United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America. It consists of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard; the President of the United States is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and forms military policy with the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, both federal executive departments, acting as the principal organs by which military policy is carried out. All five armed services are among the seven uniformed services of the United States. From the time of its inception, the U. S. Armed Forces played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of national unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. So, the founders of the United States were suspicious of a permanent military force, it played a critical role in the American Civil War, continuing to serve as the armed forces of the United States, although a number of its officers resigned to join the military of the Confederate States.
The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold War's onset, created the modern U. S. military framework. The Act established the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense, it was amended in 1949, renaming the National Military Establishment the Department of Defense, merged the cabinet-level Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, Department of the Air Force, into the Department of Defense. The U. S. Armed Forces are one of the largest militaries in terms of the number of personnel, it draws its personnel from a large pool of paid volunteers. Although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since 1973, but the Selective Service System retains the power to conscript males, requires that all male citizens and residents residing in the U. S. between the ages of 18–25 register with the service. On February 22, 2019, however, a federal judge ruled that registering only males for Selective Service is unconstitutional.
As of 2017, the U. S. spends about US$610 billion annually to fund its military forces and Overseas Contingency Operations. Put together, the U. S. constitutes 40 percent of the world's military expenditures. The U. S. Armed Forces has significant capabilities in both defense and power projection due to its large budget, resulting in advanced and powerful technologies which enables a widespread deployment of the force around the world, including around 800 military bases outside the United States; the U. S. Air Force is the world's largest air force, the U. S. Navy is the world's largest navy by tonnage, the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Marine Corps combined are the world's second largest air arm. In terms of size, the U. S. Coast Guard is the world's 12th largest naval force; the history of the U. S. Armed Forces dates to 14 June 1775, with the creation of the Continental Army before the Declaration of Independence marked the establishment of the United States; the Continental Navy, established on 13 October 1775, Continental Marines, established on 10 November 1775, were created in close succession by the Second Continental Congress in order to defend the new nation against the British Empire in the American Revolutionary War.
These forces demobilized in 1784. The Congress of the Confederation created the current United States Army on 3 June 1784; the United States Congress created the current United States Navy on 27 March 1794 and the current United States Marine Corps on 11 July 1798. All three services trace their origins to their respective Continental predecessors; the 1787 adoption of the Constitution gave the Congress the power to "raise and support armies", to "provide and maintain a navy" and to "make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces", as well as the power to declare war. The President is the U. S. Armed Forces' commander-in-chief; the United States Coast Guard traces its origin to the founding of the Revenue Cutter Service on 4 August 1790 which merged with the United States Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915 to establish the Coast Guard. The United States Air Force was established as an independent service on 18 September 1947. S. Signal Corps, formed 1 August 1907 and was part of the Army Air Forces before becoming an independent service as per the National Security Act of 1947.
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps was considered to be a branch of the United States Armed Forces from 29 July 1945 until its status as such was revoked on 3 July 1952. On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. If approved, this would become the sixth military service branch to be created. Command over the U. S. Armed Forces is established in the Constitution; the sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief. The Constitution presumes the existence of "executive Departments" headed by "principal officers", whose appointment mechanism is provided for in the Appointments Clause; this allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act. The DoD is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a civilian and member of the Cabinet.
The Defense Secretary is second in the U. S. Armed Forces chain of command, with the exception of the Coast Guard, under the Secretary of Homeland Security, is just below the President and serves as the
Barbados–United Kingdom relations
Barbados–United Kingdom relations are the relations between the governments of Barbados and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The historical ties between the two countries are long and complex, including settlement, post-colonialism and modern bilateral relations; the two countries are related through common history spanning thirty-nine years. Since the Barbadian date of independence, these nations continue to share ties through the Commonwealth of Nations, as two of sixteen separate nations across the globe co-existing through sharing of the same Head of State, Queen Elizabeth II as their Monarch. Barbados was one of the oldest English settlements in the West Indies, being surpassed only by Saint Kitts; the first English settlement close to Holetown in Barbados was established seventy-four years before the Acts of Union created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 2016 the British Prime Minister congratulated Barbados for its 50th anniversary of independence, expressed desire for continued close "enduring partnership" between nations.
