Sir Andrew Motion is an English poet and biographer, Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom from 1999 to 2009. During the period of his laureateship, Motion founded the Poetry Archive, an online resource of poems and audio recordings of poets reading their own work. In 2012, he became President of the Campaign to Protect Rural England. Motion was born on 26 October 1952 in London; the family moved near Braintree in Essex, when Motion was 12 years old. Motion went to boarding school from the age of seven joined by his younger brother. Most of the boy's friends were from the school and when Motion was in the village he spent a lot of time on his own, he began to have an interest and affection for the countryside and he went for walks with a pet dog. He went to Radley College, where, in the sixth form, he encountered Peter Way, an inspiring English teacher who introduced him to poetry – first Hardy Philip Larkin, W. H. Auden, Hughes and Keats; when Motion was 17 years old, his mother had a horse riding accident and suffered a serious head injury requiring a life-saving neurosurgery operation.
She regained some speech, but she was paralysed and remained in and out of coma for nine years. She died in 1978 and her husband died of cancer in 2006. Motion has said that he wrote to keep his memory of his mother alive and that she was a muse of his work; when Motion was about 18 years old he moved away from the village to study English at University College, Oxford. At University he studied at weekly sessions with W. H. Auden, whom he admired. Motion graduated with a first class honours degree; this was followed by an MLitt on the poetry of Edward Thomas. Between 1976 and 1980, Motion taught English at the University of Hull and while there, at age 24, he had his first volume of poetry published. At Hull he met poet Philip Larkin. Motion was appointed as one of Larkin's literary executors, which would privilege Motion's role as his biographer following Larkin's death in 1985. In Philip Larkin: A Writer's Life, Motion says that at no time during their nine-year friendship did they discuss writing his biography and it was Larkin's longtime companion Monica Jones who requested it.
He reports how, as executor, he rescued many of Larkin's papers from imminent destruction following his friend's death. His 1993 biography of Larkin, which won the Whitbread Prize for Biography, was responsible for bringing about a substantial revision of Larkin's reputation. Motion was Editorial Director and Poetry Editor at Chatto & Windus, he edited the Poetry Society's Poetry Review from 1980–1982 and succeeded Malcolm Bradbury as Professor of Creative Writing at the University of East Anglia, he is now on the faculty at the Johns Hopkins Writing Seminars. Motion was appointed Poet Laureate on 1 May 1999, following the death of Ted Hughes, the previous incumbent; the Nobel Prize-winning Northern Irish poet and translator Seamus Heaney had ruled himself out for the post. Breaking with the tradition of the laureate retaining the post for life, Motion stipulated that he would stay for only ten years; the yearly stipend of £200 was increased to £5,000 and he received the customary butt of sack.
He wanted to write "poems about things in the news, commissions from people or organisations involved with ordinary life," rather than be seen a'courtier'. So, he wrote "for the TUC about liberty, about homelessness for the Salvation Army, about bullying for ChildLine, about the foot and mouth outbreak for the Today programme, about the Paddington rail disaster, the 11 September attacks and Harry Patch for the BBC, more about shell shock for the charity Combat Stress, climate change for the song cycle he finished for Cambridge University with Peter Maxwell Davies."On 14 March 2002, as part of the'Re-weaving Rainbows' event of National Science Week 2002, Motion unveiled a blue plaque on the front wall of 28 St Thomas Street, Southwark, to commemorate the sharing of lodgings there by John Keats and Henry Stephens while they were medical students at Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital in 1815–16. In 2003, Motion wrote Regime change, a poem in protest at the Invasion of Iraq from the point of view of Death walking the streets during the conflict, in 2005, Spring Wedding in honour of the wedding of the Prince of Wales to Camilla Parker Bowles.
