Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Le Monde is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, published continuously since its first edition. It is one of the most important and respected newspapers in the world. Le Monde is one of the French newspapers of record, counting Libération, Le Figaro, the main publication of La Vie-Le Monde Group, it reported an average circulation of 323,039 copies per issue in 2009, about 40,000 of which were sold abroad. It has had its own website since 19 December 1995, is the only French newspaper obtainable in non-French-speaking countries, it should not be confused with the monthly publication Le Monde diplomatique, of which Le Monde has 51% ownership, but, editorially independent. The paper's journalistic side has a collegial form of organization, in which most journalists are not only tenured, but financial stakeholders in the enterprise as well, participate in the elections of upper management and senior executives.
In the 1990s and 2000s, La Vie-Le Monde Group expanded under editor Jean-Marie Colombani with a number of acquisitions. However, its profitability was not sufficient to cover the large debt loads it took on to fund this expansion, it sought new investors in 2010 to keep the company out of bankruptcy. In June 2010, investors Matthieu Pigasse, Pierre Bergé, Xavier Niel acquired a controlling stake in the newspaper. In contrast to other world newspapers such as The New York Times, Le Monde was traditionally focused on offering analysis and opinion, as opposed to being a newspaper of record. Hence, it was considered less important for the paper to offer maximum coverage of the news than to offer thoughtful interpretation of current events. For instance, on the 10th anniversary of the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, the newspaper directly implicated François Mitterrand, the French president at the time, in the operation. In recent years the paper has established a greater distinction between opinion.
Le Monde was founded in 1944 at the request of General Charles de Gaulle after the German army was driven from Paris during World War II, took over the headquarters and layout of Le Temps, the most important newspaper in France before but whose reputation had suffered during the Occupation. Beuve-Méry demanded total editorial independence as the condition for his taking on the project. In 1981 it backed the election of socialist François Mitterrand, in part on the grounds that the alternation of the political party in government would be beneficial to the democratic character of the state; the paper endorsed centre-right candidate Édouard Balladur in the 1995 presidential election, Ségolène Royal, the Socialist Party candidate, in the 2007 presidential election. According to the Mitrokhin Archive investigators, Le Monde was the KGB's key outlet for spreading anti-American and pro-Soviet disinformation to the French media; the archive identified two senior Le Monde journalists and several contributors who were used in the operations.
Michel Legris, a former journalist with the paper, wrote Le Monde tel qu'il est in 1976. According to him, the journal minimized the atrocities committed by the Cambodian Khmer Rouge. In their 2003 book titled La Face cachée du Monde, authors Pierre Péan and Philippe Cohen alleged that Colombani and then-editor Edwy Plenel had shown, amongst other things, partisan bias and had engaged in financial dealings that compromised the paper's independence, it accused the paper of dangerously damaging the authority of the French state by having revealed various political scandals. This book remains controversial, but attracted much attention and media coverage in France and around the world at the time of its publication. Following a lawsuit, the authors and the publisher agreed in 2004 not to proceed to any reprinting. Le Monde has been found guilty of defamation for saying that Spanish football club FC Barcelona was connected to a doctor involved in steroid use; the Spanish court fined the newspaper nearly $450,000.
In April 2016, a Le Monde reporter was denied a visa to visit Algeria as part of the French Prime Minister press convoy to Algeria. Le Monde had published names of Algerian officials directly involved with the Panama papers corruption scandal. Le Monde is published around midday, the date on the masthead is the following day's. For instance, the issue released at midday on 15 March shows 16 March on the masthead, it is available on newsstands in France on the day of release, received by mail subscribers on the masthead date. The Saturday issue is a double one, for Sunday, thus the latest edition can be found on newsstands from Monday to Friday included, while subscribers will receive it from Tuesday to Saturday included. In December 2006, on the 60th anniversary of its publishing début, Le Monde moved into new headquarters in Boulevard Auguste-Blanqui, 13th arrondissement of Paris; the building—formerly the headquarters of Air France—was refashioned by Bouygues from the designs of Christian de Portzamparc.
