The Sandia Mountains are a mountain range located in Bernalillo and Sandoval counties to the east of the city of Albuquerque in New Mexico in the southwestern United States. The range is within the Cibola National Forest, part of the range is protected as the Sandia Mountain Wilderness, its highest point is 10,678 feet. Sandía means watermelon in Spanish, is popularly believed to be a reference to the reddish color of the mountains at sunset; when viewed from the west, the profile of the mountains is a long ridge, with a thin zone of green conifers near the top, suggesting the "rind" of the watermelon. However, as Robert Julyan notes, "the most explanation is the one believed by the Sandia Indians: the Spaniards, when they encountered the Pueblo in 1540, called it Sandia, because they thought the squash gourds growing there were watermelons, the name Sandia soon was transferred to the mountains east of the pueblo." In Southern Tiwa, Posu gai hoo-oo means. The author notes that the Sandia Pueblo Indians, who are Tiwa speakers, sometimes call the mountain Bien Mur, "big mountain".
The Sandias are a small range, a part of the Basin and Range Province, but built by a different phenomenon, consisting of a single north-south ridge, which rises to two major summits: Sandia Crest and South Sandia Peak, 9,702 ft. The range measures 17 miles north-south, the width in the east-west direction varies from 4 to 8 miles; the west side of the range is steep and rugged, with a number of sheer rock walls and towers near Sandia Crest. The east side has a gentler slope; the Sandias are part of the Sandia -- Manzano Mountains. The other part consists of the Manzano Mountains; the two ranges are separated by Tijeras Canyon, which leads to a important pass. S. Route 66; the Sandias are the highest range in the immediate vicinity, are well-separated from the higher Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This gives Sandia Crest a high topographic prominence of 4,098 ft. Lying to the east and northeast of the Sandias are two smaller ranges, the Ortiz Mountains and the San Pedro Mountains; the Sandia Mountains are home to the world's second longest tramway, Sandia Peak Tramway, 2.7 miles long.
Over this distance the tram cars ascend over 4,000 feet. The average speed of the tram car is 12 mph, the length of the ride is 15 minutes; the current longest tramway as of 2010 is in Armenia. The Sandia Mountains are a fault block range, on the eastern edge of the Rio Grande Rift Valley; the Sandias were uplifted in the last ten million years as part of the formation of the Rio Grande Rift. They form the eastern boundary of the Albuquerque Basin; the core of the range consists of Sandia granite 1.5 billion years old. This is topped by a thin layer of sedimentary rock of Pennsylvanian age; the limestone contains marine fossils including crinoids, gastropods, horn corals, bryozoans. However, most of the fossils are too small for the human eye to detect. Potassium-feldspar crystals embedded within the Sandia granite give the mountains their distinct pink color; the Sandias encompass four different named life zones due to the large elevation change, the resulting changes in temperature and amount of precipitation, from the base to the top.
The desert grassland and savanna at the western base of the mountain is part of the Upper Sonoran Zone. From 5,500 to 7,200 ft, the Upper Sonoran Zone is found, but notable differences occur: one first finds a zone of juniper a mixed Piñon-Juniper-evergreen Oak zone, while a thin cover of black grama grass shifts in its dominance to a less thin cover of blue grama grass. From 7,200 to 7,800 ft, in the Transition Zone, Ponderosa Pine dominates, evergreen oaks change to more cold-tolerant deciduous oaks. From 7,800 to 9,800 ft, a mixture of conifers occurs in the Canadian Zone. From 9,800 ft to the Sandia Crest at 10,678 ft on the eastern side and fir dominate the Hudsonian Zone. There are two easy ways; the Sandia Peak Tramway ascends from the west side to a point on the crestline about 1.5 miles south of Sandia Crest, at the top of the Sandia Peak Ski Area, located on the east side of the mountains. A road from the east provides access to the bottom of the ski area and to the Sandia Crest itself, where there is a gift shop, scenic overlook, a large electronic communication site with numerous towers and antennas.
