The Twilight Zone (1959 TV series)
The Twilight Zone is an American anthology television series created and presented by Rod Serling, which ran for five seasons on CBS from 1959 to 1964. Each episode presents a stand-alone story in which characters find themselves dealing with disturbing or unusual events, an experience described as entering "the Twilight Zone," ending with a surprise ending and a moral. Although predominantly science-fiction, the show's paranormal and Kafkaesque events leaned the show towards fantasy and horror; the phrase “twilight zone,” inspired by the series, is used to describe surreal experiences. The series featured both established stars and younger actors who would become much better known later. Serling served as executive head writer, he was the show's host and narrator, delivering monologues at the beginning and end of each episode. Serling's opening and closing narrations summarize the episode's events encapsulating how and why the main character had entered the Twilight Zone. In 1997, the episodes "To Serve Man" and "It's a Good Life" were ranked at 11 and 31 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time.
Serling himself stated that his favorite episodes of the series were "The Invaders" and "Time Enough at Last". In 2016, the series was ranked No. 7 on Rolling Stone's list of the 100 greatest shows of all time. In 2002, The Twilight Zone was ranked No. 26 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. In 2013, the Writers Guild of America ranked it as the third best-written TV series and TV Guide ranked it as the fourth greatest drama and the fifth greatest show of all time. By the late 1950s, Rod Serling was a prominent name in American television, his successful television plays included Patterns and Requiem for a Heavyweight, but constant changes and edits made by the networks and sponsors frustrated Serling. In Requiem for a Heavyweight, the line "Got a match?" had to be struck because the sponsor sold lighters. But according to comments in his 1957 anthology Patterns, Serling had been trying to delve into material more controversial than his works of the early 1950s; this led to Noon on Doomsday for the United States Steel Hour in 1956, a commentary by Serling on the defensiveness and total lack of repentance he saw in the Mississippi town where the murder of Emmett Till took place.
His original script paralleled the Till case was moved out of the South and the victim changed to a Jewish pawnbroker, watered down to just a foreigner in an unnamed town. Despite bad reviews, activists sent numerous wires protesting the production. Serling thought that a science-fictional setting, with robots and other supernatural occurrences, would give him more freedom and less interference in expressing controversial ideas than more realistic settings. "The Time Element" was Serling's 1957 pilot pitch for his show, a time travel adventure about a man who travels back to Honolulu in 1941 and unsuccessfully tries to warn everyone about the impending attack on Pearl Harbor. The script, was rejected and shelved for a year until Bert Granet discovered and produced it as an episode of Desilu Playhouse in 1958; the show was a great success and enabled Serling to begin production on his anthology series, The Twilight Zone. Serling's editorial sense of ironic fate in the writing done for the series was identified as significant to its success by the BFI Film Classics library which stated that for Serling "the cruel indifference and implacability of fate and the irony of poetic justice" were recurrent themes in his plots.
There is a fifth dimension, beyond that, known to man. It is a dimension as timeless as infinity, it is the middle ground between light and shadow, between science and superstition, it lies between the pit of man's fears and the summit of his knowledge. This is the dimension of imagination, it is an area. The Twilight Zone premiered the night of October 1959, to rave reviews. "Twilight Zone is about the only show on the air that I look forward to seeing. It's the one series that I will let interfere with other plans", said Terry Turner for the Chicago Daily News. Others agreed. Daily Variety ranked it with "the best, accomplished in half-hour filmed television" and the New York Herald Tribune found the show to be "certainly the best and most original anthology series of the year"; as the show proved popular to television's critics, it struggled to find a receptive audience of television viewers. CBS was banking on a rating of at least 21 or 22; the series' future was jeopardized when its third episode, "Mr. Denton on Doomsday" earned a 16.3 rating.
