The Alpine A110 was a sports car produced by the French manufacturer Alpine from 1961 to 1977. The car was styled as a Berlinette, which in the era refers to a small enclosed two-door Berline. The Alpine A110 succeeded the earlier A108, the car was powered by a succession of Renault engines. Launched in 1961 the A110, like previous road-going Alpines, used many Renault parts, while its predecessor the A108 was designed around Dauphine components, the A110 was updated to use R8 parts. Unlike the A108, which was available first as a cabriolet and only as a coupé, the most obvious external difference with the A108 coupé was restyled rear bodywork. Done to accommodate the A110s larger engine, this gave the car a more aggressive look. Like the A108, the A110 featured a steel backbone chassis, the A110 was originally offered with 1.1 L R8 Major or R8 Gordini engines. The Gordini engine delivered 95 hp SAE at 6,500 rpm, the A110 achieved most of its fame in the early 1970s as a successful rally car.
After winning several rallies in France in the late 1960s with cast-iron R8 Gordini Cléon-Fonte engines the car was fitted with the aluminium-block Cléon-Alu from the Renault 16 TS, with two two-venturi Weber 45 carburetors, the TS engine delivered 125 hp DIN at 6,000 rpm. This allowed the production 1600S to reach a top speed of 210 km/h, the long-wheelbase Alpine A108 2+2 Coupé ended its run and was replaced with a new, restyled 2+2 based on A110 engines and mechanicals called the A110 GT4. Notable performances from the car included a victory in the 1971 Monte Carlo Rally with Swedish driver Ove Andersson. With the buy-out of Alpine by Renault complete, the International Championship was replaced by the World Rally Championship for 1973, competition-spec A110s received engines of up to 1.8 litres. As well as being built at Alpines own Dieppe factory, versions of the A110 were built under license by various other manufacturers around the world. From 1965 to 1974 the car was produced in Mexico under the name Dinalpin by Diesel Nacional, in 1974 the mid-engined Lancia Stratos, the first car designed specifically for rally racing, was operational and homologated.
At the same time it was obvious that the rear-engined A110 was nearing the limits of its development potential, the adoption of fuel injection brought no performance increase. On some cars, a DOHC 16-valve head was fitted to the engine, chassis modification, like the use of an A310 double wishbone rear suspension, homologated with the A110 1600SC, failed to increase performance. On the international stage the Stratos proved to be the weapon, making the A110, as well as many other rally cars. The A110 is still seen in such as Rallye Monte-Carlo Historique
Adam Opel AG is a German automobile manufacturer headquartered in Rüsselsheim, Germany. It is a subsidiary of General Motors but is soon to be part of the French automotive company Groupe PSA, Opel traces its roots to a sewing machine manufacturer founded by Adam Opel in 1862. The company began manufacturing bicycles in 1886 and produced its first automobile in 1899, Opel became a share-limited company in 1929, General Motors took a majority stake in Opel that same year. General Motors assumed full control in 1931, and today Adam Opel AG is an owned subsidiary of General Motors Company. Although Adam Opel AG continues to be a company, shares of the company are not publicly listed. Adam Opel AG is the parent company of General Motors UK Limited, better known as Vauxhall, during the 1970s and 1980s, Opel and Vauxhall ranges were rationalised into one consistent range across Europe. Opel withdrew from China, where it had a network of 22 dealers, furthermore, GM is responsible to pay about US$400 million annually for 15 years to fund the existing German and U. K. pension plans.