The building's façade has an enormous fresco adorned by doves flying towards Victor Hugo, symbolising freedom of the press. It will move into a new headquarters in the 13th arrondissement, around 2017
Robert Doisneau was a French photographer. In the 1930s he made photographs on the streets of Paris, he was a champion of humanist photography and with Henri Cartier-Bresson a pioneer of photojournalism. Doisneau is renowned for his 1950 image Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville, a photograph of a couple kissing on a busy Parisian street. Doisneau was appointed a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1984 by French president, François Mitterrand. Doisneau was known for his modest and ironic images of amusing juxtapositions, mingling social classes, eccentrics in contemporary Paris streets and cafes. Influenced by the work of André Kertész, Eugène Atget, Henri Cartier-Bresson, in more than twenty books he presented a charming vision of human frailty and life as a series of quiet, incongruous moments; the marvels of daily life are so exciting. Doisneau's work gives unusual dignity to children's street culture, his work treats their play with respect. Doisneau's father, a plumber, died in active service in World War I.
His mother died. He was raised by an unloving aunt. At thirteen he enrolled at the École Estienne, a craft school from which he graduated in 1929 with diplomas in engraving and lithography. There he had his first contact with the arts; when he was 16 he took up amateur photography, but was so shy that he started by photographing cobble-stones before progressing to children and adults. At the end of the 1920s Doisneau found work as a draughtsman in the advertising industry at Atelier Ullmann, a creative graphics studio that specialised in the pharmaceutical industry. Here he took an opportunity to change career by acting as camera assistant in the studio and becoming a staff photographer. In 1931 he left both the studio and advertising, taking a job as an assistant with the modernist photographer André Vigneau. In 1932 he sold his first photographic story to Excelsior magazine. In 1934 he began working as an industrial advertising photographer for the Renault car factory at Boulogne-Billancourt.
Working at Renault increased Doisneau's interest in working with photography and people. Five years in 1939, he was dismissed because he was late, he was forced to try freelance advertising and postcard photography to earn his living. At that time the French postcard industry was the largest in Europe, postcards served as greetings cards as well as vacation souvenirs. In 1991 he said that the years at the Renault car factory marked "the beginning of his career as a photographer and the end of his youth." In 1939 he was hired by Charles Rado of the Rapho photographic agency and travelled throughout France in search of picture stories. This is. Doisneau worked at the Rapho agency until the outbreak of World War II, whereupon he was drafted into the French army as both a soldier and photographer, he was in the army until 1940 and from until the end of the war in 1945 used his draughtsmanship, lettering artistry, engraving skills to forge passports and identification papers for the French Resistance.
Some of Doisneau's most memorable photographs were taken after the war. He sold photographs to Life and other international magazines, he joined the Alliance Photo Agency but rejoined the Rapho agency in 1946 and remained with them throughout his working life, despite receiving an invitation from Henri Cartier-Bresson to join Magnum Photos. His photographs never ridiculed the subjects. I don't photograph life as it is. In 1948 he was contracted by Vogue to work as a fashion photographer; the editors believed he would bring a fresh and more casual look the magazine but Doisneau didn’t enjoy photographing beautiful women in elegant surroundings. When he could escape from the studio, he photographed more in the streets of Paris. Le Groupe des XV was established in 1946 in Paris to promote photography as art and drawing attention to the preservation of French photographic heritage. Doisneau joined the Group in 1950 and participated alongside Rene-Jacques, Willy Ronis, Pierre Jahan; the 1950s were Doisneau's peak.
