Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
A clef is a musical symbol used to indicate the pitch of written notes. Placed on a stave, it indicates the pitch of the notes on one of the lines; this line serves as a reference point by which the names of the notes on any other line or space of the stave may be determined. There are three forms of clef used in modern music notation: F, C, G; each form assigns its reference note to a line depending on its placement on the stave. Once one of these clefs has been placed on one of the lines of the stave, the other lines and spaces are read in relation to it; the use of different clefs makes it possible to write music for all instruments and voices, regardless of differences in tessitura. Because the modern stave has only five lines, it is not possible to represent all pitches playable by the orchestra with only one clef with the use of ledger lines; the use of different clefs for various instruments and voices allows each part to be written comfortably on the stave with a minimum of ledger lines.
To this end, the G-clef is used for high parts, the C-clef for middle parts, the F-clef for low parts—with the notable exception of transposing parts, which are written at a pitch different from their sound even in a different octave. To facilitate writing for different tessituras, any of the clefs may theoretically be placed on any line of the stave; the further down on the stave a clef is positioned, the higher the tessitura. Since there are five lines on the stave, three clefs, it might seem that there would be fifteen possible clefs. Six of these, are redundant clefs; that leaves nine possible distinct clefs, all of which have been used historically: the G-clef on the two bottom lines, the F-clef on the three top lines, the C-clef on any line of the stave except the topmost, earning the name of "movable C-clef". Each of these clefs has a different name based on the tessitura. In modern music, only four clefs are used regularly: treble clef, bass clef, alto clef, tenor clef. Of these, the treble and bass clefs are by far the most common.
The tenor clef is used for the upper register of several instruments that use bass clef, while the alto is only used by the viola and a few other instruments. Here follows a complete list of the clefs, along with a list of instruments and voice parts notated with them; each clef is shown in its proper position on the stave, followed by its reference note.† Where the G-clef is placed on the second line of the stave, it is called the treble clef. This is the most common clef used today, the first clef that those studying music learn, the only G-clef still in use. For this reason, the terms G-clef and treble clef are seen as synonymous; the treble clef was used to mark a treble, or pre-pubescent, voice part. Among the instruments that use treble clef are the violin, oboe, cor anglais, all clarinets, all saxophones, trumpet, vibraphone, mandolin, recorder. Treble clef is the upper stave of the grand stave used for keyboard instruments, it is sometimes used, along with tenor clef, for the highest notes played by bass-clef instruments such as the cello, double bass and trombone.
The viola sometimes uses treble clef for high notes. Treble clef is used for the soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto and tenor voices; when sung, a tenor singer will sing the piece an octave lower, is written using an octave clef or double-treble clef. † In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a special clef was used for violin music that published in France. For this reason it is known as the French clef or French violin clef, although it was more used for flute music; the G-clef is placed on the first line of the stave and is identical to the bass clef transposed up two octaves. When the F-clef is placed on the fourth line, it is called the bass clef; this is the only F-clef used today so that the terms "F-clef" and "bass clef" are regarded as synonymous. This clef is used for the cello, double bass, bass guitar, contrabassoon, baritone horn and timpani, it is used for the lowest notes of the horn, for the baritone and bass voices. Tenor voice is notated in bass clef when the bass are written on the same stave.
Bass clef is the bottom clef in the grand stave for keyboard instruments. The contrabassoon, double bass, electric bass sound an octave lower than the written pitch. † When the F-clef is placed on the third line, it is called the baritone clef. This clef was used for the left hand of keyboard music as well as the baritone part in vocal music; the baritone clef has the less common variant as a C clef placed on the 5th line, equivalent. † Where the F-clef is placed on the fifth line, it is called the sub-bass clef. It is identical to the treble clef transposed down 2 octaves; this clef was used by Johannes Ockeghem and Heinrich Schütz to write low bass parts, making a late appearance in Ba
The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire, or Electors for short, were the members of the electoral college that elected the Holy Roman Emperor. From the 13th century onwards, the Prince-Electors had the privilege of electing the Holy Roman Emperor who would receive the Papal coronation after assuming the titles of King in Germany and King of Italy. Charles V was the last to be a crowned Emperor. In practice, every emperor from 1440 onwards came from the Austrian House of Habsburg, the Electors ratified the Habsburg succession; the dignity of Elector carried great prestige and was considered to be second only to that of King or Emperor. The Electors had exclusive privileges that were not shared with the other princes of the Empire, they continued to hold their original titles alongside that of Elector; the heir apparent to a secular prince-elector was known as an electoral prince. The German element Kur- is based on the Middle High German irregular verb kiesen and is related etymologically to the English word choose.
In English, the "s"/"r" mix in the Germanic verb conjugation has been regularized to "s" throughout, while German retains the r in Kur-. There is a modern German verb küren which means'to choose' in a ceremonial sense. Fürst is German for'prince', but while the German language distinguishes between the head of a principality and the son of a monarch, English uses prince for both concepts. Fürst itself is related to English first and is thus the'foremost' person in his realm. Note that'prince' derives from Latin princeps, which carried the same meaning. Electors were reichsstände, they were, until the 18th century entitled to be addressed with the title Durchlaucht. In 1742, the electors became entitled to the superlative Durchläuchtigste, while other princes were promoted to Durchlaucht; as Imperial Estates, the electors enjoyed all the privileges of the other princes enjoying that status, including the right to enter into alliances, autonomy in relation to dynastic affairs and precedence over other subjects.
