Search for extraterrestrial intelligence
The search for extraterrestrial intelligence is a collective term for scientific searches for intelligent extraterrestrial life, for example, monitoring electromagnetic radiation for signs of transmissions from civilizations on other planets. Scientific investigation began shortly after the advent of radio in the early 1900s, focused international efforts have been going on since the 1980s. In 2015 Stephen Hawking and Russian billionaire Yuri Milner announced a well-funded effort called the Breakthrough Initiatives. There have been many earlier searches for extraterrestrial intelligence within the Solar System. In 1896, Nikola Tesla suggested that an extreme version of his wireless electrical transmission system could be used to contact beings on Mars. In 1899, while conducting experiments at his Colorado Springs experimental station, he thought he had detected a signal from that planet since an odd repetitive static signal seemed to cut off when Mars set in the night sky. Analysis of Tesla's research has ranged from suggestions that Tesla detected nothing, he misunderstood the new technology he was working with, to claims that Tesla may have been observing signals from Marconi's European radio experiments and that he could have picked up occurring Jovian plasma torus signals.
In the early 1900s, Guglielmo Marconi, Lord Kelvin and David Peck Todd stated their belief that radio could be used to contact Martians, with Marconi stating that his stations had picked up potential Martian signals. On August 21–23, 1924, Mars entered an opposition closer to Earth than at any time in the century before or the next 80 years. In the United States, a "National Radio Silence Day" was promoted during a 36-hour period from August 21–23, with all radios quiet for five minutes on the hour, every hour. At the United States Naval Observatory, a radio receiver was lifted 3 kilometres above the ground in a dirigible tuned to a wavelength between 8 and 9 km, using a "radio-camera" developed by Amherst College and Charles Francis Jenkins; the program was led by David Peck Todd with the military assistance of Admiral Edward W. Eberle, with William F. Friedman, assigned to translate any potential Martian messages. A 1959 paper by Philip Morrison and Giuseppe Cocconi first pointed out the possibility of searching the microwave spectrum, proposed frequencies and a set of initial targets.
In 1960, Cornell University astronomer Frank Drake performed the first modern SETI experiment, named "Project Ozma", after the Queen of Oz in L. Frank Baum's fantasy books. Drake used a radio telescope 26 metres in diameter at Green Bank, West Virginia, to examine the stars Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani near the 1.420 gigahertz marker frequency, a region of the radio spectrum dubbed the "water hole" due to its proximity to the hydrogen and hydroxyl radical spectral lines. A 400 kilohertz band around the marker frequency was scanned, using a single-channel receiver with a bandwidth of 100 hertz, he found nothing of interest. Soviet scientists took a strong interest in SETI during the 1960s and performed a number of searches with omnidirectional antennas in the hope of picking up powerful radio signals. Soviet astronomer Iosif Shklovsky wrote the pioneering book in the field, Life, expanded upon by American astronomer Carl Sagan as the best-selling book Intelligent Life in the Universe. In the March 1955 issue of Scientific American, John D. Kraus described an idea to scan the cosmos for natural radio signals using a flat-plane radio telescope equipped with a parabolic reflector.
Within two years, his concept was approved for construction by Ohio State University. With a total of US$71,000 in grants from the National Science Foundation, construction began on an 8-hectare plot in Delaware, Ohio; this Ohio State University Radio Observatory telescope was called "Big Ear". It began the world's first continuous SETI program, called the Ohio State University SETI program. In 1971, NASA funded a SETI study that involved Drake, Bernard M. Oliver of Hewlett-Packard Corporation, others; the resulting report proposed the construction of an Earth-based radio telescope array with 1,500 dishes known as "Project Cyclops". The price tag for the Cyclops array was US$10 billion. Cyclops was not built; the Ohio State SETI program gained fame on August 15, 1977, when Jerry Ehman, a project volunteer, witnessed a startlingly strong signal received by the telescope. He circled the indication on a printout and scribbled the exclamation "Wow!" in the margin. Dubbed the Wow! signal, it is considered by some to be the best candidate for a radio signal from an artificial, extraterrestrial source discovered, but it has not been detected again in several additional searches.