The Sandia Crest Scenic Byway is a popular path for motorcycle riders with its miles of winding road to the summit. The Sandia Mountains are the
New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah and Arizona. With a population around two million, New Mexico is the 36th state by population. With a total area of 121,592 sq mi, it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate; the economy of New Mexico is dependent on oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, lumber milling, retail trade. As of 2016–2017, its total gross domestic product was $95 billion with a GDP per capita of $45,465. New Mexico's status as a tax haven yields low to moderate personal income taxes on residents and military personnel, gives tax credits and exemptions to favorable industries; because of this, its film industry contributed $1.23 billion to its overall economy.
Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a large U. S. military presence marked notably with the White Sands Missile Range. Various U. S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in New Mexico such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. During the 1940s, Project Y of the Manhattan Project developed and built the country's first atomic bomb and nuclear test, Trinity. Inhabited by Native Americans for many thousands of years before European exploration, it was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 as part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1563, it was named Nuevo México after the Aztec Valley of Mexico by Spanish settlers, more than 250 years before the establishment and naming of the present-day country of Mexico. After Mexican independence in 1824, New Mexico became a Mexican territory with considerable autonomy; this autonomy was threatened, however, by the centralizing tendencies of the Mexican government from the 1830s onward, with rising tensions leading to the Revolt of 1837.
At the same time, the region became more economically dependent on the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, the United States annexed New Mexico as the U. S. New Mexico Territory, it was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. Its history has given New Mexico the highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans, the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a population proportion. New Mexico is home to part of the Navajo Nation, 19 federally recognized Pueblo communities of Puebloan peoples, three different federally recognized Apache tribes. In prehistoric times, the area was home to Ancestral Puebloans and the modern extant Comanche and Utes inhabited the state; the largest Hispanic and Latino groups represented include the Hispanos of New Mexico and Mexican Americans. The flag of New Mexico features the state's Spanish origins with the same scarlet and gold coloration as Spain's Cross of Burgundy, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Puebloan tribe.
These indigenous, Mexican and American frontier roots are reflected in the eponymous New Mexican cuisine and the New Mexico music genre. New Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. Though the name “Mexico” itself derives from Nahuatl, in that language it referred to the heartland of the Empire of the Mexicas in the Valley of Mexico far from the area of New Mexico, Spanish explorers used the term “Mexico” to name the region of New Mexico in 1563. In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande "San Felipe del Nuevo México"; the Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous Mexica cultures there similar to those of the Aztec Empire of the Valley of Mexico. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, proved to be unrelated to the Mexicas, they were not wealthy, but the name persisted. Before statehood, the name "New Mexico" was applied to various configurations of the U.
S. territory, to a Mexican state, to a province of New Spain, all in the same general area, but of varying extensions. With a total area of 121,699 square miles, the state is the fifth-largest state of the US, larger than British Isles. New Mexico's eastern border lies along 103°W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, 2.2 miles west of 103°W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that; the western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03'W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel; the 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in New Mexico's northwestern corner. New Mexico has no natural water sources
Petroglyph National Monument
Petroglyph National Monument stretches 17 miles along Albuquerque, New Mexico's West Mesa, a volcanic basalt escarpment that dominates the city's western horizon. Authorized June 27, 1990, the 7,236 acre monument is cooperatively managed by the National Park Service and the City of Albuquerque; the western boundary of the monument features a chain of dormant fissure volcanoes. Beginning in the northwest corner, Butte volcano is followed to its south by Bond, Black and JA volcanoes. Petroglyph National Monument protects a variety of cultural and natural resources including five volcanic cones, hundreds of archeological sites and an estimated 24,000 images carved by Ancestral Pueblo peoples and early Spanish settlers. Many of the images are recognizable as animals, people and crosses, their meaning was understood only by the carver. These images are the cultural heritage of a people who have long since moved into other areas and moved on through history for many reasons; the monument is intended as a protection for these lands and sites from and for visitors to see and appreciate for generations to come.
The National Monument is managed in a manner. The monument has four major sites that visitors can access, Boca Negra Canyon, Rinconada Canyon, Piedras Marcadas Canyon, the Volcano Day Use trails. 200,000 years ago, six volcanic eruptions created a 17-mile-long cliff containing thick basalt layers of rock and cooled lava. When the volcanoes erupted, molten lava ranging in depth from 5 to 50 feet flowed downhill using old water ways, called arroyos, which formed triangular, peninsula shaped channels that flowed around hills; the hills have long since eroded away over time, while the stronger basalt rocks remained, which cracked and formed canyons and escarpments. As time progressed, more eruptions occurred and thicker lava cooled to form the now-extinct volcanic cones to the west of the monument; this unique formation of the landscape is called reverse topography. The basalt rocks' geologic nature allows for the creation of the petroglyphs, or rock carvings, on their surface; the rocks contain high concentrations of iron and calcium.
