Native plants are plants indigenous to a given area in geologic time. This includes plants that have developed, occur or existed for many years in an area. An ecosystem consists of interactions of plants and microorganisms with their physical and climatic conditions. Native plants form plant communities and biological interactions with specific flora, fauna and other organisms. For example, some plant species can only reproduce with a continued mutualistic interaction with a certain animal pollinator, the pollinating animal may be dependent on that plant species for a food source; some native plants have adapted to limited, unusual, or harsh conditions, such as cold climates or frequent wildfires. Others can adapt well to different surroundings; the diversity of species across many parts of the world exists only because bioregions are separated by barriers large rivers, oceans and deserts. Humans can introduce species that have never met in their evolutionary history, on varying time scales ranging from days to decades.
Humans are moving species across the globe at an unprecedented rate. Those working to address invasive species view this as an increased risk to indigenous species; as humans introduce plants to new locations for cultivation, or transport them by accident, some of them may become invasive species, damaging native plant communities. Invasive species can have profound effects on ecosystems by changing ecosystem structure, species abundance, community composition. Besides ecological damage, these species can damage agriculture and cultural assets. Government agencies and environmental groups are directing increasing resources to addressing these species; when restoration projects are undertaken to restore a native ecological system disturbed by economic development or other events, they may be inaccurate, incomplete, or pay little or no attention to ecotype accuracy or type conversions. They may fail to restore the original ecological system by overlooking the basics of remediation. Attention paid to the historical distribution of native species is a crucial first step to ensure the ecological integrity of the project.
For example, to prevent erosion of the recontoured sand dunes at the western edge of the Los Angeles International Airport in 1975, landscapers stabilized the backdunes with a “natural” seed mix. The seed mix was representative of coastal sage scrub, an exogenous plant community, instead of the native dune scrub community; as a result, the El Segundo blue butterfly became an endangered species. The El Segundo Blue butterfly population, which had once extended over 3200 acres along the coastal dunes from to Ocean Park to Malaga cove in Palos Verdes, began to recover when the invasive California buckwheat was uprooted so that the butterflies' original native plant host, the dune buckwheat, could regain some of its lost habitat. Native plant organizations such as Wild Ones, native plant societies, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center encourage the use of native plants in public spaces; the identification of local remnant natural areas provides a basis for their work. The use of native cultivars is a disputed practice among native plant advocates.
Returning Essential Wildflowers to America’s Landscapes: Project Milkweed, Xerces Society Milkweeds are the required host plants for caterpillars of the monarch butterfly. Mary M. Walker, "Native Plant Societies of the United States and Canada" Long, John L. 1981. Introduced birds of the world: The worldwide history and influence of birds introduced to new environments. New York, Universe Books, New York City. Noah's Garden: Restoring the Ecology of Our Own Back Yards. Houghton-Mifflin. Vermeij, Geerat J. 1991. When biotas meet: Understanding biotic interchange. Science, 253:1099-1104 "About Native Plants", from the Dorothy King Chapter of the California Native Plant Society
Community organization refers to organizing aimed at making desired improvements to a communitys's social well-being and overall functioning. Community organization occurs in geographically, and/or digitally bounded communities. Community organization is synonymous with community work, community development, community empowerment, as well as community mobilization, it is a used model for organizing in community-based organizations, non-profits, voluntary associations, social networks, community projects, which may operate as ways to mobilize around geography, shared space, shared experience, need, and/or concern. Community organization is a process by which a community identifies needs or objectives, takes action, through this process, develops cooperative and collaborative attitudes and practices within a community.. Community organization is differentiated from conflict-oriented community organizing which focuses on short-term change, by focusing on long-term change through the organizing of community.
This is accomplished through inclusion, participation, popular education, direct democracy. Within organizations, there are many variations in terms of size and organizational structure; some are formally incorporated, with a written constitution and a board of directors, while others are much smaller and grasroots. The recent evolution of community organization in low-income nations, has strengthened the view that these "bottom-up," grasroots organizations are more effective at addressing local needs than larger, more bureaucratic charitable organizations, as well as short-term organizing strategies; the multiplicity of institutions, interest groups, sets of activities do not define community organization. Factors such as the interaction and coordination of the existing groups and assets and relationships, the evolution of new groups and institutions, are characteristics unique to community organization. Community organization is known to lead to greater understandings of community context, is characterized by community building, social action, mobilization, the promotion of community change and influence within larger social systems.
