Weimar is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east 80 kilometres southwest of Leipzig, 170 kilometres north of Nuremberg and 170 kilometres west of Dresden. Together with the neighbour-cities Erfurt and Jena it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia with 500,000 inhabitants, whereas the city itself counts a population of 65,000. Weimar is well known because of its importance in German history; the city was a focal point of the German Enlightenment and home of the leading personalities of the literary genre of Weimar Classicism, the writers Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller. In the 19th century, famous composers like Franz Liszt made Weimar a music centre and artists and architects like Henry van de Velde, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger and Walter Gropius came to the city and founded the Bauhaus movement, the most important German design school of the interwar period.
However, the political history of 20th-century Weimar was inconsistent: it was the place where Germany's first democratic constitution was signed after the First World War, giving its name to the Weimar Republic period in German politics, as well as one of the cities mythologized by the National Socialist propaganda. Until 1948, Weimar was the capital of Thuringia. Today, many places in the city centre have been designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites and tourism is one of the leading economic sectors of Weimar. Relevant institutions in Weimar are the Bauhaus University, the Liszt School of Music, the Duchess Anna Amalia Library and two leading courts of Thuringia. In 1999, Weimar was the European Capital of Culture. Archaeological finds dating back to the Thuringii epoch show that the Weimar part of the Ilm valley was settled early, with a tight network of settlements where the city is today; the oldest records regarding Weimar date to 899. Its name changed over the centuries from Wimares through Wimari to Wimar and Weimar.
Another theory derives. The place was the seat of the County of Weimar, first mentioned in 949, one of the mightiest actors in early-Middle Ages Thuringia. In 1062 it was united with the County of Orlamünde to the new County of Weimar-Orlamünde, which existed until the Thuringian Counts' War in 1346 and fell to the Wettins afterwards; the Weimar settlement emerged around the count's wooden castle and two small churches dedicated to St Peter, to St James. In 1240, the count founded the dynasty's monastery in Oberweimar. Soon after, the counts of Weimar founded the town, an independent parish since 1249 and called civitas in 1254. From 1262 the citizens used their own seal; the regional influence of the Weimar counts was declining as the influence of the Wettins in Thuringia increased. Hence, the new small town was marginal in a regional context due to the fact that it was situated far away from relevant trade routes like the Via Regia; the settlement around St James Church developed into a suburb during the 13th century.
After becoming part of the Wettin's territory in 1346, urban development improved. The Wettins fostered Weimar by granting privileges to the citizens. Now Weimar became equal to other Wettinian cities like Weißensee and grew during the 15th century, with the establishment of a town hall and the current main church. Weimar acquired woad trade privileges in 1438; the castle and the walls were finished in the 16th century. After the Treaty of Leipzig Weimar became part of the electorate of the Ernestine branch of Wettins with Wittenberg as capital; the Protestant Reformation was introduced in Weimar in 1525. As the Ernestines lost the Schmalkaldic War in 1547, their capital Wittenberg went to the Albertines, so that they needed a new residence; as the ruler returned from captivity, Weimar became his residence in 1552 and remained as such until the end of the monarchy in 1918. The first Ernestine territorial partition in 1572 was followed by various ones Weimar stayed the capital of different Saxe-Weimar states.
The court and its staff brought some wealth to the city, so that it saw a first construction boom in the 16th century. The 17th century brought decline because of changing trade conditions. Besides, the territorial partitions led to the loss of political importance of the dukes of Saxe-Weimar and their finances shrunk; the city's polity weakened more and more and lost its privileges, leading to the absolutist reign of the dukes in the early 18th century. On the other hand, this time brought another construction boom to Weimar, the city got its present appearance, marked by various ducal representation buildings; the city walls were demolished in 1757 and during the following decades, Weimar expanded in all directions. The biggest building constructed in this period was the Schloss as the residence of the dukes. Between 1708 and 1717 Johann Sebastian Bach worked as the court's organist in Weimar; the period from the start of the regencies of Anna Amalia and her son Carl August through to Goethe's d
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Theresienstadt was a hybrid concentration camp and ghetto established by the SS during World War II in the fortress town Terezín, located in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Theresienstadt served two main purposes: it was a waystation to the extermination camps, a "retirement settlement" for elderly and prominent Jews to mislead their communities about the Final Solution, its conditions were deliberately engineered to hasten the death of its prisoners, the ghetto served a propaganda role. Unlike other ghettos, the exploitation of forced labor was not economically significant; the ghetto was established by a transport of Czech Jews in November 1941. The first German and Austrian Jews arrived in June 1942. About 33,000 people died at Theresienstadt from malnutrition and disease. More than 88,000 people were held there for months or years before being deported to extermination camps and other killing sites. Including 4,000 of the deportees who survived, the total number of survivors was around 23,000.
