Josep Maria Carreras i Coll, better known as José Carreras, is a Spanish tenor, known for his performances in the operas of Verdi and Puccini. Born in Barcelona, he made his debut on the operatic stage at 11 as Trujamán in Manuel de Falla's El retablo de Maese Pedro and went on to a career that encompassed over 60 roles, performed in the world's leading opera houses and in numerous recordings, he gained fame with a wider audience as one of the Three Tenors along with Plácido Domingo and Luciano Pavarotti in a series of mass concerts that began in 1990 and continued until 2003. Carreras is known for his humanitarian work as the president of the José Carreras International Leukaemia Foundation, which he established following his own recovery from the disease in 1988. Carreras was born in a working class district in Barcelona, he was the youngest of Josep Carreras i Soler's three children. In 1951, his family emigrated to Argentina in an unsuccessful search for a better life. However, within a year they had returned to Sants where Carreras was to spend the rest of his childhood and teenage years.
He showed an early talent for music and singing, which intensified at the age of 6 when he saw Mario Lanza in The Great Caruso. The story recounted in his autobiography and numerous interviews is that after seeing the film, Carreras sang the arias incessantly to his family "La donna è mobile" locking himself in the family's bathroom when they became exasperated with his impromptu concerts. At that point, his parents, with the encouragement of his grandfather Salvador Coll, an amateur baritone, found the money for music lessons for him. At first he studied piano and voice with Magda Prunera, the mother of one of his childhood friends, at the age of 8, he started taking music lessons at Barcelona's Municipal Conservatory. At the age of 8, he gave his first public performance, singing "La donna è mobile" accompanied by Magda Prunera on the piano, on Spanish National Radio. A recording of this still exists and can be heard on the video biography, José Carreras – A Life Story. On 3 January 1958, at the age of 11, he made his debut in Barcelona's great opera house, the Gran Teatre del Liceu, singing the boy soprano role of Trujamán in Manuel de Falla's El retablo de Maese Pedro.
A few months he sang for the last time as a boy soprano at the Liceu in the second act of La Bohème. Throughout his teenage years, he continued to study music, moving on to the Conservatori Superior de Música del Liceu and taking private voice lessons, first with Francisco Puig and with Juan Ruax, whom Carreras has described as his "artistic father". Following the advice of his father and brother, who felt that he needed a'backup' career, he entered the University of Barcelona to study chemistry, but after two years he left the university to concentrate on singing. Juan Ruax encouraged Carreras to audition for what was to become his first tenor role at the Liceu, Flavio in Norma, which opened on 8 January 1970. Although only a minor role, the few phrases he sang caught the attention of the production's leading lady, the eminent soprano and fellow Catalan, Montserrat Caballé, she asked him to sing Gennaro with her in Donizetti's Lucrezia Borgia, which opened on 19 December 1970. It was his first principal adult role, the one which he considers to be his true debut as a tenor.
In 1971, he made his international debut in a concert performance of Maria Stuarda in London's Royal Festival Hall, again with Caballé singing the title role. Caballé was instrumental in promoting and encouraging his career for many years, appearing in over 15 different operas with him, while her brother and manager, Carlos Caballé, was Carreras's manager until the mid-1990s. During the 1970s Carreras's career progressed rapidly. In late 1971, he won first prize in Parma's prestigious Voci Verdiane competition which led to his Italian debut as Rodolfo in La bohème at the Teatro Regio di Parma on 12 January 1972; that year he made his American debut as Pinkerton in Madama Butterfly with the New York City Opera. Other major house debuts followed – the San Francisco Opera in 1973, as Rodolfo. By the age of 28, he had sung the tenor lead in 24 different operas in both Europe and North America, had an exclusive recording contract with Philips, which resulted in valuable recordings of several less performed Verdi operas, notably Il Corsaro, I due Foscari, La battaglia di Legnano, Un giorno di regno and Stiffelio.
Carreras's leading ladies during the 1970s and 1980s included some of the most famous sopranos and mezzo-sopranos of the day: Montserrat Caballé, Birgit Nilsson, Viorica Cortez, Renata Scotto, Ileana Cotrubaş, Sylvia Sass, Teresa Stratas, Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, Frederica von Stade, Agnes Baltsa, Teresa Berganza, Katia Ricciarelli. His artistic partnership with Ricciarelli began when they both sang in the 1972 La bohème at Parma and lasted for 13 years, both in the recording studio and on stage, they made a studio recording of La bohème for Philips Classics and can be heard together on over 12 other commercial recordings of both operas and recitals, predominantly on the Philips and Deutsche Grammophon labels. Of the many conductors he worked with during this period, the one with whom Carreras had the closest artis
An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, backstage facilities for costumes and set building. While some venues are constructed for operas, other opera houses are part of larger performing arts centers. Indeed the term opera house itself is used as a term of prestige for any large performing-arts center; the first public opera house was the Teatro San Cassiano in Venice, opened in 1637. Italy is a country where opera has been popular through the centuries among ordinary people as well as wealthy patrons and it continues to have a large number of working opera houses such as Teatro Massimo in Palermo, Teatro di San Carlo in Naples and Teatro La Scala in Milan. In contrast, there was no opera house in London when Henry Purcell was composing and the first opera house in Germany was built in Hamburg in 1678. In the 17th and 18th centuries, opera houses were financed by rulers and wealthy people who used patronage of the arts to endorse their political ambition and social position.
