The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian and east of the antimeridian. The other half is called the Eastern Hemisphere; the Western Hemisphere consists of the Americas, the western portions of Eurasia and Africa, the extreme eastern tip of Siberia, numerous territories in Oceania, a portion of Antarctica, while excluding some of the Aleutian Islands to the southwest of the Alaskan mainland. In an attempt to define the Western Hemisphere as the parts of the world which are not part of the Old World, there exist projections which use the 20th meridian west and the diametrically opposed 160th meridian east to define the hemisphere; this projection excludes the European and African mainlands and a small portion of northeast Greenland, but includes more of eastern Russia and Oceania. The center of the Western Hemisphere is located in the Pacific Ocean at the intersection of the 90th meridian west and the Equator, among the Galápagos Islands.
The nearest land is Genovesa Island at 0°19′00″N 89°57′00″W. The highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere is Aconcagua in the Andes of Argentina at 6,960.8 metres. Below is a list of the sovereign states which are in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres on the IERS Reference Meridian, in order from north to south: Denmark. Norway. United Kingdom Netherlands France Spain Algeria Mali Burkina Faso Ghana TogoBelow is a list of the sovereign states which are in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres along the 180th meridian, in order from north to south. With the exception of the United States, all of them are located on just one side of the International Date Line, curved around them. Russia United States Kiribati Tuvalu Fiji New Zealand The following countries and territories lie outside the Americas yet are entirely/mostly or within the Western Hemisphere: Media related to Western Hemisphere at Wikimedia Commons
Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study
The Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study is an institute for advanced study in Uppsala, Sweden. It is one of the nine member institutions of the Some Institutes for Advanced Study consortium, which brings together the world's most distinguished institutes for advanced study; the Collegium was founded in 1985, chartered by the Swedish government and offers one-semester and one-year fellowships to visiting scholars, ranging from postdoctoral to professorial positions. Since January 2007, it is located in the Linneanum in the Uppsala University Botanical Garden, it was earlier located in a villa in the Kåbo district of Uppsala. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, official website
Anthony Thomas Grafton is one of the foremost historians of early modern Europe and the current Henry Putnam University Professor at Princeton University. He is a corresponding fellow of the British Academy and a recipient of the Balzan Prize. From January 2011 to January 2012, he served as the President of the American Historical Association. Grafton was born in Connecticut, he was educated at Phillips Academy. He attended the University of Chicago, from which he graduated with a bachelor of arts degree in history in 1971 and a master of arts degree in 1972, he made Phi Beta Kappa in 1970, in the college. After studying at University College, under the celebrated ancient historian Arnaldo Momigliano, from 1973 to 1974, he earned his PhD in history from the University of Chicago in 1975, he still retains links with the University of London's Warburg Institute. After a brief period teaching at Cornell's history department, he was appointed to a position at Princeton University in 1975, where he has subsequently remained.
Since January 2007, he has been a co-editor of the Journal of the History of Ideas. Anthony Grafton is noted for his studies of the classical tradition from the Renaissance to the eighteenth century, in the history of historical scholarship, his many books include a profound study of the scholarship and chronology of the foremost classical scholar of the late Renaissance, Joseph Scaliger, a revisionist account of the significance of Renaissance education, more studies of Girolamo Cardano as an astrologer and Leon Battista Alberti. In 1996, he delivered the Triennial E. A. Lowe Lectures at Corpus Christi College, University of Oxford, speaking on Ancient History in Early Modern Europe, he is co-author of an article on the marginalia of Gabriel Harvey, one of the founding pieces of scholarship in the field of the history of reading. The best introduction to his preoccupation with the relations between scholarship and science in the early modern period is Defenders of the Text, one of his several essay collections, the most recent of, Worlds Made by Words.
In some ways his most original and accessible book is The Footnote: A curious history, a case study in what might be called the history of history, from below. He writes on a wide variety of topics for The New Republic, The American Scholar, The New York Review of Books, he owns a bookwheel. Los Angeles Times Book Prize, History, 1993 Balzan Prize for History of the Humanities, 2002 Honorary degree from Leiden University, 2006 The Sigmund H. Danziger, Jr. Memorial Lecture in the Humanities, University of Chicago, 2011 Grafton, Anthony. "The history of ideas: Precept and practice, 1950-2000 and beyond." Journal of the History of Ideas 67#1: 1-32. Online Joseph Scaliger: A Study in the History of Classical Scholarship, Oxford-Warburg Studies. With Lisa Jardine, From Humanism to the Humanities. Education and the Liberal Arts in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Europe. ISBN 0-7156-2100-9 Forgers and Critics. Creativity and Duplicity in Western Scholarship. Defenders of the Text: The Traditions of Scholarship in the Age of Science, 1450-1800.