Still, the show attracted a large enough audience to survive a brief hiatus in November, after which it surpassed its competition on ABC and NBC and convinced its sponsors to stay on until the end of the season. With one exception, the first season featured scripts written only by Rod Serling, Charles Beaumont or Richard Matheson; these three were responsible for 127 of the 156 episodes in the series. Additionally, with one exception, Serling never appeared on camera during any first-season episode (as he woul
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Macao is a 1952 black-and-white film noir adventure directed by Josef von Sternberg and Nicholas Ray. The drama features Robert Mitchum, Jane Russell, William Bendix, Gloria Grahame. Three strangers arrive at the port of Macao on the same ship: Nick Cochran, a cynical-but-honest ex-serviceman, Julie Benson, an cynical, sultry night club singer, Lawrence Trumble, a traveling salesman who deals in both silk stockings and contraband. Corrupt police lieutenant Sebastian notifies casino owner and underworld boss Vincent Halloran about the new arrivals. Halloran has been tipped off about an undercover New York City policeman out to lure him into international waters so he can be arrested. With only three strangers to choose from, Halloran assumes, he tries to bribe a puzzled Nick to leave Macao, but Nick is interested in getting to know Julie better and turns him down. Halloran hires Julie as a singer, in part to find out. Trumble offers Nick a commission to help him sell a stolen diamond necklace. However, when Nick shows Halloran a diamond from the necklace, Halloran recognizes it.
Now sure of Nick's identity, he has the American taken prisoner for questioning. Nick is guarded by Halloran's jealous girlfriend, Margie. Worried that Halloran is planning to dump her for Julie, Margie lets Nick escape, with the two guards close behind; when Trumble happens on the late-night chase, he tries to help Nick and is killed, mistaken by the thugs for Nick. Before he dies, he tells Nick about the police boat waiting offshore; when Nick tries to get Julie to go away with him, he learns that Halloran has invited her on a trip to Hong Kong. With this information, Nick is able to dispose of Halloran's murderous henchman and take the helm of Halloran's boat, he hands Halloran over to them. Macao was the second feature that Josef von Sternberg filmed to fulfill a two-picture contract with RKO Pictures owned by Howard Hughes.. Shooting began in September 1950 and was released in April 1952. Sternberg's habit of handling actors "as mere details of décor" elicited strenuous objections from stars Jane Russell and Gloria Grahame such that "the shooting of Macao has become a minor legend."
John Baxter reports that "fights on the set" were not uncommon, were manifested in the "strained" performances of the cast. During the final stages of filming, director Nicholas Ray was enlisted for perform retakes on a critical fistfight scene between Robert Mitchum and Brad Dexter, because Sternberg's handling was deemed unsatisfactory by producer Alex Gottlieb. Although uncredited, Ray's contribution to the picture was recognized by Sternberg. Sternberg, who "despised the script and the close control" by the studio "disowned" responsibility for the production. Only stock footage was shot on location in Hong Macau. T. V. actor and host Truman Bradley narrated the film's opening. Musical Direction –Constantin Bakaleinikoff Art Direction – – Albert S. D'Agostino and Ralph Berger Photography – Harry J. Wild Scriptwriter – Bernard C. Schoenfeld and Stanley Rubin Set Decoration – Darrell Silvera and Harvey Miller Costumes – Michael Woulfe Editing – Samuel E. Beetley and Robert Golden Jane Russell sings the Johnny Mercer and Harold Arlen song "One for My Baby", the Jule Styne and Leo Robin tune "You Kill Me" The film recorded a loss of $700,000.
Biographer Herman g. Weinberg called the film "a critical and box-office fiasco." Critic Bosley Crowther, writing for The New York Times in 1952, lambasted the characters as "flimflam" and the story "pedestrian", despite some "well-placed direction by Josef von Sternberg in a couple of scenes." Film historian Andrew Sarris in his appraisal of Sternberg's films for Museum of Modern Art, deplores Macao as a series of "visual coups" assembled "to conceal the meaninglessness of the action..." Whereas Sarris praises the majority of Sternberg's films "for their unity of form and function", Macao proves "how superficial mere style can be."Journalist and filmmaker John Baxter, writing for the International Film Guide Series, has a higher opinion of the film and lauds the "bravura passages" and the "atmosphere and décor that make the work definitively "Sternbergian". Both Sarris and Baxter acknowledge Sternberg's stylistic signature in the deadly waterfront chase amid the docked fishing boat, as well as the amusing bedroom scene where an electric fan reduces a pillow to "a storm of feathers."