Commissioned to write in the honour of 109-year-old Harry Patch, the last surviving "Tommy" to have fought in World War I, Motion composed a five-part poem and received by Patch at the Bishop's Palace in Wells in 2008. As laureate, he founded the Poetry Archive, an on-line library of historic and contemporary recordings of poets reciting their own work. Motion remarked that he found some of the duties attendant to the post of poet laureate difficult and onerous and that the appointment had been "very damaging to work"; the appointment of Motion met with criticism from some quarters. As he prepared to stand down from the job, Motion published an article in The Guardian that concluded, "To have had 10 years working as laureate has been remarkable. Sometimes it's been remarkably difficult, the laureate has to take a lot of flak, one way or another. More it has been remarkably fulfilling. I'm glad I did it, I'm glad I'm giving it up – since I mean to continue working for poetry." Motion spent his last day as Poet Laureate holding a creative
Robert Southey was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the Lake Poets along with William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, England's Poet Laureate for 30 years from 1813 until his death in 1843. Although his fame has been eclipsed by that of Wordsworth and Coleridge, his verse still enjoys some popularity. Southey was a prolific letter writer, literary scholar, essay writer and biographer, his biographies include the life and works of John Bunyan, John Wesley, William Cowper, Oliver Cromwell and Horatio Nelson. The last has been out of print since its publication in 1813 and was adapted as the 1926 British film, Nelson, he was a renowned scholar of Portuguese and Spanish literature and history, translating a number of works from those two languages into English and writing a History of Brazil and a History of the Peninsular War. His most enduring contribution to literary history is the children's classic The Story of the Three Bears, the original Goldilocks story, first published in Southey's prose collection The Doctor.
He wrote on political issues, which led to a brief, non-sitting, spell as a Tory Member of Parliament. Robert Southey was born in Bristol, to Robert Southey and Margaret Hill, he was educated at Westminster School, at Balliol College, Oxford. Southey said of Oxford, "All I learnt was a little swimming... and a little boating." Experimenting with a writing partnership with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, most notably in their joint composition of The Fall of Robespierre, Southey published his first collection of poems in 1794. The same year, Coleridge, Robert Lovell and several others discussed creating an idealistic community on the banks of the Susquehanna River in America: Their wants would be simple and natural; each young man should take to himself a lovely woman for his wife. Southey was the first to reject the idea as unworkable, suggesting that they move the intended location to Wales, but when they failed to agree, the plan was abandoned. In 1799 Southey and Coleridge were involved with early experiments with nitrous oxide, conducted by the Cornish scientist Humphry Davy.
Southey married Edith Fricker, Coleridge's sister-in-law, at St. Mary Redcliffe, Bristol, on 14 November 1795; the Southeys made their home at Greta Hall, Keswick, in the Lake District, living on his tiny income. Living at Greta Hall and supported by him were Sara Coleridge and her three children and the widow of poet Robert Lovell and her son. In 1808 Southey met Walter Savage Landor, whose work he admired, they became close friends; that same year he wrote Letters from England under the pseudonym Don Manuel Alvarez Espriella, an account of a tour from a foreigner's viewpoint. Through the mouth of his pseudonym Southey is critical of the disparity between the haves and have-nots in English society, arguing that a change in taxation policy would be needed to foster a greater degree of equity. From 1809 Southey contributed to the Quarterly Review, he had become so well known by 1813 that he was appointed Poet Laureate after Walter Scott refused the post. In 1819, through a mutual friend, Southey met the leading civil engineer Thomas Telford and struck up a friendship.
From mid-August to 1 October 1819, Southey accompanied Telford on an extensive tour of his engineering projects in the Scottish Highlands, keeping a diary of his observations. This was published in 1929 as Journal of a Tour in Scotland in 1819, he was a friend of the Dutch poet Willem Bilderdijk, whom he met twice, in 1824 and 1826, at Bilderdijk's home in Leiden. He expressed appreciation of the work of the English novelist Ann Doherty. In 1837 Southey received a letter from Charlotte Brontë, he wrote back praising her talents, but discouraging her from writing professionally: "Literature cannot be the business of a woman's life," he argued. Years Brontë remarked to a friend that the letter was "kind and admirable. In 1838 Edith died and Southey remarried, to Caroline Anne Bowles a poet, on 4 June 1839. Southey's mind was giving way when he wrote a last letter to his friend Landor in 1839, but he continued to mention Landor's name when incapable of mentioning any one, he died on 21 March 1843 and was buried in the churchyard of Crosthwaite Church, where he had worshipped for forty years.
