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Bernard Ratzer

Bernard Ratzer was a British cartographer, best known for his 18th-century maps of early New York City. Today, his name is invoked as something of a Da Vinci of New York cartography, as his best known work was the 1770 "Plan of the City of New York". Ratzer was a British Army officer who spent his time in America working as a draftsman, he was, in particular, assigned to survey America's eastern coastline during the French and Indian War and into the early stages of the American Revolution. He worked alongside his more well-known contemporaries Claude J. Sauthier, Samuel Holland and Thomas Jefferys. One of his earliest drafts of the "Plan of the City of New York," which shows in great detail many of the time's most famous landmarks in addition to a small illustration of Manhattan as seen from Governor's Island, was given to George III, England's king, as a gesture from the publishers. A fourth version of Ratzer's most famous map was found in a Connecticut storage facility and was restored in 2011 for the Brooklyn Historical Society.

A librarian at Harvard University discovered a 1769 Ratzer map showing the disputed border between New York and New Jersey. The Harvard libraries made this map publicly available in early 2016


The Fast On-orbit Rapid Recording of Transient Events is a lightweight satellite, launched at about 8:30 AM on August 29, 1997 into a circular 800-kilometer low Earth orbit, inclined 70 degrees relative to the Earth's equator, using a Pegasus XL rocket. It was developed and launched by the Sandia National Laboratory in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory, as a testbed for technologies applicable to U. S. nuclear detonation detection systems used to monitor compliance with arms control treaties, to study lightning from space. The project was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy, cost about US$35 million, it utilizes optical sensors, RF sensors, an "event classifier" in order to make observations, including monitoring Very High Frequency lightning emissions in the ionosphere occurring from between 50 to 600 miles above the surface of the Earth, it will be a component of the VHF Global Lightning and Severe Storm Monitor system. Its primary mission is to record and analyze bursts of RF energy rising from the surface of the Earth.

FORTE is 7-foot tall, weighs 470-pound, is the first all-composite spacecraft, its framework being made of graphite-reinforced epoxy. It consists of three decks with aluminum honeycomb cores, composite facing to support the onboard instruments. Los Alamos National Laboratory: FORTE


Fugazi is an American rock band that formed in Washington, D. C. in 1986. The band consists of guitarists and vocalists Ian MacKaye and Guy Picciotto, bassist Joe Lally, drummer Brendan Canty. Fugazi are noted for their style-transcending music, DIY ethical stance, manner of business practice, contempt for the music industry. Fugazi have performed numerous worldwide tours and produced six studio albums, a film and a comprehensive live series, gaining the band critical acclaim and success around the world. Fugazi has been on an indefinite hiatus since 2003. After the hardcore punk group Minor Threat dissolved, Ian MacKaye was active with a few short-lived groups, most notably Embrace. MacKaye decided he wanted a project, "like The Stooges with reggae", but was wary about forming another band after Embrace's break up. MacKaye recalled, "My interests were not to be in a band, but to be with people who wanted to play music with me."MacKaye recruited ex-Dag Nasty drummer Colin Sears and bass guitarist Joe Lally, the trio began practicing together in September 1986.

After a few months of rehearsals, Sears was replaced by Brendan Canty. One day Canty's Rites of Spring bandmate Guy Picciotto dropped by during a practice session to see how his friend was getting along, but Picciotto was disappointed. After some uncertainty from Canty about what he wanted to do with his future, the trio regrouped and booked their first show at the Wilson Center in early September 1987; the group still needed a name, so MacKaye chose the word "fugazi" from Mark Baker's Nam, a compilation of stories of Vietnam War veterans, it there being a slang acronym for "Fucked Up, Got Ambushed, Zipped In ". The band began inviting Picciotto to practices. Inspired by use of a foil in hip hop, Picciotto sang backup vocals. After his band Happy Go Licky broke up, he became more involved with Fugazi. MacKaye asked Picciotto to become a full member, which he accepted. Fugazi embarked on its first tour in January 1988. In June 1988 the band recorded its debut EP Fugazi with producer Ted Niceley and producer/engineer Don Zientara, shortly afterwards embarked on an arduous tour of Europe.