In the 1970s Europe began to change and editors looked for new reportage that would show the sense of a new social era. All over Europe, the old-style picture magazines were closing as television received the public's attention. Doisneau continued to work, producing children's books, advertising photography, celebrity portraits including Alberto Giacometti, Jean Cocteau, Fernand Léger, Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso. Doisneau worked with writers and poets such as Blaise Cendrars and Jacques Prévert, he credited Prevert with giving him the confidence to photograph the everyday street scenes that most people ignored; the photography of Doisneau has had a revival since his death in 1994. Many of his portraits and photographs of Paris from the end of World War II through the 1950s have been turned into calendars and postcards, have become icons of French life. In 1950 Doisneau created his most recognizable work for Life – Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville, a photograph of a couple kissing in the busy streets of Paris, which became an in
Mercure de France
The Mercure de France was a French gazette and literary magazine first published in the 17th century, but after several incarnations has evolved as a publisher, is now part of the Éditions Gallimard publishing group. The gazette was published from 1672 to 1724 under the title Mercure galant and Nouveau Mercure galant; the title was changed to Mercure de France in 1724. The gazette was suppressed from 1811 to 1815 and ceased publication in 1825; the name was revived in 1890 for both a literary review and a publishing house linked with the symbolist movement. Since 1995 Mercure de France has been part of the Éditions Gallimard publishing group. Mercure de France should not be confused with the Mercure du XIXe siècle; the Mercure galant was founded by the writer Jean Donneau de Visé in 1672. The name refers to the messenger of the gods; the magazine's goal was to inform elegant society about life in the court and intellectual/artistic debates. Publication stopped in 1674, but began again as a monthly with the name Nouveau Mercure galant in 1677.
The Mercure galant was a significant development in the history of journalism (it was the first gazette to report on the fashion world and played a pivotal role in the dissemination of news about fashion, luxury goods and court life under Louis XIV to the provinces and abroad. In the 1670s, articles on the new season's fashions were accompanied with engravings See this work for an extensive analysis of the Mercure galant's mediatization of styles and fashion The August, 1697 edition contains a detailed description of a popular new puzzle, now known as peg solitaire; this article is the earliest known reference to peg solitaire. The gazette was denigrated by authors of the period; the name Mercure galant was used by the playwright Edmé Boursault for one of his plays critical of social pretensions. The gazette played an important role in the "Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns", a debate on whether the arts and literature of the 17th century had achieved more than the illustrious writers and artists of antiquity, which would last until the beginning of the eighteenth century.
Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle and the Mercure galant joined the "Moderns". Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux was pushed into the role of champion of the "Anciens", Jean Racine, Jean de La Fontaine and Jean de La Bruyère took his defense; the periodical became a financial success and it brought Donneau de Visé comfortable revenues. The Mercure de France became the uncontested arbiter of French arts and humanities, it has been called the most important literary journal in prerevolutionary France. Thomas Corneille was a frequent contributor to the gazette; the Mercure continued to be published after Donneau de Visé's death in 1710. In 1724 its title was changed to Mercure de France and it developed a semi-official character with a governmentally appointed editor. Jean-François de la Harpe was the editor in chief for 20 years. Other significant editors and contributors include: Marmontel, Raynal and Voltaire, it is on the pages of the May 1734 issue of the Mercure de France that the term "Baroque" makes its first attested appearance – used in an anonymous, satirical review of Jean-Philippe Rameau’s Hippolyte et Aricie.
Right before the revolution, management was handed over to Charles-Joseph Panckoucke. During the revolutionary era, the title was changed to Le Mercure français. Napoleon stopped its publication in 1811, but the review was resurrected in 1815; the review was last published in 1825. At the end of the 19th century, the name Mercure de France was revived by Alfred Vallette. Vallette was linked to a group of writers associated with Symbolism who met at the café la Mère Clarisse in Paris, which included: Jean Moréas, Émile Raynaud, Pierre Arène, Remy de Gourmont, Alfred Jarry, Albert Samain and Charles Cros; the first edition of the review appeared on January 1, 1890. Over the next decade, the review achieved critical success, poets such as Stéphane Mallarmé and José-Maria de Heredia published original works in it; the review became bimonthly in 1905. In 1889, Alfred Vallette married the novelist Rachilde whose novel Monsieur Vénus was condemned on moral grounds. Rachilde was a member of the editorial committee of the review until 1924 and her personality and works did much to publicize the review.