With the rise of bourgeois and capitalist social forms in the 19th century, European culture moved away from its patronage system to a publicly supported system. Early United States opera houses served a variety of functions in towns and cities, hosting community dances, fairs and vaudeville shows as well as operas and other musical events. In the 2000s, most opera and theatre companies are supported by funds from a combination of government and institutional grants, ticket sales, private donations; the Teatro San Carlo in Naples, opened in 1737, introduced the horseshoe-shaped auditorium, the oldest in the world, a model for the Italian theater. On this model were built subsequent theaters in Italy and Europe, among others, the court theater of the Palace of Caserta, which became the model for other theaters. Given the popularity of opera in 18th and 19th century Europe, opera houses are large containing more than 1,000 seats. Traditionally, Europe's major opera houses built in the 19th century contained between about 1,500 to 3,000 seats, examples being Brussels' La Monnaie, Odessa Opera and Ballet Theater, Warsaw's Grand Theatre, Paris' Palais Garnier, the Royal Opera House in London and the Vienna State Opera.
Modern opera houses of the 20th century such as New York's Metropolitan Opera House and the War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco are larger. Many operas are better suited to being presented in smaller theaters, such as Venice's La Fenice with about 1,000 seats. In a traditional opera house, the auditorium is U-shaped, with the length of the sides determining the audience capacity. Around this are tiers of balconies, nearer to the stage, are boxes. Since the latter part of the 19th century, opera houses have an orchestra pit, where a large number of orchestra players may be seated at a level below the audience, so that they can play without overwhelming the singing voices; this is true of Wagner's Bayreuth Festspielhaus where the pit is covered. The size of an opera orchestra varies, but for some operas and other works, it may be large. An opera may have a large cast of characters, chorus and supernumeraries. Therefore, a major opera house will have extensive dressing room facilities. Opera houses have on-premises set and costume building shops and facilities for storage of costumes, make-up, stage properties, may have rehearsal spaces.
Major opera houses throughout the world have mechanized stages, with large stage elevators permitting heavy sets to be changed rapidly. At the Metropolitan Opera, for instance, sets are changed during the action, as the audience watches, with singers rising or descending as they sing; this occurs in Tales of Hoffman. London's Royal Opera House, remodeled in the late 1990s, retained the original 1858 auditorium at its core, but added new backstage and wing spaces as well as an additional performance space and public areas. Much the same happened in the remodeling of Milan's La Scala opera house between 2002 and 2004. Although stage and other production aspects of opera houses make use of the latest technology, traditional opera houses have not used sound reinforcement systems with microphones and loudspeakers to amplify the singers, since trained opera singers are able to project their unamplified voices in the hall. Since the 1990s, some opera houses have begun using a subtle form of sound reinforcement called acoustic enhancement.
Operas are presented in their original languages, which may be different from the first language of the audience. For example, a Wagnerian opera presented in London may be in German. Therefore, since the 1980s modern opera houses have assisted the audience by providing translated supertitles, projections of the words above or near to the stage. More electronic libretto systems have begun to be used in some opera houses, including New York's Metropolitan Opera, Milan's La Scala, the Crosby Theatre of The Santa Fe Opera, which provide two lines of text on individual screens attached to the backs of the seats so as to not interfere with the visual aspects of the performance. A subtle type of sound reinforcement called acoustic enhancement is used in some opera hou
José Plácido Domingo Embil is a Spanish opera singer and arts administrator. He has recorded over a hundred complete operas and is well known for his versatility performing in Italian, German, Spanish and Russian in the most prestigious opera houses in the world. Although a lirico-spinto tenor for most of his career popular for his Cavaradossi, Don José, Canio, he moved into more dramatic roles, becoming the most acclaimed Otello of his generation. In the early 2010s, he transitioned from the tenor repertory into exclusively baritone parts, most notably Simon Boccanegra, he has performed 149 different roles. Domingo has achieved significant success as a crossover artist in the genres of Latin and popular music. In addition to winning fourteen Grammy and Latin Grammy Awards, several of his records have gone silver, gold and multi-platinum, his first pop album, Perhaps Love, spread his fame beyond the opera world. The title song, performed as a duet with country and folk singer John Denver, has sold four million copies and helped lead to numerous television appearances for the tenor.