At the tour's conclusion in December, the band recorded songs for its intended debut album. However, the band was spent from touring and decided that the resulting sessions were unsatisfactory; the track list was released as Margin Walker the following year. Both EPs were combined into the 13 Songs release in late 1989. Upon the band's return from Europe, unsatisfied with singing, began playing guitar too. With Picciotto playing guitar full-time, Fugazi made the transition into jamming and writing new material as a band as opposed to performing songs composed by MacKaye. In addition to working on new material, songs they had been performing live were refined, such as "Merchandise" and "Turnover", for inclusion on their first official full-length studio album. Released on April 19, 1990, through Dischord Records, Repeater did not reach the Billboard 200 charts or become a commercial success. However, the band spent most of 1990 and 1991 touring behind Repeater, performing a total of 250 concerts between March 1990 and June 1991 selling out 1,000-plus capacity venues throughout the world.

By summer 1991, the album sold more than 300,000 copies, a large number for a label that relied on minimal promotion. While major labels began to court Fugazi, the band decided to stay with Dischord and refused the offers of those labels. Repeater went on to sell more than 1 million copies in the U. S. alone, more than 2 million worldwide. The album was critically well received and featured an alternative rock sound that pre-dated significant releases such as Nirvana's Nevermind and Pearl Jam's Ten, which would unexpectedly go on to break the genre into the mainstream. For Fugazi's second studio-album Steady Diet of Nothing, released in July 1991, the band once again asked Ted Niceley to produce. Niceley had become a chef and had to reluctantly turn down the job, so the band members decided to produce the record themselves. After the success of Repeater and its subsequent world tour, Steady Diet was anticipated, six months prior to its release Dischord had pre-orders in excess of 160,000 for the album.

Fugazi recorded its third album In on the Kill Taker in the fall of 1992 with Steve Albini in Chicago. With the breakthrough of alternative rock in the early 1990s, In on the Kill Taker. By the In on the Kill Taker tour, the group began to sell-out large auditoriums and arenas, as well as receive more lucrative major label offers. During the band's sold-out 3-night stint at New York City's Roseland Ballroom in September 1993, music mogul and Atlantic Records president Ahmet Ertegün met with the band backstage in an attempt to sign them. Ertegün offered the band "anything you want", their own subsidiary label and more than $10 million just to sign with Atlantic. Fugazi declined the offer; the organizers of Lollapalooza attempted to recruit the band for a headlining slot on its 1993 tour, which the band considered but turned down. Fugazi began writing the material for Red Medicine in late 1994, after touring in support of In on

Jack Kilmer

John Wallace Kilmer is an American actor known for starring in the 2013 film Palo Alto and for playing Pelle "Dead" Ohlin in the 2018 Norwegian black metal biopic Lords of Chaos, for playing Ozzy Osbourne in Ozzy's "Under the Graveyard" video. Kilmer, born to actress Joanne Whalley and Val Kilmer, was named after his mother. Jack grew up in Los Angeles and attended primary school at The Center for Early Education, where he met would-be filmmaker Gia Coppola, they stayed in touch and, twelve years Coppola asked him to review her script for Palo Alto, a film adaptation of James Franco's book of the same name which she planned to direct. She asked him to advise whether the dialog was an authentic reflection of "kids today". After he ran through a table read with her, she encouraged him to audition for one of the film's main roles, Teddy. Coppola filmed him as he read through the lines and this became his audition tape. After he was cast as Teddy, his father Val Kilmer joined the cast as the father of another character.

