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Berman Jewish DataBank

The Berman Jewish DataBank, founded as the North American Jewish Data Bank, is the central online source for social scientific studies of North American Jewry and world Jewish populations and communities. The DataBank's primary functions are to acquire and archive materials from quantitative studies of North American Jews, including data sets and reports, to encourage and aid the production and utilization of quantitative research on North American Jews; the DataBank maintains partnerships with the Berman Jewish Policy Archive and the University of Connecticut’s Center for Judaic Studies and Contemporary Jewish Life. The DataBank holds more than 375 surveys and studies of North American Jews, including more than 200 local community studies commissioned by local Jewish federations. Funding for the DataBank comes from an endowment provided by the Mandell and Madeleine Berman Foundation and from The Jewish Federations of North America, management is provided by JFNA; the DataBank's professional staff includes Laurence Kotler-Berkowtiz, Director of the Berman Jewish DataBank.

The Berman Jewish DataBank was founded as the North American Jewish Data Bank in 1986 and operated under that name until July 2013. Funded throughout that time by the Berman Foundation under an arrangement with the Jewish Federation system, the North American Jewish Data Bank was located at the City University of New York from 1986 until 2002, at Brandeis University and the University of Connecticut before moving to JFNA and changing names as of July 2013. Arnold Dashefsky, Director Emeritus Ron Miller, Senior Research Consultant Mandell L. Berman, founder of the Mandell L. and Madeleine H. Berman Foundation The Jewish Federations of North America Official website

Minimally conscious state

A minimally conscious state is a disorder of consciousness distinct from persistent vegetative state and locked-in syndrome. Unlike persistent vegetative state, patients with MCS have partial preservation of conscious awareness. MCS is a new category of disorders of consciousness; the natural history and longer term outcome of MCS have not yet been studied. The prevalence of MCS was estimated to be 112,000 to 280,000 pediatric cases; because minimally conscious state is a new criterion for diagnosis, there are few functional imaging studies of patients with this condition. Preliminary data has shown that overall cerebral metabolism is less than in those with conscious awareness and is higher but comparable to those in vegetative states. Activation in the medial parietal cortex and adjacent posterior cingulate cortex are brain regions that seem to differ between patients in MCS and those from vegetative states; these areas are most active during periods of conscious waking and are least active when in altered states of consciousness, such as general anesthesia, hypnotic state and Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome.

Auditory stimulation induced more widespread activation in the primary and pre-frontal associative areas of MCS patients than vegetative state patients. There were more cortiocortical functional connectivity between the auditory cortex and a large network of temporal and prefrontal cortices in MCS than vegetative states; these findings encourage treatments based on neuromodulatory and cognitive revalidation therapeutic strategies for patients with MCS. One study used diffusion tensor imaging in two case studies, they found. The lateral ventricles were increased in size, the corpus callosum and the periventricular white matter were diminished; the DTI maps showed that there was significant reduction of volume in the medial corpus callosum and other parts of the brain compared to normal subjects. They found markedly lower diffusion values in white matter and increased cerebral spinal fluid compartments. Cortical injuries at this level provides a particular favorable environment for sprouting of new axons to occur in the intact areas of the cortex, which may explain some of the greater recovery rates in minimally conscious state patients.

The axonal regrowth has been correlated with functional motor recovery. The regrowth and rerouting of the axons may explain some of the changes to brain structure; these findings support the efforts to prospectively and longitudinally characterize neuroplasticity in both brain structure and function following severe injuries. Utilizing DTI and other neuroimaging techniques may further shed light on the debates on long-distance cortical rewiring and may lead to better rehabilitation strategies; some areas of the brain that are correlated with the subjective experience of pain were activated in MCS patients when noxious stimulation was present. Positron emission tomography scans found increased blood flow to the secondary sensory cortex, posterior parietal cortex, premotor cortex, the superior temporal cortex; the pattern of activation, was with less spatial extent. Some parts of the brain were less activated than normal patients during noxious stimulus processing; these were the posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex, the occipital cortex.