Community organizations are not-for-profit and funding goes directly toward supporting the activities of the organization. The United Nations in 1955 considered community organisation as complementary to community development. United Nations assumed that community development is operative in underdeveloped communities and community organisation is operative in areas in where levels of living are high and social services well developed, but in where a greater degree of integration and community initiative is recognised as desirable. Murray G. Ross in 1955 defined community organisation as a process by which community identifies its needs or objectives, orders these needs or objectives, develops the confidence and will to work at these needs or objectives, finds the resources to deal with these needs or objectives takes action in respect to them and in so doing extends and develops co-operative and collaborative attitudes and practices in the community. Eduard C. Lindeman in 1921 defined community organisation as "that phase of social organisation which constitutes a conscious effort on the part of a community to control its affairs democratically and to secure the highest services from its specialists, organisations and institutions by means of recognised inter relations."Walter W. Pettit in 1925 said that "Community organisation is best defined as assisting a group of people to recognise their common needs and helping them to meet these needs."Russell H. Kurtz in 1940 defined it as "a process dealing with program relationships and thus to be distinguished in its social work setting from those other basic processes and group work, which deal with people.
Those relationships of agency to agency, of agency to community and of community to agency reach in all directions from any focal point in the social work picture. Community organisation may be thought of as the process by which these relationships are initiated, altered or terminated to meet changing conditions, it is thus basic to all social work...". Wayne McMillen in 1947 defined it as "in its generic sense in deliberately directed effort to assist groups in attaining unity of purpose and action, it is practiced, though without recognition of its character, wherever the objective is to achieve or maintain a pooling of the talents and resources of two or more groups in behalf of either general or specific objectives."C. F. McNeil in 1954 said "Community organisation for social welfare is the process by which the people of community, as individual citizens or as representatives of groups, join together to determine social welfare needs, plan ways of meeting and mobilise the necessary resource."Kramer and Specht in 1975 said “Community organisation refers to various methods of intervention whereby a professional change agent helps a community action system composed of individuals, groups or organisations to engage in planned collective action in order to deal with special problems within the democratic system of values.”
Community organization and community development are interrelated, both have their roots in community social work. To achieve the goals of community development the community organization method is used. According to United Nations, community development deals with total development of a developing country, economic and social aspects. For achieving total development community organization is used. In community development the as
Water aerobics is the performance of aerobic exercise in shallow water such as in a swimming pool. Done vertically and without swimming in waist deep or deeper water, it is a type of resistance training. Water aerobics is a form of aerobic exercise. Most water aerobics is in a group fitness class setting with a trained professional teaching for about an hour; the classes focus on aerobic endurance, resistance training, creating an enjoyable atmosphere with music. Different forms of water aerobics include: aqua Zumba, water yoga, aqua aerobics, aqua jog. While similar to land aerobics, in that it focuses on cardiac training, water aerobics differs in that it adds the component of water resistance and buoyancy. Although heart rate does not increase as much as in land-based aerobics, the heart is working just as hard and underwater exercise pumps more blood to the heart. Exercising in the water is not only aerobic, but strength-training oriented due to the water resistance. Moving your body through the water creates a resistance that will activate muscle groups.
Hydro aerobics is a form of an aerobic exercise. New aquatic formats are arising into the exercise world with ideas such as: aqua cycling and water pole dancing. Water aerobics is beneficial to a multitude of participants because the density of the water allows easy mobility for those with arthritis and other conditions. Further, it is an effective way for people of all ages to incorporate aerobics and muscle-strengthening into their weekly exercise schedule. Most classes last for 45–55 minutes. People do not have to be strong swimmers to participate in water aerobics; the performance of movement while suspended in water where the feet cannot touch the bottom surface, resulting in a non-impact, high-resistant, total body exercise workout, is known as deep water aerobics. Benefits of this method include less stress on the back, hips and ankles. Most land-based aerobic exercisers do not incorporate strength training into their schedules and therefore adding aquatic exercise can improve their health.
