National Socialism, more known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – the National Socialist German Workers' Party – in Nazi Germany, of other far-right groups with similar aims. Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but incorporated fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, eugenics into its creed, its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, it was influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after Germany's defeat in World War I, from which came the party's "cult of violence", "at the heart of the movement."Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community.
The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races. The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both Marxist international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization; the Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party – to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats and the Communists – and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization.
The National Socialist Program or "25 Points" was adopted in 1920 and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined the anti-Semitism and anti-Communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion; the Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, making them the largest party in the legislature by far, but still short of an outright majority. Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, in 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg, through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Through the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg, a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis had soon established a one-party state.
The Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives, including the leadership of the SA. After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer, meaning "leader". From that point, Hitler was the dictator of Nazi Germany, known as the "Third Reich", under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered. Many millions of people were exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust during World War II, including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe. Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced.
It is regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups referred to as neo-Nazis, describing themselves as followers of National Socialism. The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei for which they used the acronym NSDAP; the term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant, characterizing an awkward and clumsy person. In this sense, the word Nazi was a hypocorism of the German male name Ignatz – Ignatz being a common name at the time in Bavaria, the area from which the NSDAP emerged. In the 1920s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this and – using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist as an example – shortened NSDAP's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above; the first use of the term "Nazi" by the National Socialists occurred in 1926 in a publication by Joseph Goebbels called Der Nazi-Sozi.
In Goebbels' pamphlet, the word "Nazi" only appears when linked with the word "Sozi" as an abbreviation of
Music therapy is the use of music to improve clients' quality of life. Music therapy is an clinical use of music interventions. Music Therapy consists of a process in which a music therapist uses music and all of its facets—physical, mental, social and spiritual—to help clients improve their health and quality of life. Music therapists help clients improve their health in several domains, such as cognitive, emotional, communication and educational by using both active and receptive music experiences such as improvisation, re-creation and receptive methods and discussion of music to achieve treatment goals. There is quantitative research literature base for music therapy; some found practices include developmental work with individuals with special needs and listening in reminiscence/orientation work with the elderly and relaxation work, rhythmic entrainment for physical rehabilitation in stroke victims. Music therapy is used in some medical hospitals, cancer centers, schools and drug recovery programs, psychiatric hospitals, correctional facilities According to Dr. Daniel Levitin, "Singing and instrumental activities might have helped our species to refine motor skills, paving the way for the development of the exquisitely fine muscle control required for vocal or signed speech” Chuang's Music therapy is a some kind of music therapy combining Chinese and Western's music therapy.
It cites the attack of Chinese medicine, venting therapy, the application of psychotherapy. From the basis of the balance between yin and yang, using the resonance principle of music to introduce nerve guidance, let the body and mind well balance, is to enter Medical aids are effective in the application of body and mind areas in hospitals. Music has been found to be an effective tool for music therapists through extensive research, it is beneficial for any individual, both physically and mentally, through improved heart rate, reduced anxiety, stimulation of the brain, improved learning. Music therapists use their techniques to help their patients in many areas, ranging from stress relief before and after surgeries, to neuropathologies such as Alzheimer's disease. One study found that children who listened to music while having an IV inserted into their arms showed less distress and felt less pain than the children who did not listen to music while having an IV inserted. Studies have been carried out on patients diagnosed different mental disorders such as anxiety and schizophrenia and there has been a visible improvement in their mental health after the therapy.
Approaches used in music therapy that have emerged from the field of music education include Orff-Schulwerk, Dalcroze eurhythmics, Kodály method. Models that developed directly out of music therapy are neurologic music therapy, Nordoff-Robbins music therapy and the Bonny method of guided imagery and music. Music therapists may work with individuals. To meet the needs of this population, music therapists have taken current psychological theories and used them as a basis for different types of music therapy. Different models include behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy; the therapist has an ongoing responsibility to evaluate the extent to which the client is achieving the goals of therapy and whether the methods of therapy being used are helping or hindering the client. One therapy model based on neuroscience, called "neurologic music therapy", is "based on a neuroscience model of music perception and production, the influence of music on functional changes in non-musical brain and behavior functions".