Theresienstadt was known for its rich cultural life, including concerts and clandestine education for children. The fact that it was governed by a Jewish self-administration as well as the large number of "Prominent" Jews imprisoned there facilitated the flourishing of cultural life; this spiritual legacy sparked interest in the ghetto. In the postwar period, a few of the SS perpetrators and Czech guards were put on trial, but the ghetto was forgotten by the Soviet authorities for political reasons. After the fall of Communism, the Terezín Ghetto Museum was established and is visited by 250,000 people each year; the fortress town of Theresienstadt is located in the north-west region of Bohemia, across the river from the city of Leitmeritz and about 70 kilometres north of Prague. Founded on 22 September 1784 on the orders of the Habsburg monarch Joseph II, it was named Theresienstadt, after his mother Maria Theresa of Austria. Theresienstadt was used as a military base by Austria-Hungary and by the First Czechoslovak Republic after 1918, while the "Small Fortress" across the river was a prison.
Following the Munich Agreement in September 1938, Germany annexed the Sudetenland. Although Leitmeritz was ceded to Germany, Theresienstadt remained in the Czechoslovak rump state until the German invasion of the Czech lands on 15 March 1939; the Small Fortress became a Gestapo prison in 1940 and the fortress town became a Wehrmacht military base, with about 3,500 soldiers and 3,700 civilians employed by the army, living there in 1941. In October 1941, as the Reich Main Security Office was planning transports of Jews from Germany and the Protectorate to the ghettos in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe, a meeting was held in which it was decided to convert Theresienstadt into a transit center for Czech Jews; those present included Adolf Eichmann, leader of the RSHA section IV B 4 and Hans Günther, the director of the Central Office for Jewish Emigration in Prague. Reinhard Heydrich, the RSHA chief, approved of Theresienstadt as a location for the ghetto. At the Wannsee Conference on 20 January 1942, Heydrich announced that Theresienstadt would be used to house Jews over the age of 65 from the Reich, as well as those, wounded fighting for the Central Powers in World War I or won the Iron Cross 1st Class or a higher decoration during that war.
These Jews could not plausibly perform forced labor, therefore Theresienstadt helped conceal the true nature of deportation to the East. Theresienstadt came to house "Prominent" Jews whose disappearance in an extermination camp could have drawn attention from abroad. In order to lull these victims into a false sense of security, the SS advertised Theresienstadt as a "spa town" where Jews could retire, encouraged them to sign fraudulent home purchase contracts, pay "deposits" for rent and board, surrender life insurance policies and other assets. On 24 November 1941, the first trainload of deportees arrived at the Sudeten barracks in Theresienstadt. Another transport of 1,000 men arrived on 4 December. Deportees to the ghetto had to surrender all possessions except for 50 kilograms of luggage, which they had to carry with them from the railway station at Bauschowitz, 2.4 kilometres away. After arriving, prisoners were sent to the schleuse, where they were registered and deprived of their remaining possessions.
The 24 November and 4 December transports, consisting of Jewish craftsmen and other skilled workers of Zionist sympathies, were known as the Aufbaukommando and their members were exempt from deportation until September 1943. The members of the Aufbaukommando used creative methods in order to improve the infrastructure of the ghetto and prepare it to house an average of 40,000 people during its existence; the construction project was funded by stolen Jewish property. When the first transport arrived, there was only one vat for coffee with a capacity of 300L.
The Moscow Conservatory officially Moscow State Tchaikovsky Conservatory is an educational music institution located in Moscow, Russia. It grants graduate diplomas in musical performance and musical research; the conservatory offers various degrees including Bachelor of Music Performance, Master of Music and PhD in research. It was co-founded in 1866 as the Moscow Imperial Conservatory by Nikolai Rubinstein and Prince Nikolai Troubetzkoy, it is the second oldest conservatory in Russia after the Saint Petersburg Conservatory. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was appointed professor of harmony at its opening. Since 1940 the conservatory bears his name. Prior to the October Revolution the choral faculty of the conservatory was second to the Moscow Synodal School and Moscow Synodal Choir, but in 1919 both were closed and merged into the choral faculty; some of the students now listed as being of the conservatory were in fact students of the Synodal School. The renovation of the hall was completed in 2011; the Moscow Conservatory.