He starred in many cinematically released and televised opera movies under the direction of Franco Zeffirelli. In 1990, he began singing with fellow tenors Luciano Pavarotti and José Carreras as part of The Three Tenors; the first Three Tenors recording became the best-selling classical album of all time. Growing up working in his parents' zarzuela company in Mexico, Domingo has since promoted this form of Spanish opera, he increasingly conducts operas and concerts and is the general director of the Los Angeles Opera in California as of 2017. He was the artistic director and general director of the Washington National Opera from 1996–2011, he has been involved in numerous humanitarian works, as well as efforts to help young opera singers, including starting and running the international singing competition, Operalia. Plácido Domingo was born on 21 January 1941 in the Retiro district of Spain, his mother recalled that she and her husband knew he would be a musician from the age of five, due to his ability to hum complex music from a zarzuela after seeing a performance of it.
In 1949, just days before his eighth birthday, he moved to Mexico with his family. His parents, both singers, had decided to start a zarzuela company there after a successful tour of Latin America. Soon after arriving in Mexico, Domingo won a singing contest for boys, his parents recruited him and his sister for children's roles in their zarzuela productions. Domingo studied piano from a young age, at first and at the National Conservatory of Music in Mexico City, which he entered when he was fourteen. At the conservatory, he attended conducting classes taught by Igor Markevitch and studied voice under Carlo Morelli, the brother of Renato Zanelli; the two brothers were famous practitioners of both tenor roles. Domingo's conservatory classes constituted the entirety of his formal vocal instruction. In 1957, at age sixteen, Domingo made his first professional appearance, accompanying his mother on the piano at a concert at Mérida, Yucatán; the same year he made his major zarzuela debut in Manuel Fernández Caballero's Gigantes y cabezudos, singing a baritone role.
At that time, he was working with his parents' zarzuela company taking several baritone roles and acting as an accompanist for other singers. The following year, the tenor in another company's touring production of Luisa Fernanda fell ill. In his first performance as a tenor, Domingo replaced the ailing singer, although he feared the part's tessitura was too high for him; that same year, he sang the tenor role of Rafael in the Spanish opera El gato montés, illustrating his willingness to assay the tenor range as he still considered himself a baritone. On 12 May 1959 at the Teatro Degollado in Guadalajara, he appeared in the baritone role of Pascual in Emilio Arrieta's Marina. Like El gato montés, Marina is an opera composed in the zarzuela musical style rather than a zarzuela proper, although both are performed by zarzuela companies. In addition to his work with zarzuelas, among his earliest performances was a minor role in the first Latin American production of the musical My Fair Lady, in which he was the assistant conductor and assistant coach.
While he was a member, the company gave 185 performances of the musical in various cities in Mexico. In 1959, Domingo auditioned for the Mexico National Opera at the Palacio de Béllas Artes as a baritone, but was asked to sight-read the tenor aria "Amor ti vieta" from Fedora, he was accepted at the National Opera as a tutor for other singers. In what he considered his operatic debut, Domingo sang the minor role of Borsa in Verdi's Rigoletto on September 23 at the Palacio de Bellas Artes in a production with veteran American baritones Cornell MacNeil and Norman Treigle, he appeared as the Padre Confessor in Dialogues of the Carmelites and Pang in Turandot and Arturo in Lucia di Lammermoor among other small parts. While at the National Opera, he appeared in a production of Lehár's operetta, The Merry Widow, in which he alternated as Camille and Danilo. Domingo made his debut in Verdi's Otello at Béllas Artes at age 21 in the summer of 1962 not in the title rôle for which he has now been internationally famous for decades as one of its greatest interpreters, but in the small compri
Maria Margarethe Anna Schell was an Austrian-Swiss actress. She ranged among the stars of German cinema in the'60s. In 1954 she was awarded the Cannes Best Actress Award for her performance in Helmut Käutner's war drama The Last Bridge and in 1956 won the Volpi Cup for Best Actress at the Venice Film Festival for Gervaise. Schell was born in the Austrian capital Vienna, the daughter of actress Margarethe, who ran an acting school, Hermann Ferdinand Schell, a Swiss poet, novelist and owner of a pharmacy, her parents were Roman Catholics. She was the older sister of actor Maximilian Schell and lesser-known actors Carl Schell and Immy Schell. After the Anschluss in 1938, her family moved to Zürich in Switzerland. Maria Schell began commercial training, but soon entered the film business when she met the Swiss actor and director Sigfrit Steiner. Schell premiered in Steiner's 1942 film Steibruch, side by side with the well-known Swiss actor Heinrich Gretler, took acting lessons for several theatre engagements.