In other words, NMT studies how the brain is without music, how the brain is with music, measures the differences, uses these differences to cause changes in the brain through music that will affect the client non-musically. As Michael Thaut put it: "The brain that engages in music is changed by engaging in music." NMT trains motor responses to better help clients develop motor skills that help "entrain the timing of muscle activation patterns". There are two fundamental types of music therapy:'receptive music therapy', and'active music therapy', sometimes called'expressive music therapy'. Active music therapy engages patients in the act of making vocal or instrumental music. Receptive music therapy recorded music. Receptive music therapy involves listening to live music selected by a therapist, it can improve mood, decrease stress, anxiety level, enhance relaxation. While it doesn't affect disease, for instance, it can help with coping skills. Recipients engage with instruments. Baylor and White researchers are studying the effect of harmonica playing on patients with COPD in order to determine if they help improve lung function.
In a nursing home in Japan, elderly are taught to play easy-to-use instruments in order to help overcome physical difficulties. Paul Nordoff, a Juilliard School graduate and Professor of Music, was a pianist and composer who, upon seeing disabled children respond so positively to music, gave up his academic career to further investigate the possibility of music as a means for therapy. Clive Robbins, a special educator, partnered with Nordoff for over 17 years in the exploration and research of music's effects on disabled children—first in the United Kingdom, in the US in the 1950s and 60s, their pilot projects included placements at care units for autistic children and child psychiatry d
Analytical psychology called Jungian psychology, is a school of psychotherapy which originated in the ideas of Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist. It emphasizes the personal quest for wholeness. Important concepts in Jung's system are individuation, the personal unconscious, the collective unconscious, complexes, the persona, the shadow, the anima and animus, the self. Jung's theories have been investigated and elaborated by Toni Wolff, Marie-Louise von Franz, Jolande Jacobi, Aniela Jaffé, Erich Neumann, James Hillman, Anthony Stevens. Analytical psychology is distinct from psychoanalysis, a psychotherapeutic system created by Sigmund Freud. Jung began his career as a psychiatrist in Switzerland. There, he conducted research for the Word Association Experiment at the Burghölzli Clinic. Jung's research earned him a worldwide reputation and numerous honours, including an honorary degree from Clark University, Massachusetts, in 1904. In 1907, Jung met Sigmund Freud in Austria. For six years, the two scholars worked together, in 1911, they founded the International Psychoanalytical Association, of which Jung was the first president.
However, early in the collaboration, Jung observed that Freud would not tolerate ideas that were different from his own. In 1912, Jung's Psychology of the Unconscious was published; the work's innovative ideas contributed to a new foundation in psychology as well as the end of the Jung-Freud friendship in 1913. The two scholars continued their work on personality development independently: Jung's approach is called Analytical Psychology, Freud's approach is referred to as the Psychoanalytic School, which he founded. Unlike most modern psychologists, Jung did not believe that experiments using natural science were the only means to gain an understanding of the human psyche, he saw as empirical evidence the world of dream and folklore as the promising road to deeper understanding and meaning. That method's choice is related with his choice of the object of his science; as Jung said, "The beauty about the unconscious is that it is unconscious." Hence, the unconscious is'untouchable' by experimental researches, or indeed any possible kind of scientific or philosophical reach because it is unconscious.
Although the unconscious cannot be studied by using direct approaches, it is, according to Jung at least, a useful hypothesis. His postulated unconscious was quite different from the model, proposed by Freud, despite the great influence that the founder of psychoanalysis had on Jung; the most well-known difference is the assumption of the collective unconscious, although Jung's proposal of collective unconscious and archetypes was based on the assumption of the existence of psychic patterns. These patterns include conscious contents—thoughts, etc.—from life experience. They are common for all human beings, his proof of the vast collective unconscious was his concept of synchronicity, that inexplicable, uncanny connectedness that we all share. The overarching goal of Jungian psychology is the attainment of self through individuation. Jung defines "self" as the "archetype of wholeness and the regulating center of the psyche". Central to this process is the individual's encounter with his/her psyche and the bringing of its elements into consciousness.
Humans experience the unconscious through symbols encountered in all aspects of life: in dreams, art and the symbolic dramas we enact in our relationships and life pursuits. Essential to this numinous encounter is the merging of the individual's consciousness with the collective consciousness through this symbolic language. By bringing conscious awareness to what is not conscious, unconscious elements can be integrated with consciousness when they "surface". "Neurosis" results from a disharmony between his higher Self. The psyche is a self-regulating adaptive system. Humans are energetic systems, if the energy gets blocked, the psyche gets stuck, or sick. If adaptation is thwarted, the psychic energy stops flowing, regresses; this process manifests in psychosis. Human psychic contents are complex, deep, they can schism, split, form complexes that take over one's personality. Jung proposed that this occurs through maladaptation to one's internal realities; the principles of adaptation and compensation are central processes in Jung's view of psyche's ability to adapt.