The company was founded in Rüsselsheim, Germany, on January 21,1862, at the beginning, Opel just produced sewing machines in a cowshed in Rüsselsheim. Above all, his success was based on his perfectly customized sewing machines, because of the quick growth of his business, in 1888, the production was relocated from the cowshed to a more spacious building in Rüsselsheim. Encouraged by success, Adam Opel launched a new product in 1886, He began to sell high-wheel bicycles, Opels two sons participated in high-wheel bicycle races, thus promoting this means of transportation. Therefore, the production of high-wheel bicycles soon exceeded the production of sewing machines, at the time of Opels death in 1895, he was the leader in both markets. These cars were made up of Opel bodies mounted on Darracq chassis, the company first showed cars of its own design at the 1902 Hamburg Motor Show, and started manufacturing them in 1906, with Opel Darracq production being discontinued in 1907. In 1909, the Opel 4/8 PS model, known as the Doktorwagen was produced and its reliability and robustness were greatly appreciated by physicians, who drove a lot to see their patients, back when hard-surfaced roads were still rare.
The Doktorwagen sold for only 3,950 marks, about half as much as the models of its day. In 1911, the factory was virtually destroyed by fire. In the early 1920s, Opel became the first German car manufacturer to incorporate a mass-production assembly line in the building of their automobiles, in 1924, they used their assembly line to produce a new open two-seater called the Laubfrosch. The Laubfrosch was finished exclusively in green lacquer. The car sold for an expensive 4,500 marks, but by the 1930s, this type of vehicle would cost a mere 1,990 marks – due in part to the assembly line, but due to the skyrocketing demand for cars
A Berlin carriage was a type of covered four-wheeled travelling carriage with two interior seats. The carriage was designed around 1660 or 1670 by a Piedmontese architect commissioned by the General quartermaster to Frederick William, the Elector used the carriage to travel from Berlin, Brandenburgs capital, to the French capital of Paris, where his carriage created a sensation. While heavy-duty vehicles had used double-railed frames before, passenger vehicles had used a single rail. The elegant but durable style was copied and named berline after the city from which the carriage had come. It was more convenient than other carriages of the time, being lighter, the berline began to supplant the less practical and less comfortable state coaches and gala coaches in the 17th century. British and American sources mention a separate hooded rear seat for a footman detached from the body in their definitions of a berlin carriage, in the 18th century, the steel spring became widely used in carriage suspensions, supplanting the berlines twin-strap suspension system.
The term berline survived as a description of the formal or ceremonial body style with two seats facing each other in a closed carriage. Smaller carriages mainly for use were developed from the berline by removing the rear-facing front seat. This style became known as the halbberline in Germany and the berline coupé in France, the name berline coupé was shortened to coupé. The berline body style carried over from the carriage to the automobile with the chauffeur in the open at the front. The term berline is now the French term for the saloon or sedan, carriage#Types of horse-drawn carriages This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Ephraim, ed. Berlin. Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences and John Knapton, et al. p.0247. Haajanen, Lennart W. Illustrated Dictionary of Automobile Body Styles, illustrations by Bertil Nydén, foreword by Karl Ludvigsen. Berlin coach Clipart Educational Technology Clearinghouse, University of South Florida, the Casanova Tour - Travelling Carriages 2.
Archived from the original on 2008-03-15, the Long Island Museum of American Art, History & Carriages - Collection Database. Search berlin carriage, record type Objects, MNC - Colecção, Berlindas National Coach Museum, Lisbon. Музеи Московского Кремля Moscow Kremlin Museum
Maserati is an Italian luxury vehicle manufacturer established on 1 December 1914, in Bologna. The companys headquarters are now in Modena, and its emblem is a trident and it has been owned by the Italian-American car giant Fiat Chrysler Automobiles and FCAs Italian predecessor Fiat S. p. A. since 1993. In May 2014, due to plans and product launches. This caused them to production of the Quattroporte and Ghibli models. Maserati is placing a production output cap at 75,000 vehicles globally, the Maserati brothers, Bindo, Carlo and Ernesto were all involved with automobiles from the beginning of the 20th century. Alfieri and Ernesto built 2-litre Grand Prix cars for Diatto, in 1926, Diatto suspended the production of race cars, leading to the creation of the first Maserati and the founding of the Maserati marque. One of the first Maseratis, driven by Alfieri, won the 1926 Targa Florio, Maserati began making race cars with 4,6,8 and 16 cylinders. The trident logo of the Maserati car company is based on the Fountain of Neptune in Bolognas Piazza Maggiore, in 1920, one of the Maserati brothers, artist Mario, used this symbol in the logo at the suggestion of family friend Marquis Diego de Sterlich.