In 1980, Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray, Louis Friedman founded the U. S. Planetary Society as a vehicle for SETI studies. In the early 1980s, Harvard University physicist Paul Horowitz took the next step and proposed the design of a spectrum analyzer intended to search for SETI transmissions. Traditional desktop spectrum analyzers were of little use for this job, as they sampled frequencies using banks of analog filters and so were restricted in the number of channels they could acquire. However, modern integrated-circuit digital signal processing technology could be used to build autocorrelation receivers to check far more channels; this work led in 1981 to a portable spectrum analyzer named "Suitcase SETI" that had a capacity of 131,000 narrow band channels. After field tests that lasted into 1982, Suitcase SETI was put into use in 1983 with the 26-meter Harvard/Smithsonian rad
Eleanor J. Gibson
Eleanor Jack Gibson was an American psychologist who focused on reading development and perceptual learning in infants and toddlers. In the 1960s and 1970s Gibson, with her husband James J. Gibson, created the Gibsonian ecological theory of development which emphasized how important perception was because it allows humans to adapt to their environments, her most well-known contribution to psychology was the "visual cliff", which studied depth perception and visual or motor impairments in both human and animal species. This led to a new understanding of perceptual development in infants; the environment provides information for the sensory system to develop with increased stimuli, so perceptual development corresponds with environmental stimuli. Infants develop from adapting to the environment. Gibson was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1971 and as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1977. In 1992 she was awarded the National Medal of Science, the highest scientific honor in the United States, only five of which have been awarded to psychologists.
Eleanor J. Gibson was born in Peoria, Illinois on December 7, 1910. While much of her early life is unknown, Gibson received her B. A. degree in 1931 and her M. S. degree in 1933 from Smith College in Massachusetts. While studying at Smith College Gibson met James J. Gibson, a professor there whom she married in 1932. In 1938, she completed her Ph. D. from Yale University. Once completed, Gibson began teaching. In 1941 Gibson's husband was drafted by the Air Force to make perceptual tests for some of their pilots so Gibson, her husband and their two children moved to Texas and on to California. Throughout this time Gibson was a homemaker but returned to work at Smith College for a few years before she and her family left for Cornell University, where she was a research associate. While at Cornell she created the "Visual Cliff" alongside Richard Walk, a professor at Cornell. Gibson died on December 30, 2002. 1960's-1970's: Gibson, alongside her husband, created the Gibsonian ecological theory of development.
1960: Gibson created the "Visual cliff". 1971: Gibson was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. 1972: Gibson was named Susan Linn Sage Professor of Psychology, which made her become the first woman at Cornell to get an endowed professorship. 1977:Gibson was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 1992: Gibson was awarded the National Medal of Science, the highest scientific honor in the United States. Gibson believed. Gibson worked with her husband James on a joint study to explore the perception of nonsense scribbles to clarify this concept of perceptual learning; the participants were tasked to identify one standard scribble from a set of similar scribbles varying in many different dimensions. At first the standard scribble was imperceptible from the other scribbles but after repeated tests the standard scribble became clear; the participants were tested until the standard was identified without any correction given. The Gibson's stated that the stimulus held all the information for perception rather than the participants learning to perceive through an associative process.
This resulted in perceptual learning as being redefined as a change in what was perceived by an observer became more sensitive to the different aspects of a stimulus. Gibson was conducting a study on infant-mother olfactory role in bonding in goats and so she would wash one of them after birth before the mother could lick it, she had just finished washing one. In a hurry Gibson decided to put the kid on a high camera stand nearby. Gibson was surprised that the newborn didn't fall off; this led her to discover the visual cliff and do further research on perceptual learning. During a study with Richard Walk in which they looked at the role of the environment in development of rats, Gibson came up with the idea of a second task. Gibson wanted to test the depth perception of rats; this Walk constructing an artificial cliff. This was a sheet of plexiglass, covered by cloth with a checkerboard pattern, held above the ground with clamps and rods. One side of the cloth was placed just beneath the glass and on the other side the cloth was placed 4 feet below.