In 2005, film critic Dennis Schwartz, writing for Ozus' World Movie Reviews, lauded the casting of Jane Russell and Robert Mitchum: A wonderfully tongue-in-cheek scripted RKO adventure story directed by Josef von Sternberg... Jane Russell enthralls as she gets romanced by the laconic Mitchum, they create movie magic together through their brilliant nuanced performances... She's the good-bad girl, while he's the hard-luck innocent who can't win when playing with loaded dice... If you are looking for an underrated film noir gem—that somehow got swept under the rug—this is it! Baxter laments that Macao, though "not a classic work... ill-deserves its present obscurity." Baxter, John. 1971. The Cinema of Josef von Sternberg; the International Film Guide Series. A. S Barners & Company, New York. Sarris, Andrew. 1966. The Films of Josef von Sternberg. Museum of Modern Art/Doubleday. New York, New York. Macao on IMDb Macao at AllMovie Macao at the TCM Movie Database Macao at Rotten Tomatoes Macao film clip on YouTube (Jane Russell sings "One for My
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Dark Corner
The Dark Corner is a 1946 black-and-white film noir directed by Henry Hathaway starring Lucille Ball, Mark Stevens and Clifton Webb. In New York, private investigator Bradford Galt asks his secretary Kathleen to help him catch a man, following him, he does catch the thug, carrying identification in the name of Fred Foss and says he was hired by Tony Jardine. However, his name is Stauffer, he is working for Hardy Cathcart, a wealthy art-gallery owner. During the confrontation Stauffer's suit is stained with ink. A car rushes at Brad attempting to kill him. Brad explains to Kathleen that Jardine is a corrupt lawyer, Brad's business partner when they lived in San Francisco. Brad had caught Jardine committing blackmail. A man was killed and Brad served time for manslaughter. At the time he thought Jardine was satisfied with that; the car's license plate leads Brad to Jardine, spending the evening with Cathcart's trophy wife Mari: they are having an affair. She remains out of sight while Brad confronts Jardine, who denies knowing that Brad was out of prison.
The two men fight and Mari calls the police, but Brad leaves the scene. Cathcart, who had hoped they would fight to the death, now arranges for Brad to be framed for murder. Stauffer ambushes both Jardine in Brad's apartment, he renders Brad unconscious with ether, kills Jardine with a fireplace poker, leaves the weapon in Brad's hand. Kathleen and Brad have fallen in love, so she aids him in covering up the crime until he can find and incriminate the real murderer, they find Fred Foss. They manage to trace Stauffer by contacting dry cleaners until they find the one who treated the distinctively ink-stained suit, but they find Stauffer murdered: rather than pay him off, Cathcart has pushed him through a window to his death. Brad flees the scene by stealing a taxi and driving it to a taxi garage where the police will be unable to pick it out from the others. Brad and Kathleen identify Hardy Cathcart as being connected to Stauffer. Brad goes to Cathcart's gallery. Taken to Cathcart's office to wait for the man, he tries to search for evidence, but Mari Cathcart happens to come in.
Knowing Jardine was a womanizer, Brad guesses about the affair and tells her Jardine has been murdered. "Hardy did it", she moans, faints. Cathcart now arrives, gun in hand, he leads Brad to another part of the building. Since Brad is an ex-con and a murder suspect, Cathcart plans to kill him and claim self-defense, but the distraught Mari Cathcart shoots her husband six times. Kathleen tells the police that their interview will have to wait while she and Brad get married. Lucille Ball as Kathleen Clifton Webb as Hardy Cathcart William Bendix as Stauffer, alias Fred Foss Mark Stevens as Bradford Galt Kurt Kreuger as Anthony Jardine Cathy Downs as Mari Cathcart Reed Hadley as Lt Frank Reeves Constance Collier as Mrs. Kingsley Eddie Heywood as Himself Molly Lamont as Lucy Wilding Ellen Corby as Maid The Dark Corner at the American Film Institute Catalog The Dark Corner on IMDb The Dark Corner at AllMovie The Dark Corner at the TCM Movie Database The Dark Corner film trailer on YouTube
Cornell George Hopley-Woolrich was an American novelist and short story writer who wrote using the name Cornell Woolrich, sometimes the pseudonyms William Irish and George Hopley. His biographer, Francis Nevins Jr. rated Woolrich the fourth best crime writer of his day, behind Dashiell Hammett, Erle Stanley Gardner and Raymond Chandler. A check of film titles reveals that more film noir screenplays were adapted from works by Woolrich than any other crime novelist, many of his stories were adapted during the 1940s for Suspense and other dramatic radio programs. Woolrich was born in New York City, he lived for a time in Mexico with his father before returning to New York to live with his mother, Claire Attalie Woolrich. He attended Columbia University but left in 1926 without graduating when his first novel, Cover Charge, was published; as Eddie Duggan observes, "Woolrich enrolled at New York's Columbia University in 1921 where he spent a undistinguished year until he was taken ill and was laid up for some weeks.