Information Booklet. Second Edition. Moscow, 2001. ISBN 5-89598-111-9. Moscow Conservatoire. Moscow, 1994. ISBN 5-86419-006-3. Moscow Conservatory: Traditions of Music Education and Science 1866–2006. Moscow: "Moskovskaya Konservatoriya" Publishing House, 2006. Loomis, George, "Moscow's Great Hall Turns 100", International Herald Tribune Moscow Conservatory website Moscow Conservatory website
An étude is an instrumental musical composition short, of considerable difficulty, designed to provide practice material for perfecting a particular musical skill. The tradition of writing études emerged in the early 19th century with the growing popularity of the piano. Of the vast number of études from that era some are still used as teaching material, a few, by major composers such as Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt and Claude Debussy, achieved a place in today's concert repertory. Études written in the 20th century include those related to traditional ones and those that require wholly unorthodox technique. Studies and other didactic instrumental pieces composed before the 19th century are varied, without any established genres. Domenico Scarlatti's 30 Essercizi per gravicembalo do not differ in scope from his other keyboard works, J. S. Bach's four volumes of Clavier-Übung contain everything from simple organ duets to the extensive and difficult Goldberg Variations; the situation changed in the early 19th century.
Instruction books with exercises became common. Of particular importance were collections of "studies" by Johann Baptist Cramer, early parts of Muzio Clementi's Gradus ad Parnassum, numerous works by Carl Czerny, Maria Szymanowska's Vingt exercises et préludes, Ignaz Moscheles' Studien Op. 70. However, with the late parts of Clementi's collection and Moscheles' Charakteristische Studien Op. 95 the situation began to change, with both composers striving to create music that would both please the audiences in concert and serve as a good teaching tool. Such a combination of didactic and musical value in a study is sometimes referred to as a concert study; the technique required to play Chopin's Études, Op. 10 and Op. 25 was novel at the time of their publication. Liszt himself composed a number of études that were more extensive and more complex than Chopin's. Among these, the most well-known is the collection Études d'Execution Transcendante; these did not retain the didactic aspect of Chopin's work, since the difficulty and the technique used varies within a given piece.
Each of the études has a different character, designated by its name: Preludio. The 19th century saw a number of étude and study collections for instruments other than the piano. Guitarist composer Fernando Sor published his 12 Studies, op. 6 for guitar in London as early as 1815. These works all conform to the standard definition of 19th-century étude in that they are short compositions, each exploiting a single facet of technique. Collections of studies for flute were published during the second half of the 19th century by Ernesto Köhler, Wilhelm Popp and Adolf Terschak; the early 20th century saw the publication of a number of important collections of études. Claude Debussy's Études for piano conform to the "one facet of technique per piece" rule, but exhibit unorthodox structures with many sharp contrasts, many concentrate on sonorities and timbres peculiar to the piano, rather than technical points. Leopold Godowsky's 53 Studies on the Chopin Études are built on Chopin's études: Godowsky's additions and changes elevated Chopin's music to new, hitherto unknown levels of difficulty.
Other important études of this period include Heitor Villa-Lobos' virtuoso 12 Études for guitar and pieces by Russian composers: Sergei Rachmaninoff's Études-Tableaux and several collections by Alexander Scriabin. By mid-century the old étude tradition was abandoned. Olivier Messiaen's Quatre études de rythme were not didactic compositions, but experiments with scales of durations, as well as with dynamics, figurations and pitches. John Cage's études—Études Australes for piano, Études Boreales for cello and/or piano and Freeman Études for violin—are indeterminate pieces based on star charts, some of the most difficult works in the repertory; the three books of Études by György Ligeti are closest to the old tradition in that they too concentrate each on a particular technique. Kaikhosru Shapurji Sorabji's Études transcendantes, which take Godowsky and Liszt as their starting point focus on particular technical elements, as well as various rhythmical difficulties. William Bolcom was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for his Twelve New Etudes for Piano in 1988.
List of étude composers Music written in all 24 minor keys Invention Howard Ferguson. "Study". In Deane L. Root. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press
Dessau is a town and former municipality in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt. Since 1 July 2007, it has been part of the newly created municipality of Dessau-Roßlau. Population of Dessau proper: 77,973. Dessau is situated on a floodplain; this causes yearly floods. The worst flood took place in the year 2002, when the Waldersee district was nearly flooded; the south of Dessau touches a well-wooded area called Mosigkauer Heide. The highest elevation is a 110 m high former rubbish dump called Scherbelberg in the southwest of Dessau. Dessau is surrounded by numerous parks and palaces that ranks Dessau as one of the greenest towns in Germany. Dessau was first mentioned in 1213, it became an important centre in 1570. Dessau became the capital of this state within the Holy Roman Empire. In 1603 the state was split into four – five – Anhalts, Dessau becoming the capital of the mini-state of Anhalt-Dessau. In 1863 two of the noble lines died out, the Duchy of Anhalt became reunited.