However, over thousands of years of exposure to the desert's rough environment, a "desert varnish" forms on the surface. The varnish is formed from the oxidization, or rusting, of the manganese and iron when mixed with oxygen in the air and water from rain. Long ago, American Indians, as well as Spanish settlers discovered that images can be created on the faces of the rocks by chipping away at this layer using rocks and other tools. Many of the petroglyph images contained within the monument hold a deep, cultural significance to many native peoples. Depending on their context, the interpretations of these stone relics can hold vastly complex and varying meaning. Sometimes, it is not always appropriate to interpret the meaning of these images; some archaeologists can date the carvings as far back as 3000 years ago, found in the Boca Negra Canyon area. The relative age is determined based on the darkness of the image, its context, its comparison to other works of native relics of the same age.
It is estimated that about 90 percent of the petroglyphs were created during the period between AD 1300 until the end of the 1600s because of the "Southwestern Style" used. At this time, the Native population was increasing and pueblo adobe villages were being built along the Rio Grande River and at the base of the Sandia Mountains. In 1989, at least a year prior to the National Monument's establishment, a Tibetan Buddhist stupa was built and consecrated on what was private land owned by Harold Cohen and Ariane Emery; the National Park Service subsequently used eminent domain to seize this land and make it part of the Monument, over the owners' objections. The stupa was not removed. On June 10, 2010, the Superintendent of Petroglyph National Monument sent an email stating that "hile soils are being stockpiled nearby for the future construction of an amphitheater, the National Park Service has no plans for the Stupa." The Monument website was updated to describe the construction projects and clarify that the Stupa was not to be demolished.
Suburban development affects the Petroglyph National Monument site. The city of Albuquerque succeeded with their plans to build a 4 lane highway directly through the site itself; the boulders with inscribed petroglyphs were relocated. The issue was featured in the documentary, Reclaiming Their Voice: The Native American Vote in New Mexico & Beyond. Documents posted on June 6, 2012 by Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility allege that although the Petroglyph National Monument is a valuable resource and location for the City of Albuquerque and the state of New Mexico, the historical resources contained within is in danger because of the City and the National Park Service inability manage up to two-thirds of the monument, City-owned land. In their opinion, there are no persistent standards or patrols protecting the petroglyphs or the surrounding areas. Under a five-year Cooperative Management Agreement, National Park Service and the City specify the delegation of their respective responsibilities for the monument.
The City, refuses to allow NPS rangers to patrol or enforce Park Service rules on City lands, which constitute the bulk of the monument. Due to City service cutbacks, most of the Petroglyph is left unpatrolled. In a July 25, 2011 l
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Cibola National Forest
The Cibola National Forest is a 1,633,783 acre United States National Forest in New Mexico, USA. The name Cibola is thought to be the original Zuni Indian name for tribal lands; the name was interpreted by the Spanish to mean, "buffalo." The forest is disjointed with lands spread across central and northern New Mexico, west Texas and Oklahoma. The Cibola National Forest is divided into four Ranger Districts: the Sandia, Mountainair, Mt. Taylor, Magdalena; the Forest includes the San Mateo, Datil, Gallina, Sandia, Mt. Taylor, Zuni Mountains of west-central New Mexico; the Forest manages four National Grasslands that stretch from northeastern New Mexico eastward into the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma. The Cibola National Forest and Grassland is administered by Region 3 of the United States Forest Service from offices in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Elevation ranges from 5,000 ft to 11,301 ft; the descending order of Cibola National Forest acres by county are: Socorro, Cibola, McKinley, Torrance, Sandoval County, New Mexico, Lincoln and Valencia counties in New Mexico.
