Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Isabella Parasole was an Italian engraver and woodcutter of the late-Mannerist and early-Baroque periods. She was active in Rome, she married the engraver Leonardo Norsini. Her sister, Geronima Parasole, was an engraver and made a woodcut of Antonio Tempesta's Battle of the Centaurs. Isabella executed several cuts of plants for an herbal, published under the direction of Federico Cesi, of Acquasparta, she published a book in 1597 called Studio delle Virtuose Dame, dedicated to Juana de Aragón y Cardona, in 1616 she published another book on the methods of working lace and embroidery, with ornamental cuts, which she engraved from her own designs. She dedicated that book to Elisabeth of France, called herself Elisabetta as the author, her son Bernardino Parasole died young. She was working at Rome about 1600, died there in her 50th year. Parasole was commissioned to create illustrations for Castore Durante’s Herbario Nuovo; this treatise was so popular. Her husband, created the woodblocks used to print her illustrations in the publication.
Parasole’s designs in this piece were similar to those in many of the most prominent botanical treatises of the time I discorsi and De historia stirpum commentarii insignes. Despite the many similarities, her illustrations were not without obvious creativity. While she maintained the typical portrayals of each plant, she took her own liberties of modifying landscapes as she saw fit; some of her illustrations included people while others consisted of plants within a pot. She added animals and other environmental factors to display her originality and skill. Following her illustrations on Herbario Nuovo, Parasole was invited to work with Prince Frederico Cesi. Many of the illustrations in Rerum medicarum Novae Hispaniae thesaurus, a large work compiled by Prince Cesi and others in the scientific community, resembled the Parisole’s style in Herbario Nuovo without her creativity and extreme attention to detail, she gathered much of her inspiration from the famed botanical garden of Prince Cesi of Acquasparta.
Many of her designs in her lace books consisted of floral patterns from this garden. Parasole worked on many illustrations for Prince Cesi. None of her illustrations have been recovered. Many of her lace pattern books, have been and are on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Parasole was one of the first and most prominent textile pattern designers of her time, her first publication, Spechio delle Virtuose Donne, published by Antonio Fachetti, was the first full pattern book to be designed by a woman. As a pioneer in her field, Parasole’s work was astonishing, she demonstrated immense understanding of the composition of the lace with which her readers would work and follow her original designs. Parasole’s most famous work was Teatro delle nobili et virtuose donne, a 1616 publication containing a plethora of embroidery and lacework designs. Teatro delle nobili et virtuose donne contains a design consisting of a floral pattern of a large, round flower at the center, surrounded on four corners by a smaller floral design contained within a square.
This design is repeated throughout the piece, separated by yet another floral pattern in between occurrences. The centerpiece consists of sixteen petals, while the complementing designs consist of four petals each; this evokes a beautiful symmetry within each segment of the piece, as well as throughout the piece as a whole. The entire work contains a variety of other designs, including some that are rather similar to this particular design. Many of her designs in Teatro delle nobili et virtuose donne have been used in forms of elegant decorations such as carpets and tapestries; the techniques of lace work developed throughout the middle of the sixteenth century. In the early sixteenth century, lace work consisted of “simple patterns of drawn threads or cut-work.” These types of works composed books such as the Vavassore. Towards the latter part of the sixteenth century, lace work became more elegant as more intricate floral designs became possible through new techniques not confined to the traditional rectangular cloths.
Parasole excelled in designing these types of patterns. Textile pattern books were aimed at a feminine audience. In Italy, it was tradition for mothers to pass on lace books to their daughters. One work, crerated by Matteo Pagano ended with the poem “If beauty and honesty make you shine like the stars in heaven, virtue will make you more beautiful.” Many pattern books after this did similar things to encourage their female audience to participate in lace work comparing them to famous poets and other artists. Most women were rather unsuccessful in their own needlework efforts, Parasole exemplifies what these men encouraged women to become. Parasole’s childhood is a mystery, her name implies that she was born near Sicily, Italy. Isabella Parasole married an Italian artist himself. Norsini decided to take his wife’s surname in marriage due to it being far more distinguished than his own, he engraved many of the blocks needed in order to print her illustrations for Herbario Nuovo. Her sister, was an artist who worked with engravings and is most known for her woodcut of Antonio Tempesta’s Battle of the Centaurs.
She had one son, who studied under Giuseppe Cesari before an untimely death. University of Arizona On-Line Digital Archive of Documents on Weaving and Related Topics, E. Parasole, Stickhereien und Spi
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
The Baroque is a ornate and extravagant style of architecture, painting and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles, it was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, exuberant detail, deep colour and surprise to achieve a sense of awe; the style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome spread to France, northern Italy and Portugal to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century; the English word baroque comes directly from the French, may have been adapted from the Portuguese term barroco, a flawed pearl. Both words are related to the Spanish term berruca; the term did not describe a style of music or art.