Rachilde held a salon on Tuesdays, these "mardis du Mercure" would become famous for the authors who attended. Like other reviews of the period, the Mercure began to publish books. Along with works by symbolists, the Mercure brought out the first French translations of Friedrich Nietzsche, the first works of André Gide, Paul Claudel and Guillaume Apollinaire and the poems of Tristan Klingsor. Publications include works by: Henri Michaux, Pierre Reverdy, Pierre-Jean Jouve, Louis-Ren
Johannes Brahms was a German composer and conductor of the Romantic period. Born in Hamburg into a Lutheran family, Brahms spent much of his professional life in Vienna, Austria, his reputation and status as a composer are such that he is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the "Three Bs" of music, a comment made by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow. Brahms composed for symphony orchestra, chamber ensembles, piano and voice and chorus. A virtuoso pianist, he premiered many of his own works, he worked with some of the leading performers of his time, including the pianist Clara Schumann and the violinist Joseph Joachim. Many of his works have become staples of the modern concert repertoire. An uncompromising perfectionist, Brahms left others unpublished. Brahms has been considered, by his contemporaries and by writers, as both a traditionalist and an innovator, his music is rooted in the structures and compositional techniques of the Classical masters.
While many contemporaries found his music too academic, his contribution and craftsmanship have been admired by subsequent figures as diverse as Arnold Schoenberg and Edward Elgar. The diligent constructed nature of Brahms's works was a starting point and an inspiration for a generation of composers. Embedded within his meticulous structures, are romantic motifs. Brahms's father, Johann Jakob Brahms, was from the town of Heide in Holstein; the family name was sometimes spelt'Brahmst' or'Brams', derives from'Bram', the German word for the shrub broom. Against the family's will, Johann Jakob pursued a career in music, arriving in Hamburg in 1826, where he found work as a jobbing musician and a string and wind player. In 1830, he married Johanna Henrika Christiane Nissen. In the same year he was appointed as a horn player in the Hamburg militia, he became a double-bass player in the Hamburg Stadttheater and the Hamburg Philharmonic Society. As Johann Jakob prospered, the family moved over the years to better accommodation in Hamburg.
Johannes Brahms was born in 1833. Fritz became a pianist. Johann Jakob gave his son his first musical training. From 1840 he studied piano with Otto Friedrich Willibald Cossel. Cossel complained in 1842 that Brahms "could be such a good player, but he will not stop his never-ending composing." At the age of 10, Brahms made his debut as a performer in a private concert including Beethoven's quintet for piano and winds Op. 16 and a piano quartet by Mozart. He played as a solo work an étude of Henri Herz. By 1845 he had written a piano sonata in G minor. Brahms's parents disapproved of his early efforts as a composer, feeling that he had better career prospects as a performer. From 1845 to 1848 Brahms studied with Cossel's teacher composer Eduard Marxsen. Marxsen had been a personal acquaintance of Beethoven and Schubert, admired the works of Mozart and Haydn, was a devotee of the music of J. S. Bach. Marxsen conveyed to Brahms the tradition of these composers and ensured that Brahms's own compositions were grounded in that tradition.
In 1847 Brahms made his first public appearance as a solo pianist in Hamburg, playing a Fantasy of Sigismund Thalberg. His first full piano recital, in 1848, included a fugue by Bach as well as works by Marxsen and contemporary virtuosi such as Jacob Rosenhain. A second recital in April 1849 included Beethoven's Waldstein sonata and a waltz fantasia of his own composition, garnered favourable newspaper reviews. Brahms's compositions at this period are known to have included piano music, chamber music and works for male voice choir. Under the pseudonym'G. W. Marks' some piano arrangements and fantasies were published by the Hamburg firm of Cranz in 1849; the earliest of Brahms's works which he acknowledged date from 1851. However Brahms was assiduous in eliminating all his early works. Persistent stories of the impoverished adolescent Brahms playing in bars and brothels have only anecdotal provenance, many modern scholars dismiss them. In 1850 Brahms met with the Hungarian violinist Ede Reményi and accompanied him in a number of recitals over the next few years.
