Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac
Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac was Count of Armagnac and Constable of France. He was the son of Jeanne de Périgord, he succeeded in Armagnac at the death of his brother, John III, in 1391. After prolonged fighting, he became Count of Comminges in 1412; when his brother, who claimed the Kingdom of Majorca, invaded northern Catalonia late in 1389 in an attempt to seize the kingdom's continental possessions, Bernard commanded part of his forces. Bernard's wife was Bonne, the daughter of John, Duke of Berry, widow of Count Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy, he first gained influence at the French court when Louis, Duke of Orléans married Valentina Visconti, the daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan. Bernard's sister Beatrice married Valentina's brother Carlo. After Louis' assassination in 1407, Armagnac remained attached to the cause of Orléans, he married his daughter Bonne to the young Charles, Duke of Orléans in 1410. Bernard d'Armagnac became the nominal head of the faction which opposed John the Fearless in the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War, the faction came to be called the "Armagnacs" as a consequence.
He became constable of France in 1415 and was the head of the government of the Dauphin, the future Charles VII, until the Burgundians invaded Paris in the night of 28-29 May 1418. On 12 June 1418, he was one of the first victims of the massacres in which over 550 of his real or suspected followers were killed in the course of weeks throughout the summer. With Bonne of Berry, they had: John IV, Count of Armagnac, married 1) Blanche of Brittany and 2) Isabella of Navarre Anne of Armagnac, married Charles II of Albret Bonne of Armagnac, married Charles, Duke of Orléans Bernard, Count of Pardiac, married Eleanor, heiress to La Marche Harrington, David V.. "Charles d'Orléans". The Middle Ages: Dictionary of World Biography. Vol.2. Routledge. Schnerb, Bertrand. "Un Seigneur auvergnat à la Cour de Bourgogne: Renaud II, Vicomte de Murat". Annuaire-Bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de France. Sizer, Michael. "The Calamity of Violence: Reading the Paris Massacres of 1418". Proceedings of the Western Society for French History.
Michigan Publishing. 35. Vaughan, Richard. John the Fearless; the Boydell Press.209 Cawley, Ancestors of Bernard VII, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy -Family tree from the Medieval Lands Project The Households of the Counts of Armagnac in the Late Middle Ages - abstract of a paper analyzing the household expenses of Count Bernard VII, from the Société Internationale des Médiévistes
Bonne of Berry
Bonne of Berry was the daughter of John, Duke of Berry, Joanna of Armagnac. Through her father, she was a granddaughter of John II of France, her first marriage was to Count of Savoy. Their marriage contract is dated 7 May 1372 and they married on 18 January 1377, but she wouldn't arrive in Savoy until 1381, they had the following children: Duke of Savoy. Bonne of Savoy. Joan of Savoy. After Amadeus' death in 1391, a regency dispute over their son Amadeus VIII ensued after her husband passed over Bonne in favor of his mother Bonne of Bourbon; this conflict would only be resolved by an agreement, signed on 8 May 1393. Her second marriage was to Bernard VII of Armagnac, their marriage contract is dated on 2 December 1393. They had the following children: Bonne of Armagnac. John IV of Armagnac. Bernard of Armagnac, Count of Pardiac. Anne of Armagnac. Joan of Armagnac. Beatrice of Armagnac. Samaran, Charles. "De quelques manuscrits ayant appartenu à Jean d'Armagnac". Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes Année.
Volume 66 Number 1. Schnerb, Bertrand. "Un Seigneur Auvergnat a la Cour de Bourgogne: Renaud II, Vicomte de Murat". Annuaire-Bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de France nuaire-Bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de France. Vaughan, Richard. Philip the Bold: The Formation of the Burgundian State. Boydell Press
James II, Count of La Marche
James II of Bourbon-La Marche was the first son of John I, Count of La Marche and Catherine of Vendôme. He first bore arms in the crusade against the Ottomans. After returning to France, he commanded a force, his troops burned Plymouth in 1403, but twelve ships of his fleet were lost in a storm while returning to France in 1404. He was an adherent of foe of the Armagnac party. However, his affairs in France were interrupted by a sojourn abroad. In 1415, the barons of the Kingdom of Naples arranged his marriage to Joanna II of Naples, hoping he would break the power of her court favorites, Pandolfo Alopo and Muzio Sforza, to their advantage, he had Alopo executed and imprisoned Sforza, but he kept the queen in confinement and aspired to personal rule. The indignant barons captured and imprisoned him in 1416; however their marriage does not seem to have been annulled and neither Joanna nor James would marry again. Returning to France, he fought against the English for Charles VII of France in 1428 and was made Governor of Languedoc.