Alfieri Maserati died in 1932, but three brothers, Bindo and Ettore, kept the firm going, building cars that won races. The brothers continued in engineering roles with the company, Racing successes continued, even against the giants of German racing, Auto Union and Mercedes. In back-to-back wins in 1939 and 1940, a Maserati 8CTF won the Indianapolis 500, the war intervened, Maserati abandoned car making to produce components for the Italian war effort. During this time, Maserati worked in fierce competition to construct a V16 town car for Benito Mussolini before Ferry Porsche of Volkswagen built one for Adolf Hitler and this failed, and the plans were scrapped. Once peace was restored, Maserati returned to making cars, the Maserati A6 series did well in the racing scene. Key people joined the Maserati team, alberto Massimino, an old Fiat engineer, with both Alfa Romeo and Ferrari experiences oversaw the design of all racing models for the next ten years. With him joined engineers Giulio Alfieri, Vittorio Bellentani, and Gioacchino Colombo, the focus was on the best engines and chassis to succeed in car racing.
These new projects saw the last contributions of the Maserati brothers and this new team at Maserati worked on several projects, the 4CLT, the A6 series, the 8CLT, pivotally for the future success of the company, the A6GCS. Other racing projects in the 1950s were the 200S, 300S, 350S, Maserati retired from factory racing participation because of the Guidizzolo tragedy during the 1957 Mille Miglia, though they continued to build cars for privateers. Maserati became more and more focused on building road-going grand tourers, the 1957 Maserati 3500 GT marked a turning point in the marques history, as its first ground-up grand tourer design and first series produced car
Chevrolet Camaro (second generation)
The second-generation Chevrolet Camaro was produced by Chevrolet from 1970 through the 1981 model years. It was introduced in the spring of 1970 Build information for model 123-12487 was released to the plants in February of that same year. It was longer and wider than the first generation Camaro, a convertible body-type was no longer available. GM engineers have said the second generation is more of A Drivers Car than its predecessor. Dubbed Super Hugger, the second-generation Camaro was developed without the rush of the first generation, the chassis and suspension of the second generation were greatly refined in both performance and comfort, base models offered significant advances in sound-proofing, ride isolation, and road-holding. Extensive experience Chevrolet engineers had gained racing the first-generation led directly to advances in second-generation Camaro steering, major styling changes were made in 1974 and 1978,1981 was the final model year for the second-generation Camaro. Most of the engine and drivetrain components were carried over from 1969, with the exception of the 230 cu in six-cylinder — the base engine was now the 250 cu in six, the 1970 Camaro SS396 had the 396 cu in L78 rated at 350 hp.
Starting in 1970, the big block V8s actually displaced 402 cu in, two 454 cu in engines were listed on early specification sheets and in some sales brochures but never made it into production. The LT-1 engine in the 1970 Camaro Z-28 came from the Corvette, the new body style featured a fastback roofline and ventless full-door glass with no rear side quarter windows. Doors were wider to permit access to the rear seat. The roof was a new unit for improved rollover protection. The rear was highlighted by four round taillights similar to the Corvette, a convertible was not offered, making this the only Camaro generation not to offer one. The 1970, often referred to as a 70½, was the first Camaro offered with a rear stabilizer bar. The four-wheel disc brake option was dropped, the optional center console, with standard Hurst shifter, was now integrated into the lower dashboard with small storage area or optional stereo tape player. The 1970 model was introduced to the plants in February 1970. This caused some people to refer to it as a 1970½, the 1971 Camaro received only minor appearance changes from its 1970 counterpart.