As stated by the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Adults should do muscle-strengthening activities that are moderate or high intensity and involve all major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week, as these activities provide additional health benefits.” Over time water aerobics can lead to a reduction of blood pressure and resting heart rate, which will improve health overall. According to Moreno and her quotes from Huey an Olympic athlete trainer, the benefits of water resistance training include the activation of opposing muscle groups for a balanced workout; the push and pull of the water allows both increased muscle training and a built-in safety barrier for joints. In fact, before water aerobics water, injury therapy used the benefits of water; the water helps to reduce lactic acid buildup. Another obvious benefit to water exercise is the cooling effect of the water on the system; the average temperature around 78 degrees in a group fitness pool, this temperature will force the body to burn calories to stay at homeostasis while maintaining a cool, comfortable atmosphere with less sweat noticeable to the participant.
The mitigation of gravity makes water aerobics safe for individuals able to keep their heads out of water, including the elderly. Exercise in water can prevent overheating through continuous cooling of the body. Older people are more prone to arthritis and weak joints therefore water aerobics is the safest form of exercise for these conditions. Research studies can teach us about the benefits the elderly can receive by participating in water aerobics. In a study done in Brazil, “Effects of water-based exercise in obese older women: Impact of short-term follow-up study on anthropometric, functional fitness and quality of life parameters” the effects of long-term water aerobics was tested. Although it did not conclude as planned, their test subjects did experience improved aerobic capacity, muscle endurance, better overall life quality; the water provides a stable environment for elderly with less balance control and therefore prevents injury. Water aerobics has a few disadvantages from a practicality standpoint.
Aqua aerobics requires access to a swimming pool via facilities, in addition to any membership fees to access facilities, classes may cost extra. Although aquatic exercise reduces the risk of injury, it is seen that not as many calories are burned as would be in some other activities. However, newer research on actual caloric burn should be conducted based on the style of water class being conducted. Though aquatic activities in general expend more energy than many land-based activities performed at the same pace due to the increased resistance of water, the speed with which movements can be performed is reduced. If a club or hotel wants to incorporate aquatic classes they must prepare for weather conditions, stereo malfunction, a proper safety precautions. Licensed instructors prefer a facility that can pay well for their high intensity workout and they may need mats or expensive shoe-wear to protect their own bodies. Aquajogging, a similar program for surgical patients Underwater cycling Swimming Synchronised swimming Water polo
Ed Pawlowski is an American politician who served as the 41st Mayor of Allentown, Pennsylvania. He held the office from 2006 until his resignation in 2018, following his election to a fourth term in 2017, he resigned. On April 17, 2015, Pawlowski announced that he would run for the U. S. Senate in 2016, but he suspended his campaign the following July, he was a candidate for Pennsylvania governor in 2014, but dropped out of the race in February after "it became clear that he was not going to be able to raise the necessary money." Ed Pawlowski was born to small business owners in Chicago. The family operated a popular Polish restaurant on the City's North Side. Pawlowski attended school in Chicago and Addison, IL, where he earned his High School Diploma in 1983. Following his high school graduation, he enrolled at Moody Bible Institute, in Chicago, IL, where he received his bachelor's degree, he went on to earn a master's degree in Urban Planning and Public Policy from the University of Illinois at Chicago.
Pawlowski has been married for 25 years to Lisa, a community activist and licensed social worker in Allentown, who he met at Moody. They have two children. After his years at MBI, Pawlowski worked as a Community Organizer in Chicago's Southwest Side, focusing on helping residents find quality, affordable housing and improving their quality of life. Pawlowski enrolled at the University of Illinois to pursue his master's degree in Urban Planning and Public Policy, he was hired to be the Executive Director of Windows of Opportunity, the non-profit subsidiary of the Chicago Housing Authority, where he supervised the development of special programs and self-sufficiency projects designed to help Chicago’s public housing residents, which at the time numbered more than 100,000. In 1996 he became Executive Director of Lehigh Housing Development Corporation, which under his leadership expanded to six counties and over 50 employees, becoming a regional community development corporation now known as Alliance for Building Communities.