They watched what side the rats descended to. To Gibson's amazement the dark-reared rats acted the same way as rats reared in the light and avoided the deep side. Gibson tested lambs, chickens, pigs and newborn children on a larger apparatus which led to the same results; these tests led to the belief. Kittens that were raised in the dark would walk indiscriminately on both sides of the visual cliff, therefore learning from the environment had to occur. Gibson, E. J.. Principles of perceptual learning and development. New York: Meredith Corporation. Gibson, E. J.. An odyssey in learning and perception. Cambridge: MIT Press. Gibson, E. J. & Walk, R. D.. The "visual cliff." Scientific American, 202, 67-71. Gibson, E. J. & Pick, A. D.. Perceptual learning and development: An ecological approach to perceptual learning and development. Oxford: Oxford Universityn Press. Gibson, E. J, & Levin, H.. Psychology of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Gibson, E. J.: Perceiving the Affordances: A Portrait of Two Psychologists.
Psychology Press. Caudle, F. M.. Gibson, Eleanor J. In A. E. Kazdin, A. E. Kazdin, Encyclopedia of Psychology, Vol. 3. Washington, DC, US.
Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy
The Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy is an independent, non-profit, professional astronomical observatory dedicated to astronomical education and research, near Monterey, California. MIRA's facilities are divided between its in-town offices and shops, located near the southern border of the city of Marina, the northern edge of CSU Monterey Bay, its research observatory in the remote Los Padres National Forest half-way between the unincorporated settlement of Jamesburg and the Tassajara Zen monastery. Weaver Student Observatory: 36°39′39″N 121°48′31″WMIRA's campus is contiguous with the campus of the California State University, Monterey Bay but MIRA is independent from any parent institution, not affiliated with the university; the Marina campus consists of the following: The Richard Hamming Astronomy Center, which contains the offices and the Priscilla Bok library The Ralph Knox Shops, which contains the mechanical and optical shops The Elma Ross Library The Bette M. and William R. Weaver Student Observatory, which houses a computer-controlled 14 inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope for public and student use.
Oliver Observing Station: 36°18′20″N 121°34′00″WThe MIRA research observatory is the Bernard M. Oliver Observing Station; the MIRA founders chose a world-class astronomical site identified by Merle Walker, located atop 5,000 ft. Chews Ridge in the Los Padres National Forest. Scientist Bernard Oliver gave the'"gift of a lifetime"', a quarter of the costs for construction of the Chews Ridge observatory. Chews Ridge was chosen for its cool weather and "steady airflow off the cold Pacific Ocean" giving astronomers "clear nights and sharp images"; the mountains block light pollution from the city of Greenfield allowing for "pitch-black conditions". The observatory has a full-time live in caretaker year-round; the observatory houses a computer-controlled 36 inch Cassegrain telescope equipped with spectrographs and direct cameras. The observatory is self-sufficient, generators and solar panels handle the power needed. "A 16,000-gallon-tank collects rainwater, doing double duty by helping to stabilize the telescope."
MIRA was founded in 1972. The acronym "MIRA" was chosen because of the unusual star of that name and the reference to the astronomical-relevant Spanish word for ‘look’; the idea for an independent observatory came from Bruce Weaver an astronomy graduate student at Warner and Swasey Observatory, Case Western Reserve University. Bruce Weaver recounts that the formation of Friends of MIRA happened in September 1978 "when 80 people assembled in Ansel Adams' house."According to MIRA astronomer Arthur Babcock, during the early 1970s as "the glory days of space exploration were winding down" scientists decided they wanted a place where they could do long range research without the "demanding cycle of academia" and constant publishing. The 5-year mission of MIRA in its beginning was to do a "spectral and photometric study of the brightest 125,000 stars in the northern sky", meant to "yield the data base for a generation of astronomers". 1973 MIRA members viewed Comet Kohoutek from Carmel. 1982 they "discovered an area in the Southern Hemisphere where new stars were forming."
1994 A Catalog of Co-Added IRAS Fluxes of Orion Population Stars published by Bruce Weaver and Gordon Jones AAS CD-ROM series, Volume II 2016 the caretaker at the Oliver Observing Station had over 1,000 firefighters camping at the observatory during the Soberanes Fire. MIRA offers the community lectures and events, they have a telescope lending program and offer hands-on internships for local schools as well as the Naval Postgraduate School. List of observatories
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Nokia Bell Labs is an industrial research and scientific development company owned by Finnish company Nokia. Its headquarters are located in New Jersey. Other laboratories are located around the world. Bell Labs has its origins in the complex past of the Bell System. In the late 19th century, the laboratory began as the Western Electric Engineering Department and was located at 463 West Street in New York City. In 1925, after years of conducting research and development under Western Electric, the Engineering Department was reformed into Bell Telephone Laboratories and under the shared ownership of American Telephone & Telegraph Company and Western Electric. Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the photovoltaic cell, the charge-coupled device, information theory, the Unix operating system, the programming languages C, C++, S. Nine Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories. In 1880, when the French government awarded Alexander Graham Bell the Volta Prize of 50,000 francs (approximately US$10,000 at that time for the invention of the telephone, he used the award to fund the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.