Inside, new high-back Strato bucket seats with built-in headrests replaced the 1970-only low-back seats with adjustable headrests, the 250 cu in straight-6,307 cu in V8, and two-barrel 350 cu in V8 were virtually unchanged, as they were low-compression regular-fuel engines in 1970 and previous years. The LT-1350 V8 used in the Z/28 dropped from 360 hp SAE gross to 330 horsepower SAE gross due to a compression ratio decrease from 11.0,1 to 10.3,1
Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari.
Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari
Chevrolet, colloquially referred to as Chevy and formally the Chevrolet Division of General Motors Company, is an American automobile division of the American manufacturer General Motors. Louis Chevrolet and ousted General Motors founder William C. Durant started the company on November 3,1911 as the Chevrolet Motor Car Company. Durant used the Chevrolet Motor Car Company to acquire a stake in General Motors with a reverse merger occurring on May 2,1918. Chevrolet-branded vehicles are sold in most automotive markets worldwide, with the exception of Oceania. However, GM reversed this move in late 2013, announcing that the brand would be withdrawn from Europe, with the exception of the Camaro, Chevrolet vehicles will continue to be marketed in the CIS states, including Russia. After General Motors fully acquired GM Daewoo in 2011 to create GM Korea, in North America, Chevrolet produces and sells a wide range of vehicles, from subcompact automobiles to medium-duty commercial trucks. Durant was cast out from the management of General Motors in 1910 for five years and he took over the Flint Wagon Works, incorporating the Mason and Little companies.
As head of Buick Motor Company prior to founding GM, Durant had hired Louis Chevrolet to drive Buicks in promotional races, Durant planned to use Chevrolets reputation as a racer as the foundation for his new automobile company. Actual design work for the first Chevy, the costly Series C Classic Six, was drawn up by Etienne Planche, the first C prototype was ready months before Chevrolet was actually incorporated. However the first actual production wasnt until the 1913 model, so in essence there were no 1911 or 1912 production models, only the 1 pre-production model was made and fine tuned throughout the early part of 1912. Then in the fall of that year the new 1913 model was introduced at the New York auto show, Chevrolet first used the bowtie emblem logo in 1914 on the H series models and The L Series Model. It may have been designed from wallpaper Durant once saw in a French hotel room, more recent research by historian Ken Kaufmann presents a case that the logo is based on a logo of the Coalettes coal company.
An example of this logo as it appeared in an advertisement for Coalettes appeared in the Atlanta Constitution on November 12,1911, others claim that the design was a stylized Swiss cross, in tribute to the homeland of Chevrolets parents. Chevrolet eventually unified all vehicle models with the gold bowtie in 2004, Louis Chevrolet had differences with Durant over design and in 1914 sold Durant his share in the company. By 1916, Chevrolet was profitable enough with successful sales of the cheaper Series 490 to allow Durant to repurchase a controlling interest in General Motors. After the deal was completed in 1917, Durant became president of General Motors, in 1919, Chevrolets factories were located at Flint, branch assembly locations were located in Tarrytown, N. Y. Norwood, Ohio, St. Louis, Oakland, California, Ft. Worth, Texas, mcLaughlins were given GM Corporation stock for the proprietorship of their Company article Sept.23,1933 Financial Post page 9. In the 1918 model year, Chevrolet introduced the Series D, Sales were poor and it was dropped in 1919
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
A sedan /sᵻˈdæn/ or saloon is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with A, B & C-pillars and principal volumes articulated in separate compartments for engine and cargo. The passenger compartment features two rows of seats and adequate passenger space in the compartment for adult passengers. The cargo compartment is typically in the rear, with the exception of some rear-engined models, such as the Renault Dauphine, Tatra T613, Volkswagen Type 3 and it is one of the most common car body styles. A battery electric sedan such as the Tesla Model S has no engine compartment, but a front cargo compartment, the primary purpose of the sedan is to transport people and their baggage on ordinary roads. Sedan versions of the body style have a central pillar that supports the roof and come in two-. Sedans usually have a two-box or three-box body, popular in the U. S. from the 1950s through the 1970s, true hardtop body designs have become increasingly rare. For example,1962 Rambler Classic sedans feature identical windshield, A-pillar, roof, C-pillar, and rear window. A two- or four-door design built on a chassis, but with a shorter roof and interior space.