There is a memorial to him inside the church, with an epitaph written by his friend, William Wordsworth. Many of his poems are still read by British schoolchildren, the best-known being The Inchcape Rock, God's Judgement on a Wicked Bishop, After Blenheim and Cataract of Lodore; as a prolific writer and commentator, Southey introduced or popularised a number of words into the English language. The term autobiography, for example, was used by Southey in 1809 in the Quarterly Review, in which he predicted an "epidemical rage for autobiography", which indeed has continued to the present day. Although a radical supporter of the French Revolution, Southey followed the tra
A poet laureate is a poet appointed by a government or conferring institution expected to compose poems for special events and occasions. The Italians Albertino Mussato and Francesco Petrarca were the first to be crowned poets laureate after the classical age in 1315 and 1342. In Britain, the term dates from the appointment of Bernard André by Henry VII of England, the royal office dates from the appointment of John Dryden in 1668. In modern times, the title may be conferred by an organization such as the Poetry Foundation, which has a designated Children's Poet Laureate; the office is popular with regional and community groups. Examples include the Pikes Peak Poet Laureate, designated by a "Presenting Partners" group from within the community, the Minnesota Poet Laureate chosen by the League of Minnesota Poets, the Northampton Poet Laureate chosen by the Northampton Arts Council, the Martha's Vineyard Poet Laureate chosen by ten judges representing the Martha's Vineyard Poetry Society. Over a dozen national governments continue the poet laureate tradition.
In ancient Greece, the laurel was used to form a wreath of honour for poets and heroes. The custom derives from the ancient myth of Daphne and Apollo, was revived in Padua for Albertino Mussato, followed by Petrarch's own crowning ceremony in the audience hall of the medieval senatorial palazzo on the Campidoglio on 8 April 1341; because the Renaissance figures who were attempting to revive the Classical tradition lacked detailed knowledge of the Roman precedent they were attempting to emulate, these ceremonies took on the character of doctoral candidatures. Since the office of poet laureate has become adopted, the term "laureate" has come to signify recognition for preeminence or superlative achievement. A royal degree in rhetoric, poet laureate was awarded at European universities in the Middle Ages; the term therefore may refer to the holder of such a degree, which recognized skill in rhetoric and language. The Canadian Parliamentary Poet Laureate is appointed as an officer of the Library of Parliament.
The position alternates between an French speaking laureate. Candidates must be able to write in both English and French, have a substantial publication history displaying literary excellence and have written work reflecting Canada, among other criteria; the first laureate was George Bowering, in 2002. In 2004, the title was transferred to Pauline Michel, in 2006 to John Steffler until December 3, 2008, to Pierre DesRuisseaux on April 28, 2009, to Fred Wah in December 2011. Michel Pleau was installed in January, 2014. Poets Laureate of Dominican Republic include: Pedro Mir. Designated Laureate includes Tsegaye GebreMedhin. Tsegaye's award is made by the commissioned/established by His Majesty, Haile-Selasie II. Https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsegaye_Gabre-Medhin http://www.tsegaye.se/ Poets Laureate of Nazi Germany include: Hanns Johst from 1935 to 1946. Sripada Krishnamurty Sastry was the first poet laureate of India. Kannadasan was the poet laureate of Tamil Nadu at the time of his death. Malek o-Sho'arā Bahār was the poet laureate of Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar.
He was a conservative figure among the modernists. The closest equivalent is the title Saoi held by up to seven members at a time of Aosdána, an official body of those engaged in fine arts and music. Poets awarded the title include Máire Mhac an tSaoi, Anthony Cronin, Seamus Heaney; the unofficial Poet Laureate of Netherlands is Tsead Bruinja as Dichter des Vaderlands. The previous laureate was Ester Naomi Perquin. Gerrit Komrij was the first Dichter des Vaderlands; the title was created by Dutch media. New Zealand has had an official poet laureate since 1998. Sponsored by Te Mata vineyards and known as the Te Mata Estate Poet Laureate, the award is now administered by the National Library of New Zealand and the holder is called New Zealand Poet Laureate; the term of office is two years. The symbol of office is a carved wooden ceremonial orator's staff; the first holder was Bill Manhire, in 1998–99 Hone Tuwhare, Elizabeth Smither, Brian Turner, Jenny Bornholdt, Michele Leggott, Cilla McQueen, Ian Wedde, Vincent O'Sullivan, C. K. Stead, Selina Tusitala Marsh.
Poets Laureate of Nigeria include: Obo Aba Hisanjani. Beginning around 1994, North Korea had 6 active poets laureate. Epic poetry was the chief vehicle of political propaganda during the rule of Kim Jong-il, the poets worked according to the requests and needs of Kim Jong-il; some of the poets are Kim Man-young and Shin Byung-gang. Poets Laureate of Saint Lucia include: Derek Walcott. Matija Bećković Charles Simić Slobodan Selenić Jovan Dučić Poets laureate of Sierra Leone include the Italian authors Roberto Malini and Dario Picciau. Poets laureate of Somalia include: Hadraawi. Mehmet Akif Ersoy was the Poet-Laureate, born in 1873 and died on December 27, 1936, famous Turkish poet, he composed the poem to be the National Anthem of the Turkish Republic that written in 1921."Original name of the poem is İstiklal Marşı" The more general use of the term "poet laureate" is restricted in England to the official office of Poet Laureate, attached to the royal household. However, no authoritative historical record exists of the office of Poet Laureate of England.