C. in collaboration with Sumner Tainter and Bell's cousin Chichester Bell. The laboratory was variously known as the Volta Bureau, the Bell Carriage House, the Bell Laboratory and the Volta Laboratory, it focused on the analysis and transmission of sound. Bell used his considerable profits from the laboratory for further research and education to permit the " diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf": resulting in the founding of the Volta Bureau, located at Bell's father's house at 1527 35th Street N. W. in Washington, D. C, its carriage house became their headquarters in 1889. In 1893, Bell constructed a new building close by at 1537 35th Street N. W. to house the lab. This building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1972. After the invention of the telephone, Bell maintained a distant role with the Bell System as a whole, but continued to pursue his own personal research interests; the Bell Patent Association was formed by Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Sanders, Gardiner Hubbard when filing the first patents for the telephone in 1876.
Bell Telephone Company, the first telephone company, was formed a year later. It became a part of the American Bell Telephone Company. American Telephone & Telegraph Company and its own subsidiary company, took control of American Bell and the Bell System by 1889. American Bell held a controlling interest in Western Electric whereas AT&T was doing research into the service providers. In 1884, the American Bell Telephone Company created the Mechanical Department from the Electrical and Patent Department formed a year earlier. In 1896, Western Electric bought property at 463 West Street to station their manufacturers and engineers, supplying AT&T with their product; this included everything from telephones, telephone exchange switches, transmission equipment. In 1925, Bell Laboratories was developed to better consolidate the research activities of the Bell System. Ownership was evenly split between Western Electric and AT&T. Throughout the next decade the AT&T Research and Development branch moved into West Street.
Bell Labs carried out consulting work for the Bell Telephone Company, U. S. government work, a few workers were assigned to basic research. The first president of research at Bell Labs was Frank B. Jewett who stayed there until 1940. By the early 1940s, Bell Labs engineers and scientists had begun to move to other locations away from the congestion and environmental distractions of New York City, in 1967 Bell Laboratories headquarters was relocated to Murray Hill, New Jersey. Among the Bell Laboratories locations in New Jersey were Holmdel, Crawford Hill, the Deal Test Site, Lincroft, Long Branch, Neptune, Piscataway, Red Bank and Whippany. Of these, Murray Hill and Crawford Hill remain in existence; the largest grouping of people in the company was in Illinois, at Naperville-Lisle, in the Chicago area, which had the largest concentration of employees prior to 2001. There were groups of employees in Indianapolis, Indiana. Since 2001, many of the former locations closed; the Holmdel site, a 1.9 million square foot structure set on 473 acres, was closed in 2007.
The mirrored-glass building was designed by Eero Saarinen. In August 2013, Somerset Development bought the building, intending to redevelop it into a mixed commercial and residential project. A 2012 article expressed doubt on the success of the newly named Bell Works site however several large tenants had announced plans to move in through 2016 and 2017 Bell Laboratories was, is, regarded by many as the premier research facility of its type, developing a wide range of revolutionary technologies, including radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, information theory, the operating system Unix, the programming languages C and C++, solar cells, the CCD, floating-gate MOSFET, a whole host of optical and wired communications
Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Marshall Warren Nirenberg was an American biochemist and geneticist. He shared a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1968 with Har Gobind Khorana and Robert W. Holley for "breaking the genetic code" and describing how it operates in protein synthesis. In the same year, together with Har Gobind Khorana, he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University. By 1958, experiments and analysis such as the Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment, the Hershey–Chase experiment, the Watson–Crick structure and the Meselson–Stahl experiment had shown DNA to be the molecule of genetic information, it was not known, how DNA directed the expression of proteins, or what role RNA had in these processes. Nirenberg teamed up with Heinrich J. Matthaei at the National Institutes of Health to answer these questions, they produced RNA composed of uracil, a nucleotide that only occurs in RNA. They added this synthetic poly-uracil RNA into a cell-free extract of Escherichia coli which contained the DNA, RNA, ribosomes and other cellular machinery for protein synthesis.