The aim of psychotherapy is to assist the individual in reestablishing a healthy relationship to the unconscious: neither flooded by it or out of balance in relationship to it. To undergo the individuation process, individuals must be open to the parts of themselves beyond their own ego; the modern individual grows continually in psychic awareness through attention to dreams, the exploration of religion and spirituality, by questioning the assumptions of the operant societal worldview, rather than just blindly living life in accordance with dominant norms and assumptions. The basic assumption is that the personal unconscious is a potent part — the more active part — of the normal human psyche. Reliable communication between th
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine foresees it as its seat of power. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times and recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times; the part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as "Urusalim" on ancient Egyptian tablets meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE, in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.
In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters; the Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, Christians 14,000 and 9,000 were not classified by religion. According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities.
These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city was attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times; the holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran; as a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba.
The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the god Shalem". Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived; the name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city sat on two hills; the form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" and "Shalem" the two names were un
Melanie Klein née Reizes was an Austrian-British author and psychoanalyst, known for her work in the world of developmental psychology. Her observation and novel therapeutic techniques for adolescents had a profound effect on child psychology as well as contemporary psychoanalysis. Born the fourth and final child of Jewish parents Moriz and Libussa Reizes, Klein would spend most of her early life in Vienna Austria. Educated at the gymnasium, Klein much like her father before her, possessed aspirations of one day entering the medical field. More the study of psychiatric medicine, her goal of entering medical school would be thwarted by a decline in her family's economic status. At the age of twenty one she married industrial chemist Arthur Klein, soon after gave birth to their first child Melitta. While she would go on to birth two additional children, Klein suffered from clinical depression, with these pregnancies taking quite a toll on her; this in conjunction with an unhappy marriage soon led Klein to seek out means of treatment.
Shortly after her family moved to Budapest in 1910, Klein began a course of therapy with psychoanalyst Sándor Ferenczi. It was during their time. Encouraged by Ferenczi, Klein began her studies by the simple observations of her own children; until this point minimal documentation existed on the topic of psychoanalysis concerning children, Klein seized the opportunity by developing her play technique. Comparable to that of free association in adult psychoanalysis, Klein's play technique sought to interpret the unconscious meaning behind the play and interaction of children. During 1921, in the wake of a dissolving marriage, Klein moved to Berlin where she joined the Berlin Psycho-Analytic Society under the tutelage of Karl Abraham. Although Abraham supported her pioneering work with children, neither Klein nor her ideas received much support in Berlin; as a divorced woman whose academic qualifications did not include a bachelor's degree, Klein was a visible iconoclast within a profession dominated by male physicians.
Despite this impediment, Klein's up and coming work possessed a strong influence on the developing theories and techniques of psychoanalysis in Great Britain. Her theories on human development as well as defense mechanism were a source of controversy as they conflicted with Freud's theories on development, triggering a buzz in the world of developmental psychology. Around the same time Klein presented her ideas, Anna Freud was doing the same; the two were unofficial rivals of sorts with the protracted debates between the followers of Klein and the followers of Freud. With these so-called'controversial discussions', the British Psychoanalytical Society split into three separate training divisions: Kleinian and Independent; these debates ended with an agreement on dual approach to instruction in the field of child analysis. The school of Kleinianism was the first branch off the proverbial Freudian tree, to remain part of the psychoanalytic movement. Klein was one of the first to use traditional psychoanalysis with young children.
She was innovative in both her theories on infant development. Opinionated, demanding the respect of those in the academic community, Klein established a influential training program in psychoanalysis. By observing and analyzing the play and interactions of children, Klein built onto the work of Freud's unconscious mind, her dive into the unconscious mind of the infant yielded the findings of the early Oedipus complex, as well as the developmental roots of the superego. Klein's theoretical work incorporates Freud's belief in the existence of the "death pulsation", reflecting the fact that all living organisms are inherently drawn toward an inorganic state, therefore, in an unspecified sense, contain a drive towards death. In psychological terms, the postulated sustaining and uniting principle of life, is thereby presumed to have a companion force, which seeks to terminate and disintegrate life. Both Freud and Klein regarded these biomental forces as the foundations of the psyche; these primary unconscious forces, whose mental matrix is the id, spark the ego—the experiencing self—into activity.