Due to his success in reviving and strengthening this organization, he was recruited to the post of Director of Community and Economic Development for the City of Allentown by then-mayor Roy Afflerbach. Pawlowski was recruited to challenge Afflerbach for Mayor by dozens of community activists and business leaders who believed the City was headed in the wrong direction. Pawlowski was elected to his first term as Mayor in 2005 by a majority of the voters. Pawlowski was the first candidate for Mayor to win every precinct in a competitive election—a distinction he maintained through his 2009 re-election bid. Pawlowski streamlined operations in City Hall, while increasing services to the residents of Allentown. Under his leadership, crime in the City of Allentown is down over 30 percent, his efforts to market Allentown have produced more than 75 million dollars in state and federal grants to rebuild city parks, develop new downtown businesses, improve the quality of life for families in Allentown.
When Ed Pawlowski became Mayor of Allentown in January 2006, crime was at a five-year-high in every single category, far above the state average. Since he has transformed Allentown into a safer city and decreased crime year after year by directing the installation of assisting a high-tech security network, tackling quality of life issues, providing safer streets and neighborhoods to the third largest city in Pennsylvania. Mayor Pawlowski rebuilt the police force by hiring 80 additional police officers since taking office and working with police to focus on cleaning up crime hot spots. Last year alone, he secured funding to hire an additional 20 officers and worked with the Police Department to launch tip411, an Internet-based tool that enables the public to text message anonymous tips to police. Pawlowski was instrumental in the creation of Allentown's state-of-the-art High-Tech Security Network by securing state and federal grants to purchase more than 120 cameras to watch city streets—all focused on identifying and quelling crime hot spots.
As a result, Allentown's crime rate has decreased for six consecutive years, according to the FBI and State Police. During this period, overall crime has decreased by nearly 30 percent and violent crime has decreased 20%; as Mayor, Pawlowski provided strong fiscal management to a city, in debt, facing an $8 million deficit when he took office. Pawlowski transformed the inherited deficit into a $14-million-dollar cash reserve that helped Allentown weather the nation’s worst economic downturn since The Great Depression, he converted traffic signals to LED technology, reducing electrical consumption and saving more than $120,000 annually. He reduced Allentown’s vehicle fleet and consolidated EMS billing services to create a more efficient department. Although Allentown has not seen a property tax increase during Pawlowski's terms, the administration's fiscal responsibility has come into question. Under Mayor Pawlowski's tenure in late 2012, Allentown's bond rating was downgraded to an A3 with a "negative outlook."
In 2012, he addressed a police pension fund crisis by offering a controversial solution of leasing the city's publicly owned water and sewer systems for a period of 50 years. Despite public opposition to the lease, Mayor Pawlowski defended it, stating "In less than 24 months Allentown would be just another Pennsylvania city making ugly headlines about bankruptcy and its leaders lacking the political courage to address its fiscal problems." To reduce labor costs, Mayor Pawlowski initiated negotiations with two of Allentown’s largest public employee unions, the Service Employees International Union and Fraternal Order
A flower garden or floral garden is any garden where flowers are grown and displayed. Because flowers bloom at varying times of the year, some plants are annual, dying each winter, the design of flower gardens can take into consideration maintaining a sequence of bloom and consistent color combinations through varying seasons. Besides organizing the flowers in bedding-out schemes limited to annual and perennial flower beds, careful design takes the labour time, the color pattern of the flowers into account; the labour time can be decreased by using techniques such as mulching. In flower meadows, grass growth can be moderated by planting parasitic plants such as Rhinanthus. Flower color is another important feature of both the herbaceous border and the mixed border that includes shrubs as well as herbaceous plants. Flower gardens are sometimes tied in function to other kinds of gardens, like knot gardens or herb gardens, many herbs having decorative function, some decorative flowers being edible.
A simpler alternative to the designed flower garden is the "wildflower" seed mix, with assortments of seeds which will create a bed that contains flowers of various blooming seasons, so that some portion of them should always be in bloom. The best mixtures include combinations of perennial and biennials, which may not bloom until the following year, annuals that are "self-seeding", so they will return, creating a permanent flowerbed. Another more recent trend is the "flower garden in a box", where the entire design of a flower garden is pre-packaged, with separate packets of each kind of flower, a careful layout to be followed to create the proposed pattern of color in the garden-to-be. Many, if not most, plants considered decorative flowers originated as weeds, which if attractive enough would sometimes be tolerated by farmers because of their appeal; this led to an artificial selection process. This is thought to have occurred for the entire history of agriculture even earlier, when people tended to favor occurring food-gathering spots.