They added DNase, which breaks apart the DNA, so that no additional proteins would be produced other than that from their synthetic RNA. They added 1 radioactively labeled amino acid, the building blocks of proteins, 19 unlabeled amino acids to the extract, varying the labeled amino acid in each sample. Only in the extract containing the radioactively labeled phenylalanine, was the resulting protein radioactive; this implied that the genetic code for phenylalanine on RNA consisted of a repetition of uracil bases. Indeed, as we know now, it is UUU; this was the first step in deciphering the codons of the genetic code and the first demonstration of messenger RNA. In August 1961, at the International Congress of Biochemistry in Moscow, Nirenberg presented a paper to a small group of scientists. Francis Crick convinced the conference leaders to invite Nirenberg to repeat his performance the next day. Speaking before the assembled congress of more than a thousand people, Nirenberg electrified the scientific community.
He received great scientific attention for these experiments. Within a few years, his research team had performed similar experiments and found that three-base repeats of adenosine produced the amino acid lysine, cytosine repeats produced proline; the next breakthrough came when Philip Leder, a postdoctoral researcher in Nirenberg's lab, developed a method for determining the genetic code on pieces of tRNA. This sped up the assignment of three-base codons to amino acids so that 50 codons were identified in this way. Khorana's experiments completed the genetic code translation; the period between 1961 and 1962 is referred to as the "coding race" because of the competition between the labs of Nirenberg at NIH and Nobel laureate Severo Ochoa at New York University Medical School, who had a massive staff. Faced with the possibility of helping the first NIH scientist win a Nobel prize, many NIH scientists put aside their own work to help Nirenberg in deciphering the mRNA codons for amino acids. Dr. DeWitt Stetten, Jr. director of the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, called this period of collaboration "NIH's finest hour".
Nirenberg's research focused on neuroscience, neural development, the homeobox genes. Nirenberg was born in New York City to a Jewish family, the son of Minerva and Harry Edward Nirenberg, a shirtmaker, he developed rheumatic fever as a boy, so the family moved to Orlando, Florida to take advantage of the subtropical climate. He developed an early interest in biology. In 1948 he received his B. S. degree, in 1952, a master's degree in zoology from the University of Florida at Gainesville where he was a member of the Pi Lambda Phi Fraternity. His dissertation for the Master's thesis was an taxonomic study of caddis flies, he received his Ph. D. in biochemistry from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor in 1957. He began his postdoctoral work at the National Institutes of Health in 1957 as a fellow of the American Cancer Society in what was called the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases. In 1959 he became a research biochemist at the NIH and began to study the steps that relate DNA, RNA and protein.
Nirenberg's groundbreaking experiments advanced him to become the head of the Section of Biochemical Genetics in 1962 in the National Heart Institute, where he remained a laboratory chief until his death. Fellow laboratory chiefs included Ernst Freese and Daniel Carleton Gajdusek, he was married in 1961 to Perola Zaltzman, a chemist from the University of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, who worked at NIH and died in 2001. Nirenberg married Myrna Weissman, Ph. D. Professor of Epidemiology and Psychiatry at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 2005, he had four stepchildren: Susan Weissman of Evanston, Judith Weissman of New York, New York, Sharon Weissman of New Haven and Jonathan Weissman of San Francisco, California. He was survived by his sister, Joan Nirenberg Geiger of Dallas, several nieces and a nephew. Nirenberg was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1964 and the National Medal of Honor in 1968 by President Lyndon B. Johnson. In 1981, Nirenberg became a founding member of the World Cultural Council.