It was during this illness that Woolrich started writing, producing Cover Charge, published in 1926." Cover Charge was one of his Jazz Age novels inspired by the work of F. Scott Fitzgerald. A second short story, Children of the Ritz, won Woolrich the first prize of $10,000 the following year in a competition organised by College Humor and First National Pictures. While in Hollywood, Woolrich explored his sexuality engaging in what Frances M. Nevins Jr. describes as "promiscuous and clandestine homosexual activity" and by marrying Violet Virginia Blackton, the 21-year-old daughter of J. Stuart Blackton one of the founders of the Vitagraph studio. Failing in both his attempt at marriage and at establishing a career as a screenwriter, Woolrich sought to resume his life as a novelist: Although Woolrich had published six'jazz-age' novels, concerned with the party-antics and romances of the beautiful young things on the fringes of American society, between 1926 and 1932, he was unable to establish himself as a serious writer.
Because the'jazz-age' novel was dead in the water by the 1930s when the depression had begun to take hold, Woolrich was unable to find a publisher for his seventh novel, I Love You, Paris, so he threw away the typescript, dumped it in a dustbin, re-invented himself as a pulp writer. When he turned to pulp and detective fiction, Woolrich's output was so prolific his work was published under one of his many pseudonyms. For example, "William Irish" was the byline in Dime Detective Magazine on his 1942 story "It Had to Be Murder", source of the 1954 Alfred Hitchcock movie Rear Window and itself based on H. G. Wells' short story "Through a Window". François Truffaut filmed Woolrich's The Bride Wore Black and Waltz into Darkness in 1968 and 1969 the latter as Mississippi Mermaid. Ownership of the copyright in Woolrich's original story "It Had to Be Murder" and its use for Rear Window was litigated before the US Supreme Court in Stewart v. Abend, 495 U. S. 207. He returned to New York where his mother moved into the Hotel Marseilles.
Eddie Duggan observes that "lthough his writing made him wealthy and his mother lived in a series of seedy hotel rooms, including the squalid Hotel Marseilles apartment building in Harlem, among a group of thieves and lowlifes that would not be out of place in Woolrich's dark fictional world". Woolrich lived there until his mother's death on October 6, 1957, which prompted his move to the Hotel Franconia. In years, he socialized on occasion in Manhattan bars with Mystery Writers of America colleagues and younger fans such as writer Ron Goulart, but alcoholism and an amputated leg left him a recluse; as Duggan writes: Woolrich's mother died in 1957, he into a sharp physical and mental decline. Although he moved from Harlem's decrepit Hotel Marseilles to a more upmarket residence in the Hotel Franconia near Central Park, to the Sheraton-Russell on Park Avenue, Woolrich was a virtual recluse. Now in his 60s, with his eyesight failing, psychologically wracked by guilt over his homosexuality, tortured by his alcoholism, self-doubt, a diabetic to boot, Woolrich neglected himself to such a degree that he allowed a foot infection to become gangrenous which resulted, early in 1968, in the amputation of a leg.
After the amputation, a conversion to Catholicism, Woolrich returned to the Sheraton-Russell, confined to a wheelchair. Some of the staff there would take Woolrich down to the lobby so he could look out on the passing traffic, thus making the wizened, wheelchair-bound Woolrich into a kind of darker, self-loathing version of the character played by James Stewart in Hitchcock's Rear Window. With the type of closure, only encountered as a literary device, the Woolrich story turns full-circle around the Oedipally charged foot motif, the writing career that began with a period of confinement attributed to a foot infection ends with an amputation, the deep Freudian resonance that amputation induces. Woolrich did not attend the premiere of Truffaut's film of his novel The Bride Wore Black in 1968 though it was held in New York City, he died weighing 89 pounds. He is interred in the Ferncliff Cemetery in New York. Woolrich bequeathed his estate of about $
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012