From 1918 to 1945, Dessau was the capital of Free State of Anhalt. Dessau is famous for its college of architecture Bauhaus, it moved here in 1925. Many famous artists were lecturers in Dessau in the following years, among them Walter Gropius, Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky; the Nazis forced the closure of the Bauhaus in Dessau 1932. The town was completely destroyed by Allied air raids in World War II on 7 March 1945, six weeks before American troops occupied the town. Afterwards it was rebuilt with typical GDR concrete slab architecture and became a major industrial centre of East Germany. Since German reunification in 1990 many historic buildings have been restored; the composer Kurt Weill was born in Dessau. Since 1993 the city has hosted an annual Kurt Weill Festival. Dessau was the birthplace of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, a lauded field marshal for the Kingdom of Prussia. In January 2005, Dessau gained notoriety for the mysterious death of a Sierra Leonean convicted drug trafficker and failed asylum seeker Oury Jalloh in his cell at a Dessau police station.
According to local police, drunk and had been tied to his bed because he was volatile and violent, set his own mattress on fire, causing his own death as he burned alive. A number of contradictions and inconsistencies as well as the disappearance of key evidence such as video tapes have led to allegations that the police and maybe the local court may have been involved in Jalloh's death and subsequent cover-up efforts. A local court acquitted officers in 2008. In 2010, however, a higher federal court declared the ruling null and void, ordered a new investigation and trial be launched. Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz, is a World Heritage Site landscape garden, it is an exceptional example of 18th century Age of Enlightenment landscape design in the English style. Dresden Elbe Valley Zoo at Mausoleumspark Wallwitzburg Rondell remains of the City Castle Georgium Palace and Park Kühnau Palace and Park Mosigkau Palace and Park Luisium Palace and Park There are several examples of Bauhaus architecture in Dessau, some of which are part of the Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Bernau World Heritage Site.
This includes the Bauhaus Dessau school building, designed by Walter Gropius, one of the iconic modernist buildings of the 20th century. In addition to the buildings that are part of the World Heritage Site, other notable Bauhaus architecture in Dessau includes: Dessau-Törten Estate, designed by Walter Gropius in 1926-28. Stahlhaus, designed by Georg Muche and Richard Paulick in 1926–27. Fieger Haus, designed by Carl Fieger in 1927; the Kornhaus, a restaurant overlooking the river Elbe designed by Carl Fieger in 1929-30. Arbeitsamt, designed by Walter Gropius in 1928-29, it is now the Dessau-Roßlau Amt für Ordnung und Verkehr. St. Mary's Church St. John's Church Georgenkirche Petruskirche Auferstehungskirche Pauluskirche Christuskirche Propsteikirche St. Peter and Paul Dreieinigkeit St. Josef Townhall, built in 1901 The palaces of Waldersee and Dietrich, today used as libraries General post office New water tower Umweltbundesamt Footbridge crossing the river Mulde Anhalt Theatre including Gregor Seyffert & Compagnie City history museum Anhalt Art Gallery at Georgium Palace with park Mosigkau Palace museum Luisium Castle museum with park Oranienbaum Palace museum with park Museum of Natural- and Prehistory Moses Mendelssohn-Centre Hugo Junkers Technical Museum UCI Cinema Complex Kiez-Cinema Mitteldeutsche Zeitung Wochenspiegel and Supersonntag REGJO leo local Studios of the MDR and SAW local TV Stations: RAN 1 and Offener Kanal Dessau The Dessau tramway network has three lines and is supplemented by numerous bus lines.