The Golden Bull had granted them the Privilegium de non appellando, which prevented their subjects from lodging an appeal to a higher Imperial court. However, while this privilege, some others, were automatically granted to Electors, they were not exclusive to them and many of the larger Imperial Estates were to be individually granted some or all those rights and privileges; the electors, like the other princes ruling States of the Empire, were members of the Imperial Diet, divided into three collegia: the Council of Electors, the Council of Princes, the Council of Cities. In addition to being members of the Council of Electors, several lay electors were therefore members of the Council of Princes as well by virtue of other territories they possessed. In many cases, the lay electors ruled numerous States of the Empire, therefore held several votes in the Council of Princes. In 1792, the King of Bohemia held three votes, the Elector of Bavaria six votes, the Elector of Brandenburg eight votes, the Elector of Hanover six votes.
Thus, of the hundred votes in the Council of Princes in 1792, twenty-three belonged to electors. The lay electors therefore exercised considerable influence, being members of the small Council of Electors and holding a significant number of votes in the Council of Princes; the assent of both bodies was required for important decisions affecting the structure of the Empire, such as the creation of new electorates or States of the Empire. In addition to voting by colleges or councils, the Imperial Diet voted on religious lines, as provided for by the Peace of Westphalia; the Archbishop of Mainz presided over the Catholic body, or corpus catholicorum, while the Elector of Saxony presided over the Protestant body, or corpus evangelicorum. The division into religious bodies was on the basis of the official religion of the state, not of its rulers, thus when the Electors of Saxony were Catholics during the eighteenth century, they continued to preside over the corpus evangelicorum, since the state of Saxony was Protestant.
The electors were summoned by the Archbishop of Mainz within one month of an Emperor's death, met within three months of being summoned. During the interregnum, imperial power was exercised by two imperial vicars; each vicar, in the words of the Golden Bull, was "the administrator of the empire itself, with the power of passing judgments, of presenting to ecclesiastical benefices, of collecting returns and revenues and investing with fiefs, of receiving oaths of fealty for and in the name of the holy empire". The Elector of Saxony was vicar in areas operating under Saxon law, while the Elector Palatine was vicar in the remainder of the Empire; the Elector of Bavaria replaced the Elector Palatine in 1623, but when the latter was granted a new electorate in 1648, there was a dispute between the two as to, vicar. In 1659, both purported to act as vicar; the two electors made a pact to act as joint vicars, but the Imperial Diet rejected the agreement. In 1711, while the Elector
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany with a population of over 1.8 million. One of Germany's 16 federal states, it is surrounded by Schleswig-Holstein to the north and Lower Saxony to the south; the city's metropolitan region is home to more than five million people. Hamburg lies on two of its tributaries, the River Alster and the River Bille; the official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League and a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a sovereign city state, before 1919 formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, north Sea flood of 1962 and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids, the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Hamburg is Europe's third-largest port. Major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm Gruner + Jahr and the newspapers Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are based in the city.
Hamburg is the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, Blohm + Voss, Aurubis and Unilever; the city hosts specialists in world economics and international law, including consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Both the former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg; the city is a major domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016; the Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the Laeiszhalle concert halls.
It paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's Reeperbahn is among the best-known European entertainment districts. Hamburg is at a sheltered natural harbour on the southern fanning-out of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the northeast, it is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Bille. The city centre is around the Binnenalster and Außenalster, both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes; the islands of Neuwerk, Scharhörn, Nigehörn, 100 kilometres away in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are part of the city of Hamburg. The neighborhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe. Neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at 116.2 metres AMSL. Hamburg borders the states of Lower Saxony.
Hamburg has an oceanic climate, influenced by its proximity to the coast and marine air masses that originate over the Atlantic Ocean. The location north of Germany provides extremes greater than marine climates, but in the category due to the mastery of the western standards. Nearby wetlands enjoy a maritime temperate climate; the amount of snowfall has differed a lot during the past decades: while in the late 1970s and early 1980s, at times heavy snowfall occurred, the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall only on a few days per year. The warmest months are June and August, with high temperatures of 20.1 to 22.5 °C. The coldest are December and February, with low temperatures of −0.3 to 1.0 °C. Claudius Ptolemy reported the first name for the vicinity as Treva; the name Hamburg comes from the first permanent building on the site, a castle which the Emperor Charlemagne ordered constructed in AD 808. It rose on rocky terrain in a marsh between the River Alster and the River Elbe as a defence against Slavic incursion, acquired the name Hammaburg, burg meaning castle or fort.
The origin of the Hamma term remains uncertain. In 834, Hamburg was designated as the seat of a bishopric; the first bishop, became known as the Apostle of the North. Two years Hamburg was united with Bremen as the Bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen. Hamburg occupied several times. In 845, 600 Viking ships sailed up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants. In 1030, King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland burned down the city. Valdemar II of Denmark raided and occupied Hamburg in 1201 and in 1214; the Black Death killed at least 60% of the population in 1350. Hamburg experienced several great fires in the medieval period. In 1189, by imperial charter, Frederick I "Barbarossa" granted Hamburg the status of a Free Imperial City and tax-free access up the Lower Elbe into the North Sea. In 1265, an forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg; this charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic Sea made it a
Sir James Galway, is an Irish virtuoso flute player from Belfast, nicknamed "The Man with the Golden Flute". He established an international career as a solo flute player. Galway was born in East Belfast near the Belfast docks as one of two brothers, his father, who played the flute, was employed at the Harland and Wolff shipyard until the end of World War II and spent night-shifts cleaning buses after the war, while his mother, a pianist, was a winder in a flax-spinning mill. Surrounded by a tradition of flute bands and many friends and family members who played the instrument, he was taught the flute by his uncle at the age of nine and joined his fife and drum corps. At the age of eleven Galway won the junior and open Belfast flute Championships in a single day, his first instrument was a five-key Irish flute, at the age of twelve or thirteen, he received a Boehm instrument. He worked as an apprentice to a piano repairer for two years, he subsequently went to London to study the flute at the Royal College of Music under John Francis and at the Guildhall School of Music under Geoffrey Gilbert.
He studied at the Paris Conservatoire under Gaston Crunelle and Jean-Pierre Rampal and privately with Marcel Moyse. After his education he spent fifteen years as an orchestral player, he has played with Sadler's Wells Opera, Covent Garden Opera, the London Symphony Orchestra and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. He auditioned for the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra under Herbert von Karajan, was principal flute of that orchestra from 1969 to 1975. To Karajan's surprise and dismay, after a period of some disagreement, Galway decided that he would leave to pursue a solo career. In addition to his performances of the standard classical repertoire, he features contemporary music in his programmes, including new flute works commissioned by and for him by composers including David Amram, Malcolm Arnold, William Bolcom, John Corigliano, John Wolf Brennan, Dave Heath, Lowell Liebermann and Joaquín Rodrigo; the album James Galway and The Chieftains in Ireland by Galway and The Chieftains reached number 32 in the UK Albums Chart in 1987.
Galway still performs and is one of the world's most well-known flute players. His recordings have sold over 30 million copies. In 1990, he was invited by Roger Waters to play at The Wall – Live in Berlin concert, held in Potsdamer Platz. Galway performed for the Academy Award-winning ensemble recording the soundtracks of Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, composed by Howard Shore. In June 2008, he was inducted into the Hollywood Bowl Hall of Fame along with Liza Minnelli and B. B. King, he performs on Nagahara flutes, as well as some Muramatsu Flutes. Conn-Selmer produces his line of flutes, "Galway Spirit Flutes". Galway is president of Flutewise, a global charitable organisation that supports young flute players, run by Liz Goodwin. In 2003 he formed the Music Education Consortium together with Julian Lloyd Webber, Evelyn Glennie, Michael Kamen to pressure the British Government into providing better music education in schools, he is an Ambassador for the National Foundation for a UK charity.
He was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1977, was knighted in 2001, the first wind player to receive that honour. He is a National Patron of an international professional music fraternity. In December 2013 Galway launched First Flute, an online interactive series of lessons for beginning flute students of all ages, he received the 2014 Gramophone Lifetime Achievement Award. Galway has been married three times, his first marriage, to a Frenchwoman, produced a son. He married his second wife, Anna Renggli, a daughter of a well-known Swiss architect, in 1972, moved from Berlin to Lucerne, her hometown; the couple had a son. In 1978 he recorded for her an instrumental version of John Denver's "Annie's Song", it peaked at no. 3 in the UK Singles Chart. After their divorce he moved to Meggen, Switzerland, a village next to Lucerne, where he resides now with his third wife, the American-born Jeanne Galway, whom he married in 1984, they tour together playing duets. In addition, they give master classes for flutists of all levels.
Galway is a dedicated Christian who visits various types of churches while travelling and prays before his concert performances. He wears a cross pendant, about which he says, "It's not jewellery. It's something that reminds me of what I should be doing and how I should be behaving." In August 1977, Galway was run over by a large speeding motorcycle in Lucerne, breaking his left arm and both legs and requiring a four-month hospital stay. He has the eye condition nystagmus, is a patron of the Nystagmus Network, a UK-based support group for people with the condition. On 23 December 2009, he fell down a flight of stairs at his home, fracturing his left wrist and shattering his right elbow. Appearing on The Nolan Show in June 2015, Galway stated that he views his national identity as Irish, he was critical of the actions of the Northern Irish government during his childhood, singled out prominent Unionist figures such as Ian Paisley for fostering the division that led to The Troubles. His comments were criticised among them Sammy Wilson.
Describing Northern Ireland as "the British-occupied part of Ireland", Galway further elaborated he would like "Ireland to be Ireland" and that when people ask him where he comes from he says "Ireland" and when asked if he is "Irish", he replies affirmatively. James's younger brother George Galway (born Belfas