The Cibola National Forest has 137,701 acres designated as Wilderness. In addition to these acres, it has 246,000 acres classified as Inventoried Roadless Areas pursuant to the Roadless Area Conservation Rule; the Cibola National Forest is organized into several divisions over three states. The Rita Blanca National Grassland 92,989 acres in Dallam County and Cimarron County, Black Kettle National Grassland 31,286 acres in Roger Mills County and Hemphill County, McClellan Creek National Grassland 1,449 acres in Gray County, Texas are in the Oklahoma-Texas panhandle region; the combined Cibola National Grasslands are 262,141 acres in size. New Mexico is home to much of the Forest, including the Kiowa National Grassland 136,417 acres in Harding, Union and Colfax counties, New Mexico; the Cibola National Forest's Sandia Ranger District is just east of Albuquerque in Central New Mexico and includes the most visited mountains in the state of New Mexico. The Sandia District includes national forest land in eastern Bernalillo and southeastern Sandoval counties, includes the Sandia Peak Tram and the Sandia Crest National Scenic Byway.
The Sandia Mountains lie in the northern portion of the District. It is here where Congress designated the Sandia Mountain Wilderness in 1978; the Cibola's Sandia Ranger District includes the Manzanita Mountains, which stretch south, between the Sandia and the Manzano Mountains. The Manzano Mountains are managed by the Cibola National Forest's Mountainair Ranger District; the Mountainair Ranger District manages national forestland in Torrance, northwestern Lincoln, eastern Valencia counties, which are in central New Mexico. Within the Mountainair District are the Manzano Mountains. Congress designated the Manzano Wilderness in 1978; the Mount Taylor Ranger District manages land in northern Cibola, southern McKinley, western Sandoval counties in western New Mexico. Mount Taylor and Zuni Mountains are within the Mount Taylor District. Overseeing 800,000 acres, the Magdalena Ranger District is the largest of the Cibola National Forest's four mountain districts; the Cibola’s Magdalena District manages land in south central New Mexico in western Socorro, northeastern Catron, northern Sierra counties.
The Bear Mountains, Datil Mountains, Magdalena Mountains and San Mateo Mountains are all within the Magdalena District. There are two Wilderness areas in this District - the Apache Kid and the Withington Wilderness areas, both of which are in the San Mateo Mountains. In addition to the designated Wilderness, the Magdalena Ranger District has 205,972 acres of Inventoried Roadless Areas; the Magdalena Ranger District's officers are stationed in the Village of Magdalena. The District has roots in the Gila Forest Reserve, created by President William McKinley in 1899, making the U. S. Forest Service the “oldest continuous business in Magdalena.” Cibola biomes range from Chihuahuan desert to short grass prairie to piñon-juniper to sub-alpine spruce and fir. The region boasts wildlife as diverse as the biomes they inhabit. Animals represented include: Due to the Rio Grande, a large variety of migrating waterfowl and other birds follow the river's flyway during the spring and fall. Birds of prey are present using the updrafts and thermals along the north-south alignment of the central mountains for their migration.
Wildlife in the Cibola National Forest The ‘sky islands’ region of the Cibola hosts more than 200 rare plant and animal species, with more than 30 species listed as endangered or threatened by New Mexico or the federal government. The region is home to more mammal species than any other ecoregion in the Southwest; the Rio Grande Watershed, which contains the Cibola’s four mountain ranger districts, ranked second out of eight watershed regions for species of greatest conservation need in the New Mexico Game and Fish’s Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy. The Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy ranked the Arizona-New Mexico Mountain Ecoregion, within which the Magdalena and Mt. Taylor Ranger Districts are located, second out of six ecoregions in the state for SGCN, with 80 identified SGCN; the Nature Conservancy has identified the San Mateo and Datil Mountains within the Cibola's Magdalena Ranger Distri
New Mexico's 3rd congressional district
New Mexico's 3rd Congressional District serves the northern half of New Mexico, including the state's Capital, Santa Fe. The district has a significant Native American presence, encompassing most of the New Mexico portion of the Navajo Nation situated in the northwest corner of the state and most of the Puebloan peoples reservations; the current Representative is Democrat Ben R. Luján. Election results from presidential races New Mexico's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Allied invasion of Italy
The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II. The operation was undertaken by General Sir Harold Alexander's 15th Army Group and followed the successful invasion of Sicily; the main invasion force landed around Salerno on 9 September on the western coast in Operation Avalanche, while two supporting operations took place in Calabria and Taranto. Following the defeat of the Axis Powers in North Africa in May 1943, there was disagreement between the Allies as to what the next step should be; the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, in particular wanted to invade Italy, which in November 1942 he called "the soft underbelly of the axis". Popular support in Italy for the war was declining, he believed an invasion would remove Italy, thus the influence of Axis forces in the Mediterranean Sea, opening it to Allied traffic; this would reduce the amount of shipping capacity needed to supply Allied forces in the Middle East and Far East, at a time when the disposal of Allied shipping capacity was in crisis, increase British and American supplies to the Soviet Union.