This may explain why many flowers function as companion plants to more useful agricultural plants. Once domesticated, most flowers were grown either separately or as part of gardens having some other primary function. In the West, the idea of gardens dedicated to flowers did not become common until the 19th century, though in fact many modern gardens are indeed flower gardens. Flower gardens are, indeed, a key factor in modern landscape design and architecture for large businesses, some of which pay to have large flower gardens torn out and replaced each season, in order to keep the color patterns consistent. A functional garden used to grow flowers for indoor use rather than outdoor display is known as a cutting garden, it is only a feature of large residences. The cutting garden is placed in a fertile and sunlight position out of public view and is not artistically arranged, as it contains flowers for cutting; the cutting garden may comprise a herb garden and ornamental vegetables as well. Raised-bed gardening Bedding Herbaceous border National Garden Bureau National Gardening Association Winnipeg In Bloom Documentary produced by Prairie Public Television
A pagoda is a tiered tower with multiple eaves, built in traditions originating as stupa in historic South Asia and further developed in East Asia with respect to those traditions, common to Nepal, Japan, Vietnam, India, Sri Lanka and other parts of Asia. Some pagodas are used as Taoist houses of worship. Most pagodas were built to have a religious function, most Buddhist, were located in or near viharas. In some countries, the term may refer to other religious structures. In Vietnam and Cambodia, due to French translation, the English term pagoda is a more generic term referring to a place of worship, although pagoda is not an accurate word to describe a Buddhist vihara; the modern pagoda is an evolution of the stupa. Stupas are a tomb-like structure where sacred relics could be kept venerated; the architectural structure of the stupa has spread across Asia, taking on many diverse forms as details specific to different regions are incorporated into the overall design. Many Philippine bell towers are influenced by pagodas through Chinese workers hired by the Spaniards.
One proposed etymology is from a South Chinese pronunciation of the term for an eight-cornered tower, Chinese: 八角塔, reinforced by the name of a famous pagoda encountered by many early European visitors to China, the "Pázhōu tǎ", standing just south of Guangzhou at Whampoa Anchorage. Another proposed etymology is Persian butkada, from but, "idol" and kada, "temple, dwelling."Another etymology, found in many English language dictionaries, is modern English pagoda from Portuguese, from Sanskrit bhagavati, feminine of bhagavat, "blessed", from bhag, "good fortune". Yet another etymology of pagoda is from the Sinhala word dāgaba, derived from Sanskrit dhātugarbha or Pali dhātugabbha: "relic womb/chamber" or "reliquary shrine", i.e. a stupa, by way of Portuguese. The origin of the pagoda can be traced to the stupa; the stupa, a dome shaped monument, was used as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics. In East Asia, the architecture of Chinese towers and Chinese pavilions blended into pagoda architecture also spreading to Southeast Asia.
The pagoda's original purpose was to sacred writings. This purpose was popularized due to the efforts of Buddhist missionaries, pilgrims and ordinary devotees to seek out and extol Buddhist relics. On the other side, the stupa emerged as a distinctive style of Newa architecture of Nepal and was adopted in Southeast and East Asia. Nepali architect Araniko shared his skills to build stupa buildings in China; these buildings became prominent. Chinese iconography is noticeable in Chinese pagoda as well as other East Asian pagoda architectures; the image of Gautama Buddha in the abhaya mudrā is noticeable in some Pagodas. Buddhist iconography can be observed throughout the pagoda symbolism. In an article on Buddhist elements in Han dynasty art, Wu Hung suggests that in these tombs, Buddhist symbolism was so well-incorporated into native Chinese traditions that a unique system of symbolism had been developed. Pagodas attract lightning strikes because of their height. Many pagodas have a decorated finial at the top of the structure, when made of metal, this finial, sometimes referred to as a "demon-arrester", can function as a lightning rod.