The office developed from earlier practice when minstrels and versifiers were members of the king's retinue. Richard Cœur-de-Li
Thomas Shadwell was an English poet and playwright, appointed poet laureate in 1689. Shadwell was born at either Bromehill Farm, Weeting-with-Broomhill or Santon House, Lynford and educated at Bury St Edmunds School, at Gonville and Caius College, which he entered in 1656, he left the university without a degree, joined the Middle Temple. At the Whig triumph in 1688, he superseded John Dryden as poet historiographer royal, he died at Chelsea on 19 November 1692. He was buried in Chelsea Old Church. In 1668 he produced a prose comedy, The Sullen Lovers, or the Impertinents, based on Les Fâcheux by Molière, written in open imitation of Ben Jonson's comedy of humours, his best plays are Epsom Wells, for which Sir Charles Sedley wrote a prologue, the Squire of Alsatia. Alsatia was the cant name for the Whitefriars area of London a kind of sanctuary for persons liable to arrest, the play represents, in dialogue full of the local argot, the adventures of a young heir who falls into the hands of the sharpers there.
For fourteen years from the production of his first comedy to his memorable encounter with John Dryden, Shadwell produced a play nearly every year. These productions display a hatred of sham, a rough but honest moral purpose. Although bawdy, they present a vivid picture of contemporary manners. Shadwell is chiefly remembered as the unfortunate Mac Flecknoe of Dryden's satire, the "last great prophet of tautology," and the literary son and heir of Richard Flecknoe: "The rest to some faint meaning make pretense, But Sh____ never deviates into sense." Dryden had furnished Shadwell with a prologue to his True Widow and, in spite of momentary differences, the two had been on friendly terms. But when Dryden joined the court party, produced Absalom and Achitophel and The Medal, Shadwell became the champion of the Protestants, made a scurrilous attack on Dryden in The Medal of John Bayes: a Satire against Folly and Knavery. Dryden retorted in Mac Flecknoe, or a Satire on the True Blue Protestant Poet, T.
S. in which Shadwell's personalities were returned with interest. A month he contributed to Nahum Tate's continuation of Absalom and Achitophel satirical portraits of Elkanah Settle as Doeg and of Shadwell as Og. In 1687, Shadwell attempted to answer these attacks in a version of Juvenal's 10th Satire. However, Dryden's portrait of Shadwell in Absalom and Achitophel cut far deeper, has withstood the test of time. In this satire, Dryden noted of Settle and Shadwell: Two fools that crutch their feeble sense on verse, his son, Charles Shadwell was a playwright. A scene from his play, The Stockjobbers was included as an introduction in Caryl Churchill's Serious Money. A complete edition of Shadwell's works was published by another son, Sir John Shadwell, in 1720, his other dramatic works are: The Sullen Lovers, or the Impertinents, adapted from Molière The Royal Shepherdess, an adaptation of John Fountain's Rewards of Virtue The Humorist The Miser, adapted from Molière Psyche The Libertine The Virtuoso The History of Timon of Athens the Man-hater,--on this Shakespearian adaptation see Oscar Beber's inaugural dissertation, Thom.
Shadwell's Bearbeitung des Shakespeare'schen "Timon of Athens" A True Widow The Woman Captain, revived in 1744 as The Prodigal The Lancashire Witches and Teague O'Divelly, the Irish Priest Bury Fair The Amorous Bigot, with the second part of Teague O'Divelly The Scowerers The Volunteers, or Stockjobbers, published posthumously Restoration comedy The International Thomas Shadwell Society was founded on 16 April 2016 at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Http://thomasshadwell.com/ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Shadwell, Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. P. 759. Works written by or about Thomas Shadwell at Wikisource Works by or about Thomas Shadwell at Internet Archive Works by Thomas Shadwell at LibriVox 14 Shadwell Plays Online
Simon Robert Armitage, is an English poet and novelist. He is professor of poetry at the University of Leeds. On 19 June 2015, Armitage was elected to the part-time position of Oxford Professor of Poetry, succeeding Geoffrey Hill. Armitage was born in Huddersfield, West Riding of Yorkshire and grew up in the village of Marsden. Armitage first studied at Colne Valley High School and went on to study geography at Portsmouth Polytechnic, he was a post-graduate student at the University of Manchester where his MA thesis concerned the effects of television violence on young offenders. Until 1994 he worked as a probation officer in Greater Manchester, he has lectured on creative writing at the University of Leeds, the University of Iowa, was senior lecturer at Manchester Metropolitan University. He has made literary and travel programmes for BBC Radio 3 and 4. From 2009-2012 he was Artist in Residence at London's South Bank, in February 2011 he became Professor of Poetry at the University of Sheffield.