Prior to the 18th century, the French baroque and Portuguese barroco were terms related to jewelry, An example from 1531 uses the term to describe pearls in an inventory of Charles V's treasures. The word appears in a 1694 edition of Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, which describes baroque as "only used for pearls that are imperfectly round." A 1728 Portuguese dictionary describes barroco as relating to a "coarse and uneven pearl."The French term for the artistic style may have had roots in the medieval Latin word baroco, a philosophical term, invented in the 13th century by scholastics to describe a complicated type of syllogism, or logical argument. In the 16th century the philosopher Michel de Montaigne associated the term'baroco' with "Bizarre and uselessly complicated." In the 18th century, the term was used to describe music, was not flattering. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic wrote that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device.
In 1762, Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française wrote that the term could be used figuratively to describe something "irregular, bizarre or unequal."Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited, it appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians."In 1788, the term was defined by Quatremère de Quincy in the Encyclopédie Méthodique as "an architectural style, adorned and tormented". The terms "style baroque" and "musique baroque" appeared in Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française in 1835. By the mid-19th century, art critics and historians had adopted the term as a way to ridicule post-Renaissance art; this was the sense of the word as used in 1855 by the leading art historian Jacob Burkhardt, who wrote that baroque artists "despised and abused detail" because they lacked "respect for tradition."Alternatively, a derivation from the name of the Italian painter Federico Barocci has been suggested.
In 1888, the art historian Heinrich Wölfflin published the first serious academic work on the style, Renaissance und Barock, which described the differences between the painting and architecture of the Renaissance and the Baroque. The Baroque style of architecture was a result of doctrines adopted by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545–63, in response to the Protestant Reformation; the first phase of the Counter-Reformation had imposed a severe, academic style on religious architecture, which had appealed to intellectuals but not the mass of churchgoers. The Council of Trent decided instead to appeal to a more popular audience, declared that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. Lutheran Baroque art developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. Baroque churches were designed with a large central space, where the worshippers could be close to the altar, with a dome or cupola high overhead, allowing light to illuminate the church below.
The dome was one of the central symbolic features of baroque architecture illustrating the union between the heavens and the earth, The inside of the cupola was lavishly decorated with paintings of angels and saints, with stucco statuettes of angels, giving the impression to those below of looking up at heaven. Another feature of baroque churches are the quadratura. Quadratura paintings of Atlantes below the cornices appear to be supporting the ceiling of the church. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the Baroque ceiling paintings were created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see the entire ceiling in correct perspective, as if the figures were real; the interiors of baroque churches became more and more ornate in the High Baroque, an
Giuseppe Cesari was an Italian Mannerist painter named Il Giuseppino and called Cavaliere d'Arpino, because he was created Cavaliere di Cristo by his patron Pope Clement VIII. He was much patronized in Rome by both Clement and Sixtus V, he was the chief of the studio in which Caravaggio trained upon the younger painter's arrival in Rome. Cesari's father, Muzio Cesari, had been a native of Arpino. Here, he was apprenticed to Niccolò Pomarancio. Cesari is stigmatized by Lanzi, as not less the corrupter of taste in painting than Marino was in poetry.. Cesari's first major work done in his twenties was the painting of the right counterfacade of San Lorenzo in Damaso, completed from 1588 to 1589. On 28 June 1589, he receives the commission for the murals of the choir vault in the Certosa di San Martino in Naples. From 1591 he is again in Rome, where he painted the vault in the Contarelli Chapel within the church of San Luigi dei Francesi, he completed murals in the Cappella Olgiati in Santa Prassede, the vault of the Sacristy in the Certosa di San Martino.
He was a man of touchy and irascible character, rose from penury to the height of opulence. His brother Bernardino Cesari assisted in many of his works. Cesari became a member of the Accademia di San Luca in 1585. In 1607, he was jailed by the new papal administration, he died in 1640, at the age of seventy-two, or of eighty, at Rome. His only direct followers were his sons Bernardino. Pier Francesco Mola apprenticed in his studio. Other pupils include Francesco Allegrini da Gubbio, Guido Ubaldo Abatini, Vincenzo Manenti, Bernardino Parasole, his most notable and surprising pupil was Caravaggio. In c. 1593-94, Caravaggio held a job at Cesari's studio as a painter of flowers and fruit. Cappella Olgiati in Santa Prassede Frescoes in Salon of the Palazzo dei Conservatori Battle between Horatii and Curiatii Finding of the She-wolf Rape of the Sabine Women Numa Pompilius Instituting the Cult of the Vestals Cappella Paolina in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore Gash, J.. Caravaggio, in Turner, J.. The Dictionary of Art.
London: Macmillan Hobbes, James R.. Picture collector's manual. T. & W. Boone, 29 Bond Street, London. P. 49. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cesari, Giuseppe". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Biography at arte-argomenti.org 8 paintings by or after Giuseppe Cesari at the Art UK site Orazio and Artemisia Gentileschi, a digitized exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries, which contains material on Giuseppe Cesari