Before filming Palo Alto when he was 16 years old, Kilmer had never acted before, did not aspire to be an actor. The film was released in May 2014 to positive reviews, Kilmer's performance was described as "formidable", "naturalistic and sincere". Kilmer graduated from high school in 2013, he intended for his acting job on Palo Alto to be a brief project before applying to colleges, but after the film's production he decided to enter acting full-time. In April 2014 he filmed Company with Juno Temple and Rhys Ifans, he played Chet, a young film projectionist who proves vital to the investigation in the 2016 neo-noir crime buddy comedy film The Nice Guys, written and directed by Shane Black, who had worked with Jack's father Val on the 2005 crime buddy comedy Kiss Kiss Bang Bang. Kilmer enjoys surfing and skateboarding, is a musician and model. Jack Kilmer on IMDb

Chirp spread spectrum

In digital communications, chirp spread spectrum is a spread spectrum technique that uses wideband linear frequency modulated chirp pulses to encode information. A chirp is a sinusoidal signal of frequency decrease over time. In the picture is an example of an upchirp in which the frequency increases linearly over time. Sometimes the frequency of upchirps increase exponentially over time; as with other spread spectrum methods, chirp spread spectrum uses its entire allocated bandwidth to broadcast a signal, making it robust to channel noise. Further, because the chirps utilize a broad band of the spectrum, chirp spread spectrum is resistant to multi-path fading when operating at low power. However, it is unlike direct-sequence spread spectrum or frequency-hopping spread spectrum in that it does not add any pseudo-random elements to the signal to help distinguish it from noise on the channel, instead relying on the linear nature of the chirp pulse. Additionally, chirp spread spectrum is resistant to the Doppler effect, typical in mobile radio applications.

Chirp spread spectrum was designed to compete with ultra-wideband for precision ranging and low-rate wireless networks in the 2.45 GHz band. However, since the release of IEEE 802.15.4a, it is no longer being considered by the IEEE for standardization in the area of precision ranging. Chirp spread spectrum is ideal for applications requiring low power usage and needing low data rates. In particular, IEEE 802.15.4a specifies CSS as a technique for use in Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks. However, whereas IEEE 802.15.4-2006 standard specifies that WPANs encompass an area of 10 m or less, IEEE 802.15.4a-2007, specifies CSS as a physical layer to be used when longer ranges and devices moving at high speeds are part of your network. Nanotron's CSS implementation was seen to work at a range of 570 meters between devices. Further, Nanotron's implementation can work at data rates of up to 2 Mbit/s - higher than specified in 802.15.4a. The IEEE 802.15.4a PHY standard mixes CSS encoding techniques with differential phase shift keying modulation to achieve better data rates.

Chirp spread spectrum may be used in the future for military applications as it is difficult to detect and intercept when operating at low power. Similar frequency swept waveforms are used in frequency modulated continuous wave radars to measure range. FM-CW radars are widely used as radio altimeters in aircraft. Bluetooth IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.15.4 IEEE 802.15.4a IEEE 802.16 IEEE 802.20 IEEE 802.22 Spectral efficiency comparison table Zigbee LoRa Download the 802.15 standards from IEEE IEEE 802.15 WPAN Low Rate Alternative PHY Task Group 4a Nanotron Technologies Frequently asked Questions page Nanotron Chirp Spread Spectrum page Nanotron nanoNET Chirp Based Wireless Networks About coexistence of IEEE 802.15.4aCSS with IEEE 802.11b/g

Rugby union in Guyana

Rugby union in Guyana is a minor but growing sport. They are ranked 66th by the IRB, with 1032 registered players. Guyana is geographically in South America, but competes in North American competitions, is a member of NAWIRA as its rugby contacts tend to be with the Caribbean nations, rather than the Southern Cone The national governing body is the Guyana Rugby Football Union. Guyana is a former British colony, known as "British Guiana", the game there was introduced to there by the British. For a number of years, the local rugby scene was dominated by expatriates. In 1954, the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders regiment was stationed in Guyana, formed their own team to play local sides in the colony, they played sides formed of Portuguese residents of Georgetown and the sugar estates. The soldiers had an advantage due to their physical fitness. Guyana has done well in the Caribbean Sevens, it supports two national teams. Guyana national rugby union team Guyana women's national rugby union team IRB Guyana page NAWIRA Guyana page Guyana rugby team selected for North American West Indian Rugby Association Men’s 15s Championship Guyana looking to make rugby history Guyana’s men’s and women’s Sevens Rugby team off to NAWIRA IRB World Cup Qualifiers Archives du Rugby: Guyana