In some countries, e. g. the United Kingdom and Australia, the word diploma refers to an academic award. Historically, it can refer to a charter or official document, thus diplomatic, diplomat. Alternatively, this document can simply be referred to as a certificate or graduation certificate. The certificate that a Nobel laureate receives is called a diploma, the term diploma is used in some historical contexts, to refer to documents signed by a King affirming a grant or tenure of specified land and its conditions. It is typically completed with 12 to 18 months of full-time study, when accepted for credit as part of a bachelors degree, it is usually deemed to be equivalent to the first year of the degree. An Advanced Diploma, which is equivalent to an Australian Associate Degree, a Graduate Diploma, which is undertaken after completing a bachelors degree. This can be in a other than that covered by said degree. It can be a coursework-only qualification undertaken as additional study in a specialisation within ones degree area, the Vocational Graduate Diploma was a short lived AQF qualification equivalent to the Graduate Diploma, intended to be delivered exclusively in the VET sector.
On January 1,2015, all such qualifications being offered lost the word Vocational from their title, in Ontario, diplomas are awarded by colleges of applied arts and technology whereas bachelor degrees are awarded by universities. In Canada, depending on the legislation, there may be a difference between a college and a university. In Greece, diplomas can be awarded by educational institutes as a proof of an educational level. In Hong Kong, advanced diploma, higher diploma, and associate degree are below the standard of the bachelors degree. Certificate and diploma are below the standard of advanced diploma, higher diploma, Postgraduate Certificates and Postgraduate Diplomas are taken after the bachelors degree, and are more vocational oriented than a masters degree. In India, a diploma is an academic award usually earned in professional/vocational courses, e. g. Diploma in Nursing Engineering, Design. Also, a diploma is concentrated for the area of study, for example, a Diploma in Engineering of Electronics Engineering may be in Advanced Communication Systems or Integrated Circuits or Industrial Electronics.
On successful completion of Parts I and II Technician Examination of Institution of Mechanical Engineers, similarly Diploma in Engineering of Civil Engineering is rated differently than Bachelor of Technology in Civil Engineering but is equivalent to Bachelor of Science in Geology. Another example of a diploma concentrated for the area of study is Diploma in Engineering of Civil Engineering, on successful completion of Parts I and II Technician Examination of Institution of Civil Engineers, it is equivalent to Diploma in Civil Engineering as per a government of India circular. Successful completion of the Diploma Studies allows articulation into the year of Bachelor of Engineering/Bachelor of Technology programs
The French Parliament is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic, consisting of the Senate and the National Assembly. Each assembly conducts legislative sessions at a location in Paris, the Palais du Luxembourg for the Senate. Each house has its own regulations and rules of procedure, they may occasionally meet as a single house, the French Congress, convened at the Palace of Versailles, to revise and amend the Constitution of France. Parliament meets for a single, nine-month session each year, under special circumstances the President can call an additional session. As a result, the government normally is from the political party as the Assembly. Rare periods during which the President is not from the political party as the Prime Minister are usually known as cohabitation. The President rather than the prime minister heads the Cabinet of Ministers, the government has a strong influence in shaping the agenda of Parliament. The government can link its term to a text which it proposes, and unless a motion of censure is introduced and passed.
However, this procedure has been limited by the 2008 constitutional amendment, Legislative initiative rests with the National Assembly. Members of Parliament enjoy parliamentary immunity, both assemblies have committees that write reports on a variety of topics. If necessary, they can establish parliamentary enquiry commissions with broad investigative power, the latter possibility is almost never exercised, since the majority can reject a proposition by the opposition to create an investigation commission. Since 2008, the opposition may impose the creation of a commission once a year. However, they still cant lead investigations if there is a judiciary case going on already, the word Parliament, in the modern meaning of the term, appeared in France in the 19th century, at the time of the constitutional monarchy of 1830–1848. It is never mentioned in any constitutional text until the Constitution of the 4th Republic in 1948, before that time reference was made to les Chambres or to each assembly, whatever its name, but never to a generic term as in Britain.
Frank R. Baumgartner, Parliaments Capacity to Expand Political Controversy in France, Legislative Studies Quarterly, Vol.12,1, pp. 33–54 Marc Abélès, Un ethnologue à lAssemblée. An anthropological study of the French National Assembly, of its personnel, codes of behaviors, official website Site of the CHPP and of Parlement, Revue dhistoire politique
Algiers is the capital and largest city of Algeria. In 2011, the population was estimated to be around 3,500,000. An estimate puts the population of the metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000. Algiers is located on the Mediterranean Sea and in the portion of Algeria. The casbah and the two form a triangle. A Phoenician commercial outpost called Ikosim which developed into a small Roman town called Icosium existed on what is now the quarter of the city. The rue de la Marine follows the lines of what used to be a Roman street, Roman cemeteries existed near Bab-el-Oued and Bab Azoun. The city was given Latin rights by Emperor Vespasian, the bishops of Icosium are mentioned as late as the 5th century. The present-day city was founded in 944 by Bologhine ibn Ziri and he had earlier built his own house and a Sanhaja center at Ashir, just south of Algiers. Although his Zirid dynasty was overthrown by Roger II of Sicily in 1148, the city was wrested from the Hammadids by the Almohads in 1159, and in the 13th century came under the dominion of the Ziyanid sultans of Tlemcen.
Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a measure of independence under amirs of its own due to Oran being the chief seaport of the Ziyanids. As early as 1302 the islet of Peñón in front of Algiers harbour had been occupied by Spaniards, thereafter, a considerable amount of trade began to flow between Algiers and Spain. However, Algiers continued to be of little importance until after the expulsion of the Moors from Spain. In 1510, following their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa, in 1516, the amir of Algiers, Selim b. Teumi, invited the corsair brothers Aruj and Hayreddin Barbarossa to expel the Spaniards, Aruj came to Algiers, ordered the assassination of Selim, and seized the town and ousted the Spanish in the Capture of Algiers. Hayreddin, succeeding Aruj after the latter was killed in battle against the Spaniards in the Fall of Tlemcen, was the founder of the pashaluk, Algiers from this time became the chief seat of the Barbary pirates. Formally part of the Ottoman Empire but essentially free from Ottoman control, starting in the 16th century Algiers turned to piracy, repeated attempts were made by various nations to subdue the pirates that disturbed shipping in the western Mediterranean and engaged in slave raids as far north as Iceland.
The United States fought two wars over Algiers attacks on shipping, among the notable people held for ransom was the future Spanish novelist Miguel de Cervantes, who was captive in Algiers almost five years, and who wrote two plays set in Algiers of the period
Maurice Gourdault-Montagne CMG, CVO is a career diplomat and the current French Ambassador to China. Mr Gourdault-Montagne joined the French Foreign Ministry in 1978 and he served as First Secretary at the French Embassy in New Delhi, Counsellor in Bonn, as Spokesman for the French Foreign Ministry and Deputy Private Secretary to the Minister to Foreign Affairs. He became Private Secretary and Head of the Prime Ministers Office and he served as the Ambassador to Japan and became Senior Diplomatic Advisor and G8 sherpa to the French President Jacques Chirac. He was appointed as French Ambassador to the United Kingdom in 2007, on 20 August 2014, he was appointed Ambassador to China
Constitution of France
The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958. It is typically called the Constitution of the Fifth Republic, Charles de Gaulle was the main driving force in introducing the new constitution and inaugurating the Fifth Republic, while the text was drafted by Michel Debré. Since the constitution has been amended twenty-four times, most recently in 2008 and it provides for the election of the President and the Parliament, the selection of the Government, and the powers of each and the relations between them. It ensures judicial authority and creates a High Court, a Constitutional Council, and it was designed to create a politically strong President. It enables the ratification of treaties and those associated with the European Union. It is unclear whether the wording is compatible with European Union law, the Constitution sets out methods for its own amendment either by referendum or through a Parliamentary process with Presidential consent. However, president Charles de Gaulle bypassed the legislative procedure in 1962 and directly sent an amendment to a referendum.
This was highly controversial at the time, the Constitutional Council ruled that since a referendum expressed the will of the sovereign people, on 21 July 2008, Parliament passed constitutional reforms championed by President Nicolas Sarkozy by a margin of two votes. Prior to 1971, though executive and judicial decisions had to comply with the principles of law. It was assumed that unelected judges and other appointees should not be able to overrule laws voted for by the directly elected French parliament, in practice, the political opposition sends all controversial laws before it. The Constitution defines in Article 89 the rules for amending itself, first, a constitutional bill must be approved by both houses of Parliament. Then, the bill must be approved by the Congress, a joint session of both houses, the bill can be submitted to a referendum. This permitted the establishment of an elected presidency, that would otherwise have been vetoed by the Parliament. Article 11 was used for changes for the second and last time in 1969.
France has had numerous past constitutions, the ancien régime was an absolute monarchy and lacked a formal constitution, the régime essentially relied on custom. Journal Officiel de la République Française, 9151–9173, lélaboration de la Constitution de la Ve République. Frédéric Monera, Lidée de République et la jurisprudence du Conseil constitutionnel – Paris, martin A. Rogoff, French Constitutional Law and Materials – Durham, North Carolina, Carolina Academic Press,2010. Texte intégral de la Constitution du 4 octobre 1958 en vigueur, Constitutional council of the French Republic
Prime Minister of France
The French Prime Minister in the Fifth Republic is the head of government and of the Council of Ministers of France. During the Third and Fourth Republics, the head of government position was called President of the Council of Ministers, the Prime Minister proposes a list of ministers to the President of the Republic. Decrees and decisions of the Prime Minister, like almost all decisions, are subject to the oversight of the administrative court system. Few decrees are taken after advice from the Council of State, all prime ministers defend the programs of their ministry, and make budgetary choices. The extent to which those decisions lie with the Prime Minister or President depends upon whether they are of the same party, manuel Valls was appointed to lead the government in a cabinet reshuffle in March 2014, after the ruling Socialists suffered a bruising defeat in local elections. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic, the President can choose whomever they want.
On the other hand, because the National Assembly does have the power to force the resignation of the government, for example, right after the legislative election of 1986, President François Mitterrand appointed Jacques Chirac prime minister. Chirac was a member of the RPR and an opponent of Mitterrand. Despite the fact that Mitterrands own Socialist Party was the largest party in the Assembly, the RPR had an alliance with the UDF, which gave them a majority. Such a situation, where the President is forced to work with a minister who is an opponent, is called a cohabitation. So far, Édith Cresson is the woman to have ever held the position of prime minister. Aristide Briand holds the record for most nomination as Prime Minister with 11 between 1909 and 1929 with some terms as short as 26 days, other members of Government are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister can engage the responsibility of his or her Government before the National Assembly and this process consists of placing a bill before the Assembly, and either the Assembly overthrows the Government, or the bill is passed automatically.
In addition to ensuring that the Government still has support in the House, the Prime Minister may submit a bill that has not been yet signed into law to the Constitutional Council. Before he is allowed to dissolve the Assembly, the President has to consult the Prime Minister, the office of the prime minister, in its current form, dates from the formation of the French Third Republic. Under the French Constitutional Laws of 1875, he was imbued with the powers as his British counterpart. In practice, the minister was a fairly weak figure. Most notably, the legislature had the power to force the cabinet out of office by a vote of censure
Sylvie-Agnès Bermann is a French career diplomat and the current Ambassador of France to the United Kingdom. Vice-Consul at the French Consulate General in Hong Kong from 1979 to 1980, she became Third Secretary, Second Secretary, in 1989, Sylvie Bermann returned to Paris to take up the post of Head of the Southeast Asia Department, where she remained until 1992. In 1992 she was appointed Second Counsellor at the Permanent Mission of France to the United Nations in New York and she headed the French Foreign Ministry´s directorate for the UN and international organizations, human rights and Francophony, from December 2005 to February 2011. She became French Ambassador to the United Kingdom in August 2014, Officier, Légion dhonneur Officier, Ordre national du Mérite. List of Ambassadors of France to the United Kingdom Ministère des Affaires étrangères de la France www. ambafrance-uk. org www. legifrance. gouv. fr www. francobritishcouncil. org
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain members of an organisation or state. Generally people addressed as Excellency are heads of state, heads of government, ambassadors, certain ecclesiastics and others holding equivalent rank and the FIFA President. It is sometimes misinterpreted as a title of office in itself, in reference to such an official, it takes the form His or Her Excellency, in direct address, Your Excellency, or, less formally, simply Excellency. The abbreviation HE is often used instead of His/Her Excellency, alternatively it may stand for His/Her Eminence, in most republican nations, the head of state is formally addressed as His Excellency. If a republic has a head of government, that official is often addressed as Excellency as well. If the nation is a monarchy, the customs may vary, in the case of Australia, all ambassadors, high commissioners and the governor-general and their spouses are entitled to the use of Excellency. Governors of colonies in the British Empire were entitled to be addressed as Excellency, in various international organizations, notably the UN and its agencies, Excellency is used as a generic form of address for all republican heads of state and heads of government.
Judges of the International Court of Justice are called Your Excellency, in some monarchies the husbands, wives, or children, of a royal prince or princess, who do not possess a princely title themselves, may be entitled to the style. For example, in Spain spouses or children of a born infante or infanta are addressed as Excellency, former members of a royal house or family, who did have a royal title but forfeited it, may be awarded the style afterwards. Examples are former husbands or wives of a prince or princess, including Alexandra, Countess of Frederiksborg. In some emirates, only the Emir, heir apparent and prime minister are called His Highness and their children are styled with the lower treatment of His/Her Excellency. In Spain members of the nobility, holding the dignity of grandee, are addressed as The Most Excellent Lord/Lady. Some of the high ranking counts, Excellency can attach to a prestigious quality, notably in an order of knighthood. By a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Ceremonial of 31 December 1930 the Holy See granted bishops of the Roman Catholic Church the title of Most Reverend Excellency.
In the years following the First World War, the title of Excellency. The adjective Most Reverend was intended to distinguish the title from that of Excellency given to civil officials. The instruction Ut sive sollicite of the Holy Sees Secretariat of State, dated 28 March 1969, even those who were bishops, continued to use the title of Eminence. In some English-speaking countries, the honorific of Excellency does not apply to other than the nuncio
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town