After World War II, she was cast in her first leading role in the 1948 film The Angel with the Trumpet, directed by Karl Hartl. She starred in such films as The Magic Box, Dr. Holl, So The Heart of the Matter, her emotional acting earned her the nickname Seelchen, coined by her colleague Oskar Werner. The 1956 film Gervaise directed by René Clément was a nominee for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Schell starred with Gary Cooper in The Hanging Tree and with Glenn Ford in Cimarron. Other famous movie parts included Le notti bianche, Rose Bernd, Superman. Schell played Mother Maria in the sequel to Lilies of the Field called Christmas Lilies of the Field and starred opposite such actors as Marcello Mastroianni, Suzy Delair, Marlon Brando. In 1976 she starred in a Kojak episode and had three guest appearances in the German television series Der Kommissar and two in Derrick, in the episodes "Yellow He" and "Klavierkonzert". Schell appeared on stage, including an acclaimed performance in the 1976 Broadway play Poor Murderer by Pavel Kohout and the leading role in Friedrich Dürrenmatt's play The Visit with the Schauspielhaus Zürich ensemble.
Schell was married twice, first to film director Horst Hächler and second to director Veit Relin. Her daughter by her second marriage, actress Marie Theres Relin, was married to Bavarian playwright Franz Xaver Kroetz and has three children. Maria Schell's last years were overshadowed by her ill health, she suffered repeated strokes. Her final public appearance was at the premiere of her brother Maximilian's documentary film, My Sister Maria on her life. Schell lived reclusively in the remote village of Preitenegg, Carinthia in the Austrian Alps until her death from pneumonia on 26 April 2005, aged 79. Upon her death, her brother released a statement, saying in part: "Towards the end of her life, she suffered silently and I never heard her complain. I admire her for that, her death might have been for her a salvation. But not for me, she is irreplaceable." 1985: Die Kostbarkeit des Augenblicks. Gedanken, Erinnerungen. Langen Müller, München, ISBN 3-7844-2072-9. 1998: „... und wenn’s a Katz is!“ Mein Weg durchs Leben.
Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach, ISBN 3-404-12784-6. Mato Weiland: Maria Schell. Die autorisierte Maria Schell-Story. Massimo-Verlag, Wien 1959 ÖNB Herbert Spaich: Maria Schell – ihre Filme – ihr Leben. Heyne-Filmbibliothek, 99, München 1986, ISBN 3-453-86101-9 Hermann Josef Huber: Heitere Starparade. 300 Anekdoten von Hans Albers bis Maria Schell. Herder Taschenbuch Verl. Freiburg/Br. Basel, Wien 1989 UBS Maximilian Schell, Gero von Boehm, Thomas Montasser: Meine Schwester Maria. Europa-Verlag, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-203-82037-4 Maja Keppler, Deutsches Filmmuseum: Maria Schell. Schriftenreihe des Deutschen Filmmuseums: Kinematograph, 22, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 3-89487-551-8 "The Hanging Tree" 1959.
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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Friedrich Wilhelm "Will" Quadflieg was a German actor from Oberhausen. He was the father of actor Christian Quadflieg, he is considered one of Germany's best post-war actors. One of his most recognized roles was in the title role in the 1960 film Faust, he starred in a number of other roles. Quadflieg died from pulmonary embolism. Will Quadflieg on IMDb Will Quadflieg at Find a Grave Photographs of Will Quadflieg
Liselotte Pulver, sometimes credited as Lilo Pulver, is a Swiss actress. Pulver was one of the stars of German cinema in the 1950s and 1960s, where she was cast as a tomboy, she is well known for her joyful laughter. Pulver was born in Bern to his wife Germaine. In 1960, she met German actor Helmut Schmid on the set of Gustav Adolfs Page: they married on 9 September 1961; the couple had son Marc-Tell and daughter Melisande. Her daughter committed suicide in 1989, her husband died in 1992 of a heart attack. Pulver lives secluded in Canton Vaud on the shores of Lake Geneva. From 1945 on she attended commercial school. After graduating in 1948, she worked as a model and took acting classes at the Bern conservatory, now part of the Bern University of Applied Sciences. Following small parts at the Bern Theatre, she appeared at the renowned Schauspielhaus Zürich, one of the most prestigious German-speaking theatres, her breakthrough movie role was "Vreneli", the wife of the lead in Uli, der Knecht, made after the novel of Swiss author Jeremias Gotthelf.
One of her most recognizable roles in American cinema is that of James Cagney's sexy secretary in Billy Wilder's One, Three. For her role as a Russian woman in A Global Affair she was in 1963 nominated for the Golden Globe Award as best supporting actress. From 1978-83 she worked for the German edition of Sesamstraße, she is retired, her last film credit being in 1996. 1999 Bavarian Film Awards Honorary Award Liselotte Pulver on IMDb Photographs of Liselotte Pulver