Dessau's public transport is operated by Dessauer Verkehrsgesellschaft, which transports around 6 million people each year. Dessau Hauptbahnhof has connections to Magdeburg, Leipzig, Halle and Lutherstadt Wittenberg; the line from Berlin was opened on 1 September 1840. The Dessau-Bitterfeld line was electrified in 1911, the first electrified long-distance railway in
Franz Liszt was a Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, music teacher and organist of the Romantic era. He was a writer, a philanthropist, a Hungarian nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary. Liszt gained renown in Europe during the early nineteenth century for his prodigious virtuosic skill as a pianist, he was a friend, musical promoter and benefactor to many composers of his time, including Frédéric Chopin, Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, Robert Schumann, Camille Saint-Saëns, Edvard Grieg, Ole Bull, Joachim Raff, Mikhail Glinka, Alexander Borodin. A prolific composer, Liszt was one of the most prominent representatives of the New German School, he left behind an extensive and diverse body of work which influenced his forward-looking contemporaries and anticipated 20th-century ideas and trends. Among Liszt's musical contributions were the symphonic poem, developing thematic transformation as part of his experiments in musical form, radical innovations in harmony. Franz Liszt was born to Anna Liszt and Adam Liszt on 22 October 1811, in the village of Doborján in Sopron County, in the Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire.
Liszt's father played the piano, violin and guitar. He had been in the service of Prince Nikolaus II Esterházy and knew Haydn and Beethoven personally. At age six, Franz began listening attentively to his father's piano playing. Adam began teaching him the piano at age seven, Franz began composing in an elementary manner when he was eight, he appeared in concerts at Sopron and Pressburg in October and November 1820 at age 9. After the concerts, a group of wealthy sponsors offered to finance Franz's musical education in Vienna. There Liszt received piano lessons from Carl Czerny, who in his own youth had been a student of Beethoven and Hummel, he received lessons in composition from Ferdinando Paer and Antonio Salieri, the music director of the Viennese court. Liszt's public debut in Vienna on December 1, 1822, at a concert at the "Landständischer Saal", was a great success, he was greeted in Austrian and Hungarian aristocratic circles and met Beethoven and Schubert. In spring 1823, when his one-year leave of absence came to an end, Adam Liszt asked Prince Esterházy in vain for two more years.
Adam Liszt therefore took his leave of the Prince's services. At the end of April 1823, the family returned to Hungary for the last time. At the end of May 1823, the family went to Vienna again. Towards the end of 1823 or early 1824, Liszt's first composition to be published, his Variation on a Waltz by Diabelli, appeared as Variation 24 in Part II of Vaterländischer Künstlerverein; this anthology, commissioned by Anton Diabelli, includes 50 variations on his waltz by 50 different composers, Part I being taken up by Beethoven's 33 variations on the same theme, which are now separately better known as his Diabelli Variations, Op. 120. Liszt's inclusion in the Diabelli project—he was described in it as "an 11 year old boy, born in Hungary"—was certainly at the instigation of Czerny, his teacher and a participant. Liszt was the only child composer in the anthology. After his father's death in 1827, Liszt moved to Paris, he gave up touring. To earn money, Liszt gave lessons in piano playing and composition from early morning until late at night.
His students were scattered across the city and he had to cover long distances. Because of this, he kept uncertain hours and took up smoking and drinking—all habits he would continue throughout his life; the following year, he fell in love with one of his pupils, Caroline de Saint-Cricq, the daughter of Charles X's minister of commerce, Pierre de Saint-Cricq. Her father, insisted that the affair be broken off. Liszt fell ill, to the extent that an obituary notice was printed in a Paris newspaper, he underwent a long period of religious doubts and pessimism, he again was dissuaded this time by his mother. He had many discussions with the Abbé de Lamennais, who acted as his spiritual father, with Chrétien Urhan, a German-born violinist who introduced him to the Saint-Simonists. Urhan wrote music, anti-classical and subjective, with titles such as Elle et moi, La Salvation angélique and Les Regrets, may have whetted the young Liszt's taste for musical romanticism. Important for Liszt was Urhan's earnest championship of Schubert, which may have stimulated his own lifelong devotion to that composer's music.
During this period, Liszt read to overcome his lack of a general education, he soon came into contact with many of the leading authors and artists of his day, including Victor Hugo, Alphonse de Lamartine and Heinrich Heine. He composed nothing in these years; the July Revolution of 1830 inspired him to sketch a Revolutionary Symphony based on the events of the "three glorious days," and he took a greater interest in events surrounding him. He met Hector Berlioz on December 1830, the day before the premiere of the Symphonie fantastique. Berlioz's music made a strong impression on Liszt later when he was writing for orchestra, he inherited from Berlioz the diabolic quality of many of his works. After attending a charity concert on 20 April 1832, for the victims of a Parisian cholera epidemic, organised by Niccolò Paganini, Liszt became determined to become as great a virtuoso on the piano as Paganini was on the violin. Paris in the 1830s had become the nexus