In October 2017 he was appointed as the first Professor of Poetry at the University of Leeds. He lives in the Holme Valley, West Yorkshire, he is a lifelong Huddersfield Town fan and makes many references to supporting his local team in his book All Points North. Armitage's poetry collections include Book of Matches and The Dead Sea Poems, he has written two novels, Little Green Man and The White Stuff, as well as All Points North, a collection of essays on Northern England. He produced a dramatised version of Homer's Odyssey and a collection of poetry entitled Tyrannosaurus Rex Versus The Corduroy Kid, both of which were published in July 2006. Many of Armitage's poems appear in the AQA GCSE syllabus for English Literature in the United Kingdom; these include "Homecoming","Extract from Out of the Blue", "November", "Kid", "Hitcher", a selection of poems from Book of Matches, most notably of these "Mother any distance...". His work appears on CCEA's GCSE English Literature course, he is characterised by a dry Yorkshire wit combined with "an accessible, realist style and critical seriousness."
His translation of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, was adopted for the ninth edition of The Norton Anthology of English Literature, he was the narrator of a 2010 BBC documentary about the poem and its use of landscape. Armitage writes for radio, television and stage, he is the author of four stage plays, including Mister Heracles, a version of Euripides' The Madness of Heracles. He has written a fifth, The Last Days of Troy, which premiered at Shakespeare's Globe in June 2014, he was commissioned in 1996 by the National Theatre in London to write Eclipse for the National Connections series, a play inspired by the real-life disappearance of a girl in Hebden Bridge, set at the time of the 1999 solar eclipse in Cornwall. Most Armitage wrote the libretto for an opera scored by Scottish composer Stuart MacRae, The Assassin Tree, based on a Greek myth recounted in The Golden Bough; the opera premiered at the 2006 Edinburgh International Festival, before moving to the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, London.
Saturday Night – wrote and narrated a fifty-minute poetic commentary to a documentary about night-life in Leeds, directed by Brian Hill. In 2010, Armitage walked the 264-mile Pennine Way, walking south from Scotland to Derbyshire. Along the route he stopped to give poetry readings in exchange for donations of money, food or accommodation, despite the rejection of the free life seen in his 1993 poem, the Hitcher, has written a book about his journey, called Walking Home, he has received numerous awards for his poetry, including The Sunday Times Author of the Year, a Forward Prize, a Lannan Award, an Ivor Novello Award for his song lyrics in the Channel 4 film Feltham Sings. Kid and CloudCuckooLand were short-listed for the Whitbread poetry prize; the Dead Sea Poems was short-listed for the Whitbread, the Forward Poetry Prize and the T. S. Eliot Prize; the Universal Home Doctor was short-listed for the T. S. Eliot. In 2000, he was the UK's official Millennium Poet and went on to judge the 2005 Griffin Poetry Prize, the 2006 Man Booker Prize for Fiction and the 2010 Manchester Poetry Prize.
In 2004, Armitage was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature and was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2010 Birthday Honours. He is a vice president of the Poetry Society and a patron of the Arvon Foundation. In 2007 he released an album of songs co-written with the musician Craig Smith, under the band name The Scaremongers. For the Stanza Stones Trail, which runs through 47 miles of the Pennine region, Armitage composed six new poems on his walks. With the help of local expert Tom Lonsdale and letter-carver Pip Hall, the poems were carved into stones at secluded sites. A book, containing the poems and the accounts of Lonsdale and Hall, has been produced as a record of that journey and has been published by Enitharmon Press. In 2016 the arts programme 14-18 NOW commissioned a series of poems by Simon Armitage as part of a five-year programme of new artwork created to mark the centenary of the First World War; the poems are a response to six aerial or panoramic photographs of battlefields from the archive of the Imperial War Museum in London.