Id, ego and superego, to be sure, were shorthand terms referring to complex and uncharted psychodynamic operations. While Freud's ideas concerning children came from working with adult patients, Klein was innovative in working directly with children as young as two years old. Klein saw children's play as their primary mode of emotional communication. While observing children play with toys such as dolls, plasticine and paper, Klein documented their activities and interactions attempted to interpret the unconscious meaning behind their play. Following Freud she emphasized the significant role that parental figures played in the child's fantasy life, considered that the timing of Freud's Oedipus complex was incorrect. Contradicting Freud, she concluded. After exploring ultra-aggressive fantasies of hate and greed in young and disturbed children, Melanie Klein proposed a model of the human psyche that linked significant oscillations of state, with whether the postulated Eros or Thanatos pulsations were in the fore.
She named the state of the psyche, when the sustaining principle of life is in domination, the depressive position. This is considered by many to be her great contribution to psychoanalytic thought, she developed h
Art therapy is a creative method of expression used as a therapeutic technique. Art therapy, as a creative arts therapy modality, originated in the fields of art and psychotherapy and may vary in definition. Art therapy may focus on the creative art-making process itself, as therapy, or on the analysis of expression gained through an exchange of patient and therapist interaction; the psychoanalytic approach was one of the earliest forms of art psychotherapy. This approach employs the transference process between the client who makes art; the therapist interprets the client's symbolic self-expression as communicated in the art and elicits interpretations from the client. Analysis of transference is no longer always a component. Current art therapy includes a vast number of other approaches such as person-centered, behavior, narrative and family; the tenets of art therapy involve humanism, reconciling emotional conflicts, fostering self-awareness, personal growth. Various definitions of the term "art therapy" exist.
The British Association of Art Therapists defines art therapy as "a form of psychotherapy that uses art media as its primary mode of expression and communication."The American Art Therapy Association defines art therapy as: "an integrative mental health and human services profession that enriches the lives of individuals and communities through active art-making, creative process, applied psychological theory, human experience within a psychotherapeutic relationship." As a mental health profession, art therapy is employed in many clinical and other settings with diverse populations. Art therapy can be found in non-clinical settings, as well as in art studios and in creativity development workshops. Related in practice to marriage and family therapists and mental health counselors, U. S. art therapists are licensed under various titles, depending upon their individual qualifications and the type of licenses available in a given state. Art therapists may hold licenses as art therapists, creative arts therapists and family therapists, counselors of various types, nurse practitioners, social workers, occupational therapists, or rehabilitation therapists.
Art therapists may have received advanced degrees in art therapy or in a related field such as psychology in which case they would have to obtain post-master's or post-doctorate certification as an art therapist. Art therapists work with a wide variety of disorders and diseases. Art therapists provide services to children and adults, whether as individuals, families, or groups. Using their evaluative and psychotherapy skills, art therapists choose materials and interventions appropriate to their clients' needs and design sessions to achieve therapeutic goals and objectives, they use the creative process to help their clients increase insight, cope with stress, work through traumatic experiences, increase cognitive and neurosensory abilities, improve interpersonal relationships and achieve greater self-fulfillment. The activities an art therapist chooses to do with clients depend on a variety of factors such as their mental state or age. Many art therapists draw upon images from resources such as ARAS to incorporate historical art and symbols into their work with patients.
Depending on the state, province, or country, the term "art therapist" may be reserved for those who are professionals trained in both art and therapy and hold a master or doctoral degree in art therapy or certification in art therapy obtained after a graduate degree in a related field. Other professionals, such as mental health counselors, social workers and play therapists combine art therapy methods with basic psychotherapeutic modalities in their treatment. Therapists may better understand a client's absorption of information after assessing elements of their artwork. People always search for some escape from illness and it has been found that art is one of the more common methods. Art and the creative process can aid many illnesses. People can escape the emotional effects of illness through many creative methods. Sometimes people cannot express the way they feel, as it can be difficult to put into words, art can help people express their experiences. "During art therapy, people can explore past and future experiences using art as a form of coping".
Art can be a refuge for the intense emotions associated with illness. Hospitals have started studying the influence of arts on patient care and found that participants in art programs have better vitals and fewer complications sleeping. Artistic influence doesn't need to be participation in a program, but studies have found that a landscape picture in a hospital room had reduced need for narcotic pain killers and less time in recovery at the hospital. In addition, either looking at or creating art in hospitals helped stabilize vital signs, speed up the healing process, in general, bring a sense of hope and soul to the patient. Family, care workers and nurses were positively effected. Art therapists have conducted studies to understand why some cancer patients turned to art making as a coping mechanism and a tool to creating a positive identity outside of being a cancer patient. Women in the study participated in different art programs ranging from pottery and card making to drawing and painting.
The programs helped them regain an identity outside of having cancer, lessened emotional p