The British High Commission in Bridgetown was established in 1966. A concurrent Barbadian High Commission is located in England; the historic relationship between Barbados and Britain dates back to the 17th century. On a voyage from Brazil, Captain John Powell claimed Barbados in the name of England in 1625. Upon returning to England, his employer Sir William Courteen instructed John Powell to return to Barbados with settlers. John Powell's ship returned to England having not located the island. A second voyage led by Captain Henry Powell in 1627 was successful. A group of 80 English settlers, established the first permanent European settlement on the island of Barbados on 17 February 1627 at present-day town of Holetown, Saint James. Barbados was transformed into a "proprietary colony" of Courteen's, until a claim on the isle was disputed by James Hay, 1st Earl of Carlisle who had proven that King Charles I of England granted him title for the infant colony. From the first European settlement at St. James Town, until Barbadian independence in 1966, the island remained the only Caribbean island which never changed hands among European nations following settlement.
With the early introduction of sugar cane, Barbados became one of the richest of England's colonies in the world. The far eastern location of Barbados made the colony a major commercial centre for Trans-Atlantic trade with the British city of Bristol. In the early 1900s Barbados served as one of the main interconnection points of the British Empire's All Red Line. Although Barbados has had strong ties with the UK since the first European settlement, the UK is tied with the European Union for trade; this has prompted Barbados and other former nations of the British West Indies nations to seek new markets for trade expansion within the Americas. As such the trade and cultural relations with these separate blocks have become dominant; the government of the United Kingdom has consolidated several of its High Commissions with a large number of the Eastern Caribbean offices transferring duties to Bridgetown office. As Commonwealth realms, the two countries share a monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, both are active members of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and the African and Pacific–EU's Joint Parliamentary Assembly.
The Central Bank of Barbados is one of several monetary bodies that print its banknotes with De La Rue of England. In 2011 the British High Commissioner to Bridgetown regarded that: “the relationship with the UK and Barbados is strong and positive and the ties remain close, it is a good and warm relationship and Barbados remains the destination of choice for the UK.”In 2012 the UK's Minister of State for the Independent Caribbean in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Henry Bellingham stated: "Barbados is the island with which the UK has the strongest and most natural relationship. In 2008 British exports to Barbados stood at £38.0 million. This has placed Barbados as Britain's fourth-largest export market in the region; the British-based telecommunications company Cable and Wireless, is the incumbent telephone service provider for the entire country of Barbados. After years of negotiations the British Broadcasting Corporation re-entered the Barbadian radio market by launching an FM relay station in November 2009.
The BBC World Service can now be heard throughout the country on the frequency 92.1 FM. In 2011, British Foreign Office Minister, Jeremy Browne visited Barbados to meet with various government ministers and UK businesses from the tourism sector based in Barbados. Following the meeting Mr. Browne stated that the British government understood the Barbados government's concerns about the air passenger duty and its possible impact on the tourism with Barbados; the United Kingdom maintained a strong military presence on the island of Barbados. The first imperial troops to land in Barbados were forces of Sir George Ayscue in 1651. From a militia was established and a number of watchtowers were strategically placed along the island's high-points to spot and relay any acts of aggression or invasion attempts toward the former colony. Thereafter in 1780, a more permanent command of imperial troops were s
Argentina–United Kingdom relations
Argentina–United Kingdom relations refers to foreign relations between the Republic of Argentina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 December 1823. Diplomatic relations were cut off before the Falklands War in 1982 and were reinstated in 1990. Post-war relations between the two countries improved up until the mid-2000s. During the government of Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, relations became tense, with both countries reasserting their claims to the Falkland Islands. In 2016, British Prime Minister David Cameron and Argentine President Mauricio Macri held a meeting where they agreed to begin a new stage of dialogue and friendship between the two countries and reaffirming the strong relationship the two countries have historically. Argentina has an embassy in London and the United Kingdom has an embassy in Buenos Aires; the current British Ambassador to Argentina is Mark Kent and the current Argentine Ambassador to the United Kingdom is Renato Carlos Sersale di Cerisano.