Though functional brain imaging can objectively measure changes in brain function during noxious stimulation, the role of different areas of the brain in pain processing is only understood. Furthermore, there is still the problem of the subjective experience. MCS patients by definition cannot and reliably communicate their experiences. If they were able to answer the question "are you in pain?", there would not be a reliable response. Further clinical trials are needed to access the appropriateness of the use of analgesia in patients with MCS. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study found that minimally conscious state patients showed activation in auditory networks when they heard narratives that had meaningful content that were read forwards by a familiar voice; these activations were not seen. Another study compared patients in vegetative state and minimally conscious state in their ability to recognize language, they found that some patients in minimally conscious state demonstrated some evidence of preserved speech processing.

There was more activation in response to sentences compared to white noise. Minimally conscious state is defined as a condition of altered consciousness in which minimal but definite behavioral evidence of self or environmental awareness is demonstrated. Although MCS patients are able to demonstrate cognitively mediated behaviors, they occur inconsistently, they are, reproducible or can be sustained long enough to be differentiated from reflexive behavior. Because of this inconsistency, extended assessment may be required to determine if a simple response occurred because of a specific environmental event or was a coincidental behavior. Distinguishing between VS and MCS is difficult because the diagnosis is dependent on observation of behavior that show self or environmental awareness and because those behavioral responses are markedly reduced. One of the more common diagnostic errors involving disorders of consciousness is mistaking MCS for VS which may lead to serious repercussions related to clinical management.

Giacino et al. have suggested demonstration of the following behaviors in order to make the diagnosis of MCS. Following simple commands. Gestural or verbal ye

HMS Spartan (1806)

HMS Spartan was a Royal Navy 38-gun fifth-rate frigate, launched at Rochester in 1806. During the Napoleonic Wars she was active in the Ionian Islands, she moved to the American coast during the War of 1812, where she captured a number of small vessels, including a US Revenue Cutter and a privateer, the Dart. She returned to the Mediterranean, where she remained for a few years, she went on to serve off the American coast again, in the Caribbean, before being broken up in 1822. Spartan's first captain was George Airie, but he was soon replaced by Captain Jahleel Brenton, who took Spartan to the Adriatic Sea for service in the Adriatic campaign. In May 1807, Spartan engaged Annibal, two frigates, the corvette Victorieuse off Cabrera in the Mediterranean. Spartan was active in the region, attacking numerous French coastal convoys and small warships and in 1809 was employed in attacks on the Ionian Islands, landing troops on Zante and Cerigo in successful amphibious operations. Spartan was in action with HMS Mercury and HMS Amphion at Pesaro on 23 April, at Cesenatico on 2 May.

In 1810, Spartan was operating off Naples and there fought and inconclusive engagement against a much larger Neapolitan squadron on 3 May, for which Brenton was rewarded. In 1811, Brenton's brother Edward Pelham Brenton took command and operated off the American Eastern Seaboard during the War of 1812, attacking shipping off Cape Sable but otherwise having little success against American merchant ships. In July 1812, Spartan and Emulous captured two American vessels: 17 July: brig George, of 211 tons, sailing from Messina to Salem with a cargo of wine, opium, etc.. The boats of Spartan and Maidstone captured the US Revenue Cutter Commodore Barry on 3 August in the Little River, Bay of Fundy, together with three privateer schooners, Madison and Spence. Commodore Barry was armed with six guns and each of the schooners was armed with two guns. Before the British captured the vessels their crews escaped, they had erected batteries on shore. They resisted, inflicting some casualties, but evaded capture.

So, some men were captured on Commodore Barry and remained prisoners of war until paroled in June 1813. Prize money to the crew of the Spartan for the Commodore Barry was paid in July 1820. Spartan was part of Sir John Borlase Warren's squadron when on 17 September she captured Melantho, an American ship returning from Chile and bound to Baltimore. Spartan sent Melantho into Halifax, Nova Scotia, where the Vice admiralty court condemned her in prize. Spartan shared the prize money with Statira, Nymphe, Maidstone and Emulous. On 17 October 1812 Maidstone and Spartan were in company when Maidstone captured the American privateer brig Rapid on the Saint George's Bank. Rapid, of 190 tons, John Weeks, was armed with 14 cannon – twelve carronades of various sizes and two long 6-pounder guns – but her crew had thrown eight of her cannons overboard to lighten her during the nine-hour chase, she was three days out of Portland. Her backers had provisioned her for a three-month cruise first off the Azores and the Cape Verde Islands, off Cayenne and Bermuda.