In addition, it would tie down German forces. Joseph Stalin, the Premier of the Soviet Union, had been pressing Churchill and Roosevelt to open a "second front" in Europe, which would lessen the German Army's focus on the Eastern Front, where the bulk of its forces were fighting in the largest armed conflict in history against the Soviet Red Army; however the U. S. Army Chief of Staff, General George Marshall, much of the American staff wanted to avoid operations that might delay an invasion of Europe, discussed and planned as early as 1942, which materialized as Operation Overlord in 1944; when it became clear that no cross-channel invasion of occupied France could be undertaken in 1943, it was agreed to invade Sicily, with no commitment made to any follow-up operations. However, both Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt, the U. S. President, accepted the necessity of Allied armies continuing to engage the Axis in the period after a successful campaign in Sicily and before the start of one in northwest Europe.
The discussion continued through the Trident Conference in Washington in May but it was not until late July, after the course of the Sicilian campaign had become clear and with the fall of Benito Mussolini, the Italian Prime Minister and fascist leader, that the Joint Chiefs of Staff instructed General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Supreme Allied Commander in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations, to go ahead at the earliest possible date. Joint Allied Forces Headquarters were operationally responsible for all Allied land forces in the Mediterranean theatre, it was they who planned and commanded the invasion of Sicily and the Italian mainland; the Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943, codenamed Operation Husky, was successful, although many of the Axis forces managed to avoid capture and escape to the mainland. The Axis viewed this as a success. More in late July, a coup deposed Mussolini as head of the Italian government, which began approaching the Allies to make peace, it was believed a quick invasion of Italy might hasten an Italian surrender and produce quick military victories over the German troops that could be trapped fighting in a hostile country.
However, Italian resistance proved strong, fighting in Italy continued after the fall of Berlin in April 1945. In addition, the invasion left the Allies in a position of supplying food and supplies to conquered territory, a burden which would otherwise have fallen on Germany; as well, Italy occupied by a hostile German army would have created additional problems for the German Commander-in-Chief, Generalfeldmarschall Albert Kesselring. Prior to Sicily, Allied plans envisioned crossing the Strait of Messina, a limited invasion in the "instep" area, advancing up the toe of Italy, anticipating a defense by both German and Italian forces; the overthrowing of Mussolini and the Fascisti made a more ambitious plan feasible, the Allies decided to supplement the crossing of the British Eighth Army, under General Bernard Montgomery, with a seizure of the port of Naples. Although the Americans favored Napoleon's maxim that Italy, like a boot, should be entered from the top, the range limits of Allied fighter planes based in Sicily reduced Allied choices to two landing areas: one at the Volturno River basin and the other at Salerno.
Salerno was chosen because it was closer to air bases, experienced better surf conditions for landing, allowed transport ships to anchor closer to the beaches, had narrower beaches for the rapid construction of exit roads, had an excellent pre-existing road network behind the beaches. Operation Baytown was the preliminary step in the plan in which the British Eighth Army would depart from the port of Messina on Sicily, to cross the Straits of Messina and land near the tip of Calabria, on 3 September 1943; the short distance from Sicily meant landing craft could launch from there directly, rather than be carried by ship. The British 5th Infantry Division of XIII Corps, under Lieutenant-General Miles Dempsey, would land on the north side of the "toe" while its 1st Canadian Infantry Division would land at Cape Spartivento on the south side. Montgomery was opposed to Operation Baytown, he predicted it would be a waste of effort since it assumed the Germans would give battle in