In 1435, he resigned his titles and became a Franciscan friar, dying in 1438. In 1406 in Pamplona, he married Beatrix d'Évreux, daughter of Charles III of Navarre and Eleanor of Castile; the couple had three children: Isabelle, a nun at Besançon Marie, a nun at Amiens Eleanor of Bourbon-La Marche, married Bernard d'Armagnac, Count of Pardiac In 1415, James married Joanna II of Naples. They had no children
Battle of Patay
The Battle of Patay was the culminating engagement of the Loire Campaign of the Hundred Years' War between the French and English in north-central France. It was a decisive victory for the French and with heavy losses inflicted on the corps of veteran English longbowmen; this victory was to the French. Although credited to Joan of Arc, most of the fighting was done by the vanguard of the French army as English units fled, the main portions of the French army were unable to catch up to the vanguard as it continued to pursue the English for several miles. After the English abandoned the Siege of Orléans on 8 May 1429, the survivors of the besieging forces withdrew to nearby garrisons along the Loire. A month having gathered men and supplies for the forthcoming campaign, the French army, under the nominal command of the Duke of Alençon, set out to capture these positions and the bridges they controlled. On 12 June they took Jargeau by storm captured the bridge at Meung-sur-Loire and marched on, without attacking the nearby castle, to lay siege to Beaugency on 15 June.
An English reinforcement army under Sir John Fastolf, which had set off from Paris following the defeat at Orléans, now joined forces with survivors of the besieging army under Lord Talbot and Lord Scales at Meung-sur-Loire. Talbot urged an immediate attack to relieve Beaugency, but was opposed by the more cautious Fastolf, reluctant to seek a pitched battle against the more numerous French; the garrison of Beaugency, unaware of the arrival of Fastolf's reinforcements and discouraged by the reinforcement of the French by a Breton contingent under Arthur de Richemont, surrendered on 18 June. Talbot agreed to Fastolf's proposal to retreat towards Paris. Learning of this movement, the French set off in pursuit, intercepted the English army near the village of Patay. In this battle, the English employed the same methods used in the victories at Crécy in 1346 and Agincourt in 1415, deploying an army composed predominantly of longbowmen behind a barrier of sharpened stakes driven into the ground to obstruct any attack by cavalry.
Becoming aware of the French approach, Talbot sent a force of archers to ambush them from a patch of woods along the road. Dissatisfied, Talbot attempted to redeploy his men, setting up 500 longbowmen in a hidden location which would block the main road. However, they were attacked before they had a chance to prepare their position by the vanguard of about 1,500 mounted men-at-arms under La Hire and Jean Poton de Xaintrailles and swiftly overwhelmed, leading to the exposure of the other English units which were spread out along the road; the English archers had inadvertently disclosed their position to French scouts before their preparations were complete when a lone stag wandered onto a nearby field and the archers raised a hunting cry. Fastolf's unit attempted to join up with the English vanguard but the latter fled, forcing Fastolf to follow suit; the rest of the battle was a prolonged mopping-up operation against the fleeing English units, with little organized resistance. In the rout and mop-up the English lost over 2,000 men out of a force of about 5,000, many of them archers.