In 1986, Nirenberg's achievements and contributions to the field of biochemistry genetics was recognized at an event honoring Maimonides and Menachem M. Schneerson, in the nation's capital, hosted by Bob Dole and Joe Biden, he was elected to the American
George Joseph Stigler was an American economist, the 1982 laureate in Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences and a key leader of the Chicago School of Economics. Stigler was born in Seattle, the son of Elsie Elizabeth and Joseph Stigler, he spoke German in his childhood. He graduated from the University of Washington in 1931 with a BA and spent a year at Northwestern University from which he obtained his MBA in 1932, it was during his studies at Northwestern that Stigler developed an interest in economics and decided on an academic career. After he received a tuition scholarship from the University of Chicago, Stigler enrolled there in 1933 to study economics and went on to earn his Ph. D. in economics there in 1938. He taught at Iowa State College from 1936 to 1938, he spent much of World War II at Columbia University, performing mathematical and statistical research for the Manhattan Project. He spent one year at Brown University, he served on the Columbia faculty from 1947 to 1958. At Chicago, he was influenced by Frank Knight, his dissertation supervisor.
Milton Friedman, a friend for over 60 years, commented that it was remarkable for Stigler to have passed his dissertation under Knight, as only three or four students had managed to do so in Knight's 28 years at Chicago. Stigler's influences included Jacob Viner and Henry Simons as well as students W. Allen Wallis and Friedman. Stigler is best known for developing the Economic Theory of Regulation known as capture, which says that interest groups and other political participants will use the regulatory and coercive powers of government to shape laws and regulations in a way, beneficial to them; this theory is a component of the public choice field of economics but is deeply opposed by public choice scholars belonging to the "Virginia School," such as Charles Rowley. He carried out extensive research in the history of economic thought. Stigler's most important contribution to economics was published in his landmark article, "The Economics of Information." According to Friedman, Stigler "essentially created a new area of study for economists."
Stigler stressed the importance of information: "One should hardly have to tell academicians that information is a valuable resource: knowledge is power. And yet it occupies a slum dwelling in the town of economics."His 1962 article "Information in the Labor Market" developed the theory of search unemployment. In 1963 he was elected as a Fellow of the American Statistical Association, he was known for his sharp sense of humor, he wrote a number of spoof essays. In his book The Intellectual and the Marketplace, for instance, he proposed Stigler's Law of Demand and Supply Elasticities: "all demand curves are inelastic and all supply curves are inelastic too." The essay referenced studies that found many goods and services to be inelastic over the long run and offered a supposed theoretical proof. Another essay, "A Sketch on the Truth in Teaching," described the consequences of a set of court decisions that held universities responsible for the consequences of teaching errors; the Stigler diet is named after him.
Stigler wrote numerous articles on the history of economics, published in the leading journals and republished 14 of them in 1965. The American Economic Review said, "many of these essays have become such well-known landmarks that no scholar in this field should be unfamiliar with them.... The lucid prose, penetrating logic, wry humor... have become the author's trademarks." However, economist Deirdre McCloskey referred to Stigler as "among the worst historians of economic thought in the history of the discipline" who "read a lot but was defective in paying attention."Stigler was a founding member of the Mont Pelerin Society and was its president from 1976 to 1978. He received National Medal of Science in 1987.. Production and Distribution Theories: The Formative Period. New York: Macmillan. Preview.. "The Economics of Information," Journal of Political Economy, 69, pp. 213–25. "Information in the Labor Market." Journal of Political Economy, 70, Part 2, pp. 94–105. The Intellectual and the Marketplace.
Selected Papers, no. 3. Chicago: University of Chicago Graduate School of Business. Reprinted in Sigler, pp. 79–88. "A Dialogue on the Proper Economic Role of the State." Selected Papers, no. 7. Pp. 3–20. Chicago: University of Chicago Graduate School of Business. Capital and Rates of Return in Manufacturing Industries. National Bureau of Economic Research, Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press. Essays in the History of Economics. University of Chicago Press. 1965.. The Organization of Industry. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin; the Behavior of Industrial Prices. National Bureau of Economic Research, New York: Columbia University Press. "The Theory of Economic Regulation." Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, no. 3, pp. 3–18. Citizen and the State: Essays on Regulation. "The Process and Progress of Economics," Nobel Memorial Lecture, 8 December. The Economist as Preacher, Other Essays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; the Organization of Industry. Memoirs of an Unregulated Economist. University of Chicago Press.
2003. ISBN 978-0-226-77440-4. Autobiography; the Essence of Stigler, K. R. Leube and T. G. Moore, ed. Scroll or page-arrow to respective essays. ISBN 0-8179-8462-3; the Theory of Price, Fourth Edition. New York: Macmillan. Ed. Chicago Studies in Political Economy Stephen Stigler, hi