Commerce with the Classics: Ancient Books and Renaissance Readers. The Footnote: A Curious History. Cardano's Cosmos: The Worlds and Works of a Renaissance Astrologer. Leon Battista Alberti: Master Builder of the Italian Renaissance. Bring Out Your Dead: The Past as Revelation. What Was History?: The Art of History in Early Modern Europe. With Megan Hale Williams and the Transformation of the Book: Origen and the Library of Caesarea. Codex in Crisis. Video: Anthony Grafton: Codex in Crisis on YouTube, Authors@Google, February 12, 2009. With Brian A. Curran, Pamela O. Long, Benjamin Weiss, Obelisk: A History. Worlds Made by Words. Review by Véronique Krings, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2009.09.32, "I Have Always Loved the Holy Tongue": Isaac Casaubon, The Jews, a Forgotten Chapter in Renaissance Scholarship. Anthony Grafton at The New York Review of Books Appearances on C-SPAN
Nantes Institute for Advanced Study Foundation
Geographic coordinates: 47.212335°N 1.538663°W / 47.212335. It is a member of the Some Institutes for Advanced Study consortium; the Institute was founded in 2008, offering fellowships to visiting scholars, ranging from postdoctoral to professorial positions. Since January 2009, it is located in Nantes. IAS-Nantes, official website
Israel Institute for Advanced Studies
The Israel Institute for Advanced Studies is a research institute in Jerusalem, devoted to academic research in physics, the life sciences and comparative religion. It is both in its administrative function as well as its academic pursuits, it is one of the nine members of the symposium Some Institutes for Advanced Study. The IIAS is located at the Edmond J. Safra Campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Givat Ram; the Institute brings together scholars from around the world to engage in collaborative research projects for periods of four to twelve months. Throughout over forty years of existence it has been dedicated to unrestricted academic research; the Institute for Advanced Studies in Jerusalem was founded in 1975 by Israeli mathematician Aryeh Dvoretzky, winner of the Israel Prize for Mathematics. Visits to the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey inspired Prof. Dvoretzky to establish an IAS in Jerusalem in 1975. In March, 1976 Dvoretzky wrote: The Institute is similar in concept to several existing Institutes of Advanced Study, notably the Princeton Institute.
An IAS in Israel will fulfill a long-acknowledged need for an appropriate setting to encourage scientific and academic leadership, along with promoting the highest standard of research. The proliferation of universities in Israel, along with the overall trend toward mass higher education, has heightened the need for an IAS here in Israel; the inspiration and achievement of these Institutes are essential to strengthening and advancing Israel's scientific and academic landscape. In 1982, Yuval Ne'eman, Professor of Physics and Minister of Science, established the first School in Theoretical Physics at the Jerusalem IAS. Prof. Steven Weinberg, Nobel laureate in Physics, was asked to become the director of the School, a post he held for twelve years. Four additional Schools were established, based on the same model, in the following fields: Economics, Life Sciences, Jewish Studies and Comparative Religion, Mathematics; each School is headed by a preeminent scholar in her field. Aryeh Dvoretzky Hanoch Gutfreund Menahem Yaari David Shulman Alexander Levitzki Benjamin Z. Kedar Eliezer Rabinovici Michal Linial Yitzhak Hen The Institute annually hosts five schools under the auspices of the Victor Rothschild Memorial Symposia.
Each lasts seven to twelve days, is headed by an internationally preeminent scholar, working alongside an Israeli co-director. Attendees include senior scholars, doctoral students, postdoctoral researchers; the Institute subsidizes participants in the form of tuition or hotel expenses. The Israeli coordinator allocates scholarships to candidates and assumes responsibility for technical arrangements. Scholars have come to the institute from Western and Eastern Europe and North America, East Asia, North Africa; the IIAS hosts conferences and lecture series, sometimes associated with schools, such as the Ada Lovelace Bicentenary Lectures on Computability during 2015–16. Current directors of the advanced schools are as follows: School in Theoretical physics: David Gross School in Economics Theory: Eric Maskin Midrasha Mathematicae: Peter Sarnak School in Jewish Studies and Comparative Religion: Haym Soloveitchik School in Life Sciences: Roger D. Kornberg IIAS official website
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County and part of the Boston metropolitan area. Situated directly north of Boston, across the Charles River, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are in Cambridge, as was Radcliffe College, a college for women until it merged with Harvard on October 1, 1999. According to the 2010 Census, the city's population was 105,162; as of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Worcester and Lowell. Cambridge was one of two seats of Middlesex County until the county government was abolished in Massachusetts in 1997. In December 1630, the site of what would become Cambridge was chosen because it was safely upriver from Boston Harbor, making it defensible from attacks by enemy ships. Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, her husband Simon were among the town's first settlers.
