauptbahnhof and the Deutsche Bahn logo are situated; the roof of the front hall carries a monumental statue of Atlas supporting the World on his shoulders, in this case assisted by two allegorical figures representing Iron and Steam. The station's terminal layout has posed some unique problems since the late 20th century, since all trains have to change directions and reverse out of the station to continue on to their destination.
This causes long turn-around times and places the passengers in the opposite direction of where they had been sitting. There have been several attempts to change this; the last project, called Frankfurt 21, was to put the whole station underground, connect it with tunnels to the east, so avoid the disadvantages of the terminal layout. This would be financed by selling the air rights over the area now used for tracks as building ground for skyscraper, but this soon proved unrealistic, the project was abandoned. Frankfurt is the busiest in Germany; as for long-distance traffic, the station profits from its location in the heart of Europe. To ease the strain on the Hauptbahnhof, some ICE lines now call at Frankfurt Airport station and at Frankfurt Süd instead of Hauptbhanhof. There are long-distance night trains from Frankfurt, e.g. to Copenhagen, Prague, Zurich and Rome. With regard to regional traffic, Frankfurt Hbf is the main hub in the RMV network, offering connections to Koblenz, Kassel, Stockheim, Fulda, Gießen, Aschaffenburg, Würzb