Originating from the car on a Pullman passenger train that was well appointed. A notchback sedan is a sedan, where the passenger volume is clearly distinct from the trunk volume of the vehicle. The roof is on one plane, generally parallel to the ground, the window at a sharp angle to the roof. A fastback sedan is a sedan, with continuous slope from the roof to the base of the decklid. They are not fastbacks because their bodyline changes from the roof to the rear deck and their steeply raked rear windows end with a decklid that does not continue down to the bumper. Instead, their ends are tall — sometimes in a Kammback style — to increase trunk space. Typically this design is chosen for its aerodynamic advantages, automakers can no longer afford the penalty in fuel consumption produced by the traditional notchback three box form. In historic terminology, a sedan will have a frame around the door windows, a true hardtop design has no center or B pillar for roof support behind the front doors).
This pillarless body style offers greater visibility, however, it requires extra underbody strengthening for structural rigidity. The hardtop design can be considered separately, or it can be called a hardtop sedan, during the 1960s and 1970s, hardtop sedans were often sold as sport sedans by several American manufacturers and they were among the top selling body styles
The Ferrari 250 is a sports car built by Ferrari from 1953 to 1964. The companys most successful line, the 250 series included several variants. It was replaced by the 275 and the 330, most 250 road cars share the same two wheelbases,2,400 mm for short wheelbase and 2,600 mm for long wheelbase. Most convertibles used the SWB type, nearly all 250s share the same Colombo Tipo 125 V12 engine. At 2,953 cc, it was notable for its weight and impressive output of up to 300 PS in the Testa Rossa. The V12 weighed hundreds of less than its chief competitors — for example. Ferrari uses the displacement of a cylinder as the model designation. The light V12 propelled the small Ferrari 250 racing cars to numerous victories, typical of Ferrari, the Colombo V12 made its debut on the race track, with the racing 250s preceding the street cars by three years. The first 250 was the experimental 250 S berlinetta prototype entered in the 1952 Mille Miglia for Giovanni Bracco, the car was entered at Le Mans and in the Carrera Panamericana.
The 250 S used a 2,250 mm wheelbase with a Tuboscocca tubular trellis frame, suspension was by double wishbones at the front, with double longitudinal semi-elliptic springs locating the live axle at the rear. The car had the drum brakes and worm-and-sector steering typical of the period, the dry-sump 3.0 L engine used three Weber 36DCF carburettors and was mated directly to a five-speed manual transmission. Following the success of the 250 S in the Mille Miglia, Pinin Farina created coupé bodywork which had a small grille, compact tail and panoramic rear window, and the new car was launched as the 250 MM at the 1953 Geneva Motor Show. Carrozzeria Vignales open barchetta version was a design whose recessed headlights. The 250 MMs wheelbase was longer than the 250 S at 2,400 mm, the V12 engines dry sump was omitted from the production car, and the transmission was reduced by one gear. Power was increased to 240 PS, the four-cylinder 625 TF and 735 S replaced the V12-powered 250 MM in 1953. The 250 MMs race debut was at the 1953 Giro di Sicilia with privateer Paulo Marzotto, a Carrozzeria Morelli-bodied 250 MM barchetta driven by Clemente Biondetti came fourth in the 1954 Mille Miglia.
The 1954250 Monza was and unusual hybrid of the light four-cylinder 750 Monza, the model used the 250 engine in the short-wheelbase chassis from the 750 Monza. The first two used the Pininfarina barchetta shape of the 750 Monza and a one-off 500 Mondial, two more 250 Monzas were built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, an early use of the now-familiar coachbuilder