The first houses were built in the spring of 1631. The settlement was referred to as "the newe towne". Official Massachusetts records show the name rendered as Newe Towne by 1632, as Newtowne by 1638. Located at the first convenient Charles River crossing west of Boston, Newe Towne was one of a number of towns founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony under Governor John Winthrop, its first preacher was Thomas Hooker, who led many of its original inhabitants west in 1636 to found Hartford and the Connecticut Colony. The original village site is now within Harvard Square; the marketplace where farmers sold crops from surrounding towns at the edge of a salt marsh remains within a small park at the corner of John F. Kennedy and Winthrop Streets; the town comprised a much larger area than the present city, with various outlying parts becoming independent towns over the years: Cambridge Village in 1688, Cambridge Farms in 1712 or 1713, Little or South Cambridge and Menotomy or West Cambridge in 1807.
In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge to Boston were pursued and rejected. In 1636, the Newe College was founded by the colony to train ministers. According to Cotton Mather, Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court for its proximity to the popular and respected Puritan preacher Thomas Shepard. In May 1638, The settlement's name was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England. Newtowne's ministers and Shepard, the college's first president, major benefactor, the first schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton were Cambridge alumni, as was the colony's governor John Winthrop. In 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. In 1650, Governor Thomas Dudley signed the charter creating the corporation that still governs Harvard College. Cambridge grew as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the colony's capital.
By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with most of the town comprising farms and estates. Most inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan colonists, but there was a small elite of Anglican "worthies" who were not involved in village life, made their livings from estates and trade, lived in mansions along "the Road to Watertown". Coming north from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3, 1775, now reckoned the birthplace of the U. S. Army. Most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, which enabled Washington to drive the British army out of Boston. Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge grew with the construction of the West Boston Bridge in 1792 connecting Cambridge directly to Boston, so that it was no longer necessary to travel eight miles through the Boston Neck and Brookline to cross the Charles River.
A second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts. In the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution, it was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires. The Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes—were popular and influential in their day. Soon after, turnpikes were built: the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike, the Middlesex Turnpike, what are today's Cambridge and Harvard Streets connected various areas of Cambridge to the bridges. In addition, the town was connected to the Boston & Maine Railroad, leading to the development of Porter Square as well as the creation of neighboring Somerville from the rural parts of Charlestown. Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846 despite persistent tensions between East Cambridge and Old Cambridge stemming from differences in culture, sources of income, the national origins of the resident
Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study
The Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, is an independent research institute in the field of the humanities and social and behavioural sciences founded in 1970. The Institute offers advanced research facility for international scholars of all of the humanities and social sciences, it is a member of Some Institutes for Advanced Study and the Network of European Institutes for Advanced Studies. The idea for NIAS was initiated by Dutch linguist E. M. Uhlenbeck in the late 1960s, it was inspired on the concept of the Institute for Advanced Study of Stanford. The institute was founded with the support of all Dutch universities, the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research and the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1970 and welcomed their first fellows in 1971 on the NIAS Campus in Wassenaar. Since 1988 it has operated under the direction and auspices of the KNAW. From 1995 until 2002 Henk Wesseling has been Rector of the Institute.
He was succeeded by Wim Blockhmans in 2002. From 2010 to 2013 the rector was Professor Aafke Hulk. Paul Emmelkamp implemented plans to move NIAS to Amsterdam; as of 15 August 2016, the institute is located in the Jorishof wing of the Oost-Indisch Huis in Amsterdam. Theo Mulder has been rector since January 2017; each year NIAS welcomes around fifty fellows. Half of the fellows are Dutch. Fellows are prominent researchers and senior scholars with a PhD and who have made an important contribution in their fields. Applications for most fellowships at NIAS are open to qualified candidates. All fellowships are awarded by the scholarship committee. In addition to regular fellowships, NIAS hosts some special co-sponsored fellowship programmes, some of which are by invitation only. NIAS hosts theme groups, which bring together scholars of different backgrounds with specific expertise to work together on a daily basis. Fellows include and have included: Svetlana Alpers, David E. Apter, Tito Boeri, Gerrit Broekstra, Jaap R. Bruijn, Arif Dirlik, Edgar L. Feige, Lewis Goldberg, Richard Goldstone, Bernd Heine, Martin Hellwig, Henkjan Honing, Fred Inglis, Lisa Jardine, Bruce Kapferer, Ronald Kaplan, David Mitchell, Wolfgang J. Mommsen, Frits van Oostrom, Benjamin Radcliff, Bruce Russett, Hein Schreuder, Alex Verrijn Stuart, Henk Wesseling, Robert S. Wistrich, John Woods, Nasr Abu Zayd, Gerard de Zeeuw.