The British took Rapid into service as Nova Scotia. In 1814, Spartan returned to Portsmouth, where command passed to Phipps Hornby, who served with her in the Mediterranean. While commander of Spartan, Hornby participated in the capture of Elba from the French, for which he was invested with the Austrian order of St Joseph of Würzburg. With the end of the war in 1815, Spartan remained in the Mediterranean under Captain William Furlong Wise, who in 1818 was able to negotiate compensation of $35,000 from the current Dey of Algiers following the depredations of Algerian pirates under the previous Dey, who had died of the plague. In 1819 and 1820, Spartan visited the North America. Spartan was laid up and broken up in 1822. Citations References James, The Naval History of Great Britain, from the Declaration of War by France in 1793, to the Accession of George IV. R. Bentley Smith, Joshua M. Battle for the Bay: The Naval War of 1812. Fredericton, NB: Goose Lane Publications. Wells, William R. II "US Revenue Cutters Captured in the War of 1812".

The American Neptune Vol. 58, No. 3, pp. 225–41. Ships of the Old Navy

Philippine–Japanese Friendship Tower

The Philippine–Japanese Friendship Tower is a monument in Bagac, Philippines. The site of the Friendship Tower in Bagac, Bataan is located about 200 meters from where the Bataan Death March of April 1942 took place which caused the deaths of 10,000 war prisoners. After World War II, Japan started rebuilding its relations with the Philippines which saw Japanese nationals doing civic programs in Bataan in cooperation with the local government despite anti-Japanese sentiment in Bataan due to the war. Risshō Kōsei Kai, a Japanese Buddhist religious group and locals who established the Bataan Christian Youth Civic Circle were the ones responsible for the erection of the monument; the monument was inaugurated in April 8, 1975 and is meant to commemorate the cordial Post-World War II Japan–Philippines relations. On the following day, a bell, imported from Japan was ceremonially rang by Bagac Mayor Atilano Ricardo and RKK youth head Rev. Kinjiro Niwano; the Friendship Tower is a structure. It has a height of 27 meters.

The structure hosts a hanged peace

Patricia Herlihy

Patricia Herlihy was an American historian and author specializing in Russian and Soviet history. When Herlihy was six months old her divorced mother moved to China, where they lived for five years. During this time, she learned Chinese and some English. In adolescence, she met her future husband, David Herlihy, together they lived and studied in Pisa and Florence, lived in France for a year. One of their sons is the historian of David V. Herlihy. After returning to the United States, Herlihy taught Russian history at the Harvard Extension School. In 1985 Herlihy visited Odessa, Ukraine for three months, which would be the subject of several books and articles. After returning to the United States, the Herlihys accepted tenured positions at Brown University, where she continued to work, she taught at Emmanuel College. Herlihy, Patricia; the Alcoholic Empire: Vodka and Politics in Late Imperial Russia. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516095-9. Herlihy, Patricia. Odessa: A History, 1794–1914. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

ISBN 0-916458-15-6. ISBN 0-916458-43-1. Herlihy, Patricia. Port Jews of Odessa and Trieste: A Tale of Two Cities. München: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt. ISBN 3-421-05522-X. Kaufman, Bel. Nicholas V. Iljine. Odessa Memories. Oleg Gubar, Alexander Rozenboim. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98345-0. Herlihy, Patricia. Commerce and Architecture in Odessa in Late Imperial Russia. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6750-9. In the book Commerce in Russian Urban Culture 1861–1914. Herlihy, Patricia. "The Persuasive Power of the Odessa Myth". Ukrainian Research Institute, Harvard University. Works by or about Patricia Herlihy at Internet Archive

Sex-limited genes

Sex-limited genes are genes that are present in both sexes of sexually reproducing species but are expressed in only one sex and remain'turned off' in the other. In other words, sex-limited genes cause the two sexes to show different traits or phenotypes, despite having the same genotype; this term is restricted to autosomal traits, should not be confused with sex-linked characteristics, which have to do with genetic differences on the sex chromosomes. Sex-limited genes are distinguished from sex-influenced genes, where the same gene will show differential expression in each sex. Sex-influenced genes show a dominant/recessive relationship, where the same gene will have a dominant effect in one sex and a recessive effect in the other. Sex-limited genes are responsible for sexual dimorphism, a phenotypic difference between males and females of the same species; these differences can be reflected in size, color and morphology. An example of sex-limited genes are genes which control horn development in sheep: while both males and females possess the same genes controlling horn development, they are only expressed in males.

Sex-limited genes are responsible for some female beetles' inability to grow exaggerated mandibles, research, discussed in detail in this article. The overall purpose of sex-limited genes is to resolve intralocus sexual conflict. In fact, these genes try to resolve the "push-pull" between males and females over trait values for optimal phenotype. Without these genes, organisms would be forced to settle on an average trait value, incurring costs on both sexes. With these genes, it is possible to'turn off' the genes in one sex, allowing both sexes to attain their optimal phenotypes; the idea of sex-limited genes was developed by Charles Darwin in 1871 in his book The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. He did not distinguish between sex-limited, sex-linked, sex-influenced genes, but referred to any gene that expresses differently between sexes as sex-limited. While this concept was still in its infancy, Darwin catalyzed the further development of sex-related selection. Thomas Hunt Morgan, aware of this confusing terminology, published an article in The American Naturalist in 1914 titled "Sex-Linked and Sex-Limited Inheritance," which proposed definitions of sex-linked genes and sex-limited genes.

Morgan's paper was followed by several others involving sex-limited genes and their expression as traits. One of the more notable example is John H. Gerould's "Inheritance of White Wing Color, a Sex-Limited Variation in Yellow Pierid Butterflies," published in Genetics in 1923. Gerould observed the phenotypic differences between male and female Pierid Butterflies and determined colouration to be a sex-limited trait. To conclude the notable advancements in the early stages of the development of sex-limited genes, a brief discussion of R. A. Fisher is necessary. Hailed as one of the best evolutionary biologists of his time, Fisher was a talented geneticist, his book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, published in 1930, over 20 years before the double-helix shape of DNA was discovered, was the first attempt to explain Darwin's theories within the foundation of genetics. Chapter 6 of this book is titled "Sexual Reproduction and Sexual Selection" and includes a genetic interpretation of Darwin's initial idea of sex-limited genes.

After these groundbreaking works, papers continue to be published further exploring the causes, evolutionary advantages, more of sex-limited genes. The genetic study of sexual dimorphism, published in Evolution, hypotheses two methods which leads to different ornamental characteristics in male and female birds; the alleles responsible for sexual dimorphism can be limited to expression in only one sex when they first appear, or the alleles could begin by being expressed in both sexes become modified in one sex by modifier genes or regulatory elements. The concept of this study was to examine female hybrids from species where males displayed different types of ornamental traits; the assumption is that different hypotheses about male-specific expression will yield different results in female hybrids. The methods and materials of the experiment are discussed in detail in the paper, but the important result that emerged was that NO female hybrids expressed any of the ornamental traits found in the parent males.

Two interpretations of these results are possible: the dimorphic alleles were only expressed in males, or the alleles were expressed in both and were suppressed in females or became limited to males by regulatory regions that are dominant in hybrids. The most genomic explanation for initial expression in both species modification is involvement of cis-dominance, where the factors that modify the gene are located next to the gene on the chromosome; these factors can be in the form of promoter regions, which can be either suppressed or activated by hormones. This experiment demonstrates that these alleles come under regulatory control quickly; this is because none of the ornamentation seen in males is seen in the next generation. These conclusions make it that at least some male-specific genes cue their expression by hormone levels, such as threshold ratios of estrogen and testosterone; because se