By contrast the French lost only about one hundred men. Fastolf, the only English commander who remained on horseback, managed to escape. Talbot and Sir Thomas Rempston were captured. Talbot accused Fastolf of deserting his comrades in the face of the enemy, a charge which he pursued vigorously once he had negotiated his release from captivity. Fastolf hotly denied the charge and was cleared of the charge by a special chapter of the Order of the Garter; the virtual destruction of the English field army in central France and the loss of many of their principal veteran commanders, had devastating consequences for the English position in France, from which it would never recover. During the following weeks the French, facing negligible resistance, were able to swiftly regain swathes of territory to the south and north of Paris, to march to Reims, where the Dauphin was crowned as King Charles VII of France on 17 July. Allmand, Christopher; the Hundred Years War: England and France at War c. 1300–1450.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31923-4. Barker, Juliet. Conquest: The English Kingdom of France in the Hundred Years War. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674065604. Cooper, Stephen; the Real Falstaff, Sir John Fastolf and the Hundred Years War. Pen & Sword Military. ISBN 9781848841239. Devries, Kelly. Joan of Arc: A Military Leader. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-1805-5. Green, David; the Hundred Years War: A People's History. Yale University Press. Leveel, Pierre. "Charles VII, la Touraine et les Etats Generaux". Bulletin de la Société archéologique de Touraine. Société archéologique de Touraine. Pernoud, Regine. Wheeler, Bonnie, ed. Joan of Arc: Her Story. Translated by Adams, Jeremy duQuesnay. St. Martin's Griffin. Richey, Stephen W.. Joan of Arc: The Warrior Saint. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-98103-7
Languedoc is a former province of France. Its territory is now contained in the modern-day region of Occitanie in the south of France, its capital city was Toulouse. It had an area of 42,700 square kilometers; the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis fell to the Visigothic Kingdom from the 5th to the 8th centuries. Occupied by the Emirate of Córdoba in the 750s, it was conquered into the Kingdom of the Franks by Pippin the Short in 759 following the Siege of Narbonne. Under the Carolingians, the Counts of Toulouse were appointed by the royal court; this office became hereditary. Part of the territory where Occitan was spoken came to be called langue d'oc, Languedoc. In the 13thC, the spiritual beliefs of the area were challenged by the See of Rome and the region became attached to the Kingdom of France following the Albigensian Crusade; this crusade aimed to put an end to what the Church considered the Cathar heresy, enabled the Capetian dynasty to extend its influence south of the Loire. As part of this process, the former principalities of Trencavel were integrated into the Royal French Domain in 1224.
The Counts of Toulouse followed them in 1271. The remaining feudal enclaves were absorbed progressively up to the beginning of the 16th century; the territory falling within the jurisdiction of the Estates of Languedoc, which convened for the first time in 1346, shrank progressively, becoming known during the Ancien Régime as the province of Languedoc. The year 1359 marked a turning point in the history of the province; the three bailiwicks of Bèucaire and Tolosa had the status of bonnes villes. In that year, the three entered into a perpetual union, after which their contribution of royal officers was summoned jointly rather than separately for each of the three sénéchaussées. Towards the end of 14th century, the term "country of the three seneschalties" to become known as Languedoc, designated the two bailiwicks of Bèucaire-Nimes and Carcassona, the eastern part of Tolosa, retained under the Treaty of Brétigny. At that time, the County of Foix, which belonged to the seneschal of Carcassona until 1333 before passing to Toulouse, ceased to belong to Languedoc.
In 1542, the province was divided into two généralités: Toulouse for Haut-Languedoc, Montpellier for Bas-Languedoc. This lasted until the French Revolution in 1789. From the 17th century onward, there was only one intendance for the whole of Languedoc, with its seat in Montpellier; the traditional provinces of the kingdom of France were not formally defined. A province was a territory of common traditions and customs, but it had no political organization. Today, when people refer to the old provinces of France, they are referring to the gouvernements as they existed in 1789, before the French Revolution. Gouvernements were military regions established by the Crown in the middle of the 16th century. However, in some cases, small provinces were merged with a large one into a single gouvernement, so gouvernements are not the same as the traditional provinces; the region was called the County of Toulouse, a county independent from the kings of France. The County of Toulouse was made up of what would be called Languedoc, but it included the province of Quercy and the province of Rouergue, both to the northwest of Languedoc.
At some times it included the province of Agenais to the west of Languedoc, the province of Gévaudan, the province of Velay, the southern part of the province of Vivarais, all the northern half of Provence. After the French conquest the entire county was dismantled, the central part of it being now called Languedoc; the gouvernement of Languedoc was created in the mid-16th century. In addition to Languedoc proper, it included the three small provinces of Gévaudan and Vivarais, these three provinces being to the northeast of Languedoc; some people consider that the region around Albi was a traditional province, called Albigeois, although it is most considered as being part of Languedoc proper. The provinces of Quercy and Rouergue, despite their old ties with Toulouse, were not incorporated into the gouvernement of Languedoc, they were attached to the gouvernement of its far-away capital Bordeaux. This decision was intentional, to avoid reviving the independently spirited County of Toulouse. In the rest of this article, Languedoc refers to the territory of this gouvernement of Languedoc.
The province of Languedoc covered an area of 42,700 km² in the central part of southern France the region between the river Rhône and the Garonne, extending northwards to the Cévennes and the Massif Central. As the center of the County of Toulouse and the regional parlement, Toulouse is considered the "capital" of Languedoc. On maps (both ancient and mo