Pagodas come in many different sizes, as some may be small and others may be large. Pagodas traditionally have an odd number of levels, a notable exception being the eighteenth century pagoda designed by Sir William Chambers at the Royal Botanic Gardens, London; the pagodas in Myanmar, Thailand and Cambodia are different from Chinese and Japanese pagodas. Pagodas in those countries are derived from Dravidian architecture. Tiered towers with multiple eaves: Songyue Pagoda on Mount Song, China, built in 523. Mireuksa at Iksan, built in the early 7th century. Bunhwangsa at Gyeongju, built in 634. Xumi Pagoda at Zhengding, China, built in 636. Daqin Pagoda in China, built in 640. Hwangnyongsa Wooden nine-story pagoda on Hwangnyongsa, Korea, built in 645. Pagoda at Hōryū-ji, Nara, built in the 7th century. Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, built in Xi'an, China in 704 Small Wild Goose Pagoda, built in Xi'an, China in 709. Seokgatap on Bulguksa, Korea, built in 751. Dabotap on Bulguksa, Korea, built in 751. Tiger Hill Pagoda, built in 961 outside of Suzhou, China Lingxiao Pagoda at Zhengding, China, built in 1045.
Iron Pagoda of Kaifeng, built in 1049, during the Song dynasty. Liaodi Pagoda of Dingzhou, built in 1055 during the Song dynasty Pagoda of Fogong Temple, built in 1056 in Ying County, China. Pizhi Pagoda of Lingyan Temple, China, 11th century. Beisi Pagoda at Suzhou, China, built in 1162. Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, built in 1165, during the Song dynasty. Ichijō-ji, Kasai, Hyōgo, built in 1171; the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, built between 1402 and 1424, a wonder of the medieval world in Nanjing, China. Tsui Sing Lau Pagoda in Ping Shan, Hong Kong, built in 1486. Dragon and Tiger Pagodas in Kaohsiung, built in 1976. Seven-storey Pagoda in Chinese Garden at Jurong East, built in 1975. Pazhou Pagoda on Whampoa Island, China, built in 1600. Pagoda of the Celestial Lady, in Huế, built in 1601. Palsangjeon, a five-story pagoda at Beopjusa, Korea built in 1605. Tō-ji, the tallest wooden structure in Kyoto, built in 1644. Nyatapola at Bhaktapur, Kathmandu Valley built during 1701–1702; the Great Pagoda at Kew Gardens, London, UK, built in 1762.
Trấn Quốc Pagoda, Ha
A gardener is someone who practices gardening, either professionally or as a hobby. A gardener is any person involved in gardening, arguably the oldest occupation, from the hobbyist in a residential garden, the homeowner supplementing the family food with a small vegetable garden or orchard, to an employee in a plant nursery or the head gardener in a large estate; the garden designer is someone who will design the garden, the gardener is the person who will undertake the work to produce the desired outcome. The term gardener is used to describe garden designers and landscape gardeners, who are involved chiefly in the design of gardens, rather than the practical aspects of horticulture. Garden design is considered to be an art in most cultures, distinguished from gardening, which means garden maintenance. Vita Sackville-West, Gertrude Jekyll and William Robinson were garden designers as well as gardeners. Garden design is the creation of a plan for the construction of a garden, in a design process.
The product is the garden, the garden designers attempt to optimize the given general conditions of the soil and climate, geological conditions and processes to choose the right plants in corresponding conditions. The design can include different themes such as perennial, wildlife, water, tropical, or shade gardens. In 18th-century Europe, country estates were refashioned by landscape gardeners into formal gardens or landscaped park lands, such as at Versailles, France, or Stowe, England. Today, landscape architects and garden designers continue to design both private garden spaces, residential estates and parkland, public parks and parkways to site planning for campuses and corporate office parks. Professional landscape designers are certified by the Association of Professional Landscape Designers; the designer provides directions and supervision during construction, the management of establishment and maintenance once the garden has been created. The gardener is the person; the gardener's labor during the year include planting flowers and other plants, pruning, removal of dead flowers and preparation of insecticides and other products for treating pests, tending garden compost.
Weeds tend to thrive at the expense of ornamental plants. Gardeners need to control weeds using physical or chemical methods to stop weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants. Early activities, such as starting young plants from seeds for transplantation, are performed in early spring