The Gemäldegalerie is an art museum in Berlin and the museum where the main selection of paintings belonging to the Berlin State Museums is displayed. It holds one of the world's leading collections of European paintings from the 13th to the 18th centuries, its collection includes masterpieces from such artists as Albrecht Dürer, Lucas Cranach, Hans Holbein, Rogier van der Weyden, Jan van Eyck, Botticelli, Caravaggio, Giambattista Pittoni, Peter Paul Rubens, David Teniers the Younger, Johannes Vermeer, Antonio Viviani. It was first opened in 1830, the current building was completed in 1998, it is located in the Kulturforum museum district west of Potsdamer Platz. The Gemäldegalerie prides itself on its scientific methodology in displaying art; each room can be taken in as a single statement about one to five artists in a certain period or following a certain style. The German collection is the finest and most comprehensive in the world, rivalled only by Vienna and Munich, the Early Netherlandish and Italian collections exceptionally comprehensive.
The holdings of Spanish and British art are much smaller. Notable rooms include the octagonal Rembrandt room and a room containing five different Madonnas by Raphael. There are two paintings by Vermeer in the collection, The Wine Glass and Woman with a Pearl Necklace. Other notable experiences include Flemish moralistic paintings which stretch across the north side of the museum, showing an interplay between the religious motives of the artists' patrons and the sensual inspirations of the artists. In the Renaissance section, for example, Caravaggio's Amor Victorious is displayed alongside Giovanni Baglione's Sacred Love Versus Profane Love; the two paintings are connected. The current gallery sits in the southwest corner of the Kulturforum, a modern-styled answer to the old Museumsinsel; the gallery was designed by Munich architects Heinz Christoph Sattler. The building consists of 72 rooms providing a two-kilometer floor. Upstairs the rooms flow around a large central hall, described by the museum as a "meditation hall".
The hall sometimes displays sculpture, but is empty, allowing easy crossing between rooms, somewhere for school parties to sit. There are works downstairs, a gallery devoted to frames, a digital gallery; the collection is arranged more or less chronologically starting from the entrance and moving toward the farthest room. The visitor chooses between southern Italian, art to the left, German and Flemish art to the right. Completing the circuit takes the visitor first forward backward, in time; the numbering system starting on the north side of the museum covers Northern European art British art. A visitor following along the southern side will go through Italian and Southern European art; the main floor galleries contain some 850 works in 53 rooms, with around 400 more in several rooms off a corridor downstairs, which are open to visitors. Unlike most major national European collections, the Gemäldegalerie collection is not formed around the former dynastic royal collection, but created by a process of acquisition by the Prussian government beginning in 1815.
From the first the museum was intended to reflect the full range of European art, giving a different emphasis from that of older royal collections, including the royal collection of Saxony, now in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden, the finest German princely collection, which like other royal collections is strongest in Italian art. The collection was first opened to the public in 1830, on completion of construction of the Royal Museum, now called the Altes Museum, designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel and sited by the Lustgarten opposite the Royal Palace on the other side of Unter den Linden; the paintings occupied the upper floor with the collection of antiquities on the lower. At this point the collection contained nearly 1200 paintings, with a core of 160 from the 17th century collection of Marchese Vincenzo Giustiniani, bought in Paris in 1815. An more important purchase was 677 paintings from the collection formed in Berlin by the English merchant Edward Solly was acquired in 1821.
Purchases continued throughout the 19th century, with 345 works acquired during the inaugural directorship of Gustav Friedrich Waagen from 1830–1868, though paintings competed with antiquities for rather reduced purchasing budgets. After Berlin became the capital of the new German Empire in 1871 the funds available increased, purchases accelerated, as Berlin strove to catch up with the greatest European collections. In 1874 the collection acquired the best of the collection of north European art formed by the industrialist Barthold Suermondt of Aachen after his business collapsed; this was handled for the museum by the art historian Wilhelm von Bode, who had joined in 1872, was to be the Berlin Museums' greatest Director. He headed the sculpture collections from 1883 the paintings from 1890, becoming general head of the Berlin Museums from 1890 to 1920. A specialist in Rembrandt and Dutch painting, he made signifi
Dresden is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated near the border with the Czech Republic. Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendor, was once by personal union the family seat of Polish monarchs; the city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque and rococo city centre. The controversial American and British bombing of Dresden in World War II towards the end of the war killed 25,000 people, many of whom were civilians, destroyed the entire city centre. After the war restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the historic inner city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Zwinger and the famous Semper Oper. Since German reunification in 1990 Dresden is again a cultural and political centre of Germany and Europe; the Dresden University of Technology is one of the 10 largest universities in Germany and part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
The economy of Dresden and its agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in Germany and ranks first in Saxony. It is dominated by high-tech branches called “Silicon Saxony”; the city is one of the most visited in Germany with 4.3 million overnight stays per year. The royal buildings are among the most impressive buildings in Europe. Main sights are the nearby National Park of Saxon Switzerland, the Ore Mountains and the countryside around Elbe Valley and Moritzburg Castle; the most prominent building in the city of Dresden is the Frauenkirche. Built in the 18th century, the church was destroyed during World War II; the remaining ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial, before being rebuilt between 1994 and 2005. Dresden has nearly 560,000 inhabitants, the agglomeration is the largest in Saxony with 780,000 inhabitants. According to the