This was Brahms's introduction to "gypsy-style" music such as the czardas, to prove the foundation of his most lucrative and popular compositions, the two sets of Hungarian Dances. 1850 marked Brahms's first contact with Robert Schumann. In 1853 Brahms went on a concert tour with Reményi. In late May the two visited composer Joseph Joachim at Hanover. Brahms had earlier heard Joachim playing the solo part in Beethoven's violin concerto and been impressed. Brahms played some of his own solo piano pieces for Joachim, who remembered fifty years later: "Never in the course of my artist's l
L'Alliance Française, or AF, is an international organization that aims to promote French language and culture around the world. Created in Paris on 21 July 1883 under the name Alliance française pour la propagation de la langue nationale dans les colonies et à l'étranger — now known as Alliance Française — its primary concern is teaching French as a second language and is headquartered in Paris. In 2014, the Alliance has 850 centers in 137 countries, on each inhabited continent; the Alliance was created in Paris on 21 July 1883 by a group including the scientist Louis Pasteur, the diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps, the writers Jules Verne and Ernest Renan, the publisher Armand Colin. It finances most of its activities from the fees it receives from its courses and from rental of its installations; the French government provides a subsidy covering five percent of its budget More than 440,000 students learn French at one of the centres run by the Alliance, whose network of schools includes: a centre in Paris, Alliance Française Paris Ile-de-France locations throughout France for foreign students and 1,016 locations in 135 countries.
The organizations outside Paris are local. Each has a president; the Alliance Française brand is owned by the Paris centre. In many countries, the Alliance Française of Paris is represented by a Délégué général; the French Government runs 150 separate French Cultural Institutes that exist to promote French language and culture. In 2005, along with the Società Dante Alighieri, the British Council, the Goethe-Institut, the Instituto Cervantes, the Instituto Camões, the Alliance française was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for outstanding achievements in communications and the humanities. Fondation Alliance Française Alliance Française Paris Ile-de-FranceThe Alliance Française Paris Ile-de-France is a Higher Private Education Institute, it is an association from the law 1901. Located in the heart of the capital, the Alliance Française Paris Ile-de-France is a genuine international meeting point where more than 11,000 students from 160 different countries come every year to learn French, it is the oldest one since the school offers courses in Paris since 1894.
The 110 faculty teachers at the Alliance Française Paris Ile-de-France are all certified in teaching French as a foreign language. Until 2007, the year of creation of the Alliance Française Foundation, the Alliance Française Paris Ile-de-France was called "the Paris Alliance Française", it was divided into three branches: the International Relations, the School of Paris, the Department of Human and Financial Resources. In 2007, the DRI has become the Alliance Française Foundation, while the School and the DRHF became the Alliance Française Paris Ile-de-France. Three conventions are now governing the relations between the Foundation and the Alliance Française Paris Ile-de-France: a financial agreement: the Alliance Française Paris Ile-de-France supports the Foundation financially. An agreement for the premises: the Paris Alliance Française donated its building in Boulevard Raspail to the Foundation at the time of the division in 2007 a teaching agreement: the Alliance Française Paris Ile-de-France supports the Alliances Françaises worldwide in their projects to professionalize their teaching and administrative staff.
More than 40 missions per year are made abroad. The Alliance Française Paris Ile-de-France works with Alliances Françaises from around the world, public bodies, large companies, supporting them in their desire to improve their command of the language in a professional environment, it is a training center for French language teachers. Each year, nearly 2,300 teachers across the world are trained on site or remotely, initial or continuing training, it delivers specific diplomas for French teachers such as the'DAEFLE', created with the'CNED' or the'DPAFP – FLE', which you obtain in five months after an initial training on site. It offers summer teaching courses for French teachers wishing to deepen and improve their knowledge; the Alliance Française Paris Ile-de-France has been awarded the FLE Quality Label, achieving top marks for each of the criteria studied by the auditors: welcome, quality of teaching, school management. It is co-founder of ALTE, an association that includes some of the most prestigious European institutions in the field of evaluation in foreign language.
Since 2010, it is the provider of the'OFII' for language training of the signatories of the Contract Integration living in Paris. Botswana 1 Comoros 3 Eritrea 1 Ethiopia 2 Ghana 4 Kenya 4 Lesotho 1 Madagascar 29 Mauritius 6 Mozambique 1 Namibia 1 Nigeria 10 Southern Africa 13 Swaziland 1 Tanzania Uganda 1 Zambia Zimbabwe 1 Argentina there are 72 partnerships with 16,000 students forming a network is considered one of the largest and oldest in the world. In Rosario, Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Santa Fe, Mendoza. Bermuda has one Alliance Française. Bolivia has five Alliances Françaises in all the main centers of population: Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Tarija. Brazil There are 39 Alliance Française schools in Brazil, six partner learnin
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website