Both states are members of the G-20. The modern territory of Argentina was part of the Spanish Empire; the Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute was a dispute of Spain and Britain, with events such as the Falklands Crisis of 1770. Spain allied with France against Britain during the Napoleonic Wars, so Britain launched two British invasions of the Río de la Plata; the first invasion in 1806 captured Buenos Aires. However the city was soon liberated by Santiago de Liniers with forces from Montevideo. A second invasion in 1807 took Montevideo, but failed to capture Buenos Aires a second time, Montevideo was returned to Spain during the surrender. France attacked Spain and Spain allied with Britain, so the British made no further attacks at the Río de la Plata; the Peninsular War, the social changes caused by the huge militarization of the people of Buenos Aires and other local and international influences led to the May Revolution, which began the Argentine War of Independence. Britain stayed neutral during the conflict, accepted the Argentine Declaration of Independence on 15 December 1823.
The formal relations were established with the Treaty of Friendship and Navigation Between Argentina and the United Kingdom. The two countries established diplomatic relations on 15 December 1823. During the National Organization period, Argentina began to outline a foreign policy favouring relations with Britain, which became the main buyer of Argentine raw materials and the major source of investment in the country. By mid century, London bankers were sending in capital, to invest in railways, packing houses, utilities. London sent in 3000 agents to handle shipping and banking. In 1865, during the Liberal government of Bartolome Mitre British involvement was tested by the conduct of the Paraguayan War of Argentina and Brazil against the Republic of Paraguay. During the government of Nicolas Avellaneda, the Conquest of the Desert, 1879 he favoured the establishment, in the newly conquered lands of immigrant settlers, dissemination of railroads of British capital, cattle and sheep raising. Product of a series of geographical expeditions to Patagonia, the Strait of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego made by the Argentine explorer Francisco Pascasio Moreno and Chilean expert Diego Barros Arana between 1873 and 1879, Argentina in 1881 signed the Treaty of limits with Chile.
In 1896, problems with the demarcation, the decision had to undergo an arbitration award in Britain. At that time, Moreno was appointed expert on behalf of the Argentine government. In a gesture of brotherhood, 15 February 1899 was found in the Strait of Magellan, Argentine President Julio Argentino Roca and Chilean President Federico Errazuriz Echaurren, in what became known as the "Embrace of the Straits"; the British award was ratified by the General Treaty of Arbitration of 1902 signed in Santiago by Acting Foreign Minister Jose A. Terry, criticized on the home front because of the concessions that the country did to Chile and because subjected to perpetual conflict resolution between the two countries to the British crown. In 1902, the chancellor of the second government of Julio Argentino Roca, Dr. Luis María Drago, made an outstanding performance in his defence of Latin American sovereignty against the sea blockade of Venezuela imposed by Britain and Italy as punishment for debts that Venezuela had with those countries, that the president Cipriano Castro refused to pay.
The Roca–Runciman Treaty was signed between the countries on 1 May 1933. It was a trade agreement to help Argentina avoid the effects of a pro-Commonwealth policy, in exchange for lower taxes for imported products from the UK, it was signed by Vice President of Argentina, Julio Argentino Pascual Roca – a request of the president Agustín Pedro Justo and Walter Runciman. Britain was the main purchaser of Argentine grain. During the Second World War, Argentina refused to go along with the American anti-German policies. Washington responded by trying to shut down Argentine exports. President Franklin Roosevelt asked Prime Minister Winston Churchill to stop buying Argentine beef and grain. Churchill refused. On 2 April 1982, Argentina under President Leopoldo Galtieri launched an invasion of the Falkland Islands and on 3 April 1982 this was followed by the Argentine invasion of South Georgia Island; this resulted in the British deploying forces to the Falkland Islands to fight in the Falklands War. The war led to a breach of diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom.
Argentina appointed Brazil as its protecting power in Britain, while