The poetry collection "Still" premiered at the Norfolk & Norwich Festival and has been published in partnership with Enitharmon Press. 1982 Honour Award given by Peter Simmons 1988 Eric Gregory Award 1
Toulouse is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie. The city is on the banks of the River Garonne, 150 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea, 230 km from the Atlantic Ocean and 680 km from Paris, it is the fourth-largest city in France, with 466,297 inhabitants as of January 2014. In France, Toulouse is called the "Pink City"; the Toulouse Metro area, with 1,312,304 inhabitants as of 2014, is France's fourth-largest metropolitan area, after Paris and Marseille, ahead of Lille and Bordeaux. Toulouse is the centre of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus, the Galileo positioning system, the SPOT satellite system, ATR and the Aerospace Valley, it hosts the European headquarters of Intel and CNES's Toulouse Space Centre, the largest space centre in Europe. Thales Alenia Space, ATR, SAFRAN, Liebherr-Aerospace and Astrium Satellites have a significant presence in Toulouse; the University of Toulouse is one of the oldest in Europe and, with more than 103,000 students, it is the fourth-largest university campus in France, after the universities of Paris and Lille.
The air route between Toulouse–Blagnac and Paris Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 2.4 million passengers in 2014. According to the rankings of L'Express and Challenges, Toulouse is the most dynamic French city; the city was the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom in the 5th century and the capital of the province of Languedoc in the Late Middle Ages and early modern period, making it the unofficial capital of the cultural region of Occitania. It is now the capital of the second largest region in Metropolitan France. A city with unique architecture made of pinkish terracotta bricks, which earned it the nickname la Ville Rose, Toulouse counts two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Canal du Midi, the Basilica of St. Sernin, the largest remaining Romanesque building in Europe, designated in 1998 because of its significance to the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route. Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, on the axis of communication between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
The city is traversed by the Canal de Brienne, the Canal du Midi and the rivers Garonne and Hers-Mort. Toulouse has a humid subtropical climate, with too much precipitation in the summer months preventing the city from being classified as a Mediterranean climate zone; the Garonne Valley was a central point for trade between the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic since at least the Iron Age. The historical name of the city, Tolosa, it is of unknown meaning or origin from Aquitanian, or from Iberian, but has been connected to the name of the Gaulish Volcae Tectosages. Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd century BC. After the conquest of Gaul, it was developed as a Roman city of Gallia Narbonensis. In the 5th century, Tolosa fell to the Visigothic kingdom and became one of its major cities, in the early 6th century serving as its capital, before it fell to the Franks under Clovis in 507. From this time, Toulouse was the capital of Aquitaine within the Frankish realm. In 721, Duke Odo of Aquitaine defeated an invading Umayyad Muslim army at the Battle of Toulouse.
Odo's victory was a small obstacle to Muslim expansion into Christian Europe, Muslims occupied a large territory including Poitiers. Charles Martel, a decade won the Battle of Tours called the Battle of Poitiers; the Frankish conquest of Septimania followed in the 750s, a quasi-independent County of Toulouse emerged within the Carolingian sub-kingdom of Aquitaine by the late 8th century. The Battle of Toulouse of 844, pitting Charles the Bald against Pepin II of Aquitaine, was key in the Carolingian Civil War. During the Carolingian era, the town rose in status. In the 12th century, consuls took over the running of the town and these proved to be difficult years. In particular, it was a time of religious turmoil. In Toulouse, the Cathars tried to set up a community here, but were routed by Simon de Montfort's troops; the Dominican Order was founded in Toulouse in 1215 by Saint Dominic in this context of struggle against the Cathar heresy. The subsequent arrival of the Inquisition led to a period of religious fervour during which time the Dominican Couvent des Jacobins was founded.
Governed by Raimond II and a group of city nobles, Toulouse's urban boundaries stretched beyond its walls to the north and as far south as Saint Michel. In the Treaty of Paris of 1229, Toulouse formally submitted to the crown of France; the county's sole heiress Joan was engaged to Alphonse, Count of Poitiers, a younger brother of Louis IX of France. The marriage became legal in 1241, but it remained childless so that after Joan's death the county fell to the crown of France by inheritance. In 1229, University of Toulouse was established after the Parisian model, intended as a means to dissolve the heretic movement. Various monastic orders, like the congregation of the order of frères prêcheurs, were started, they found home in Les Jacobins. In parallel, a long period of inquisition began inside the Toulouse walls; the fear of repression obliged the notabilities to convert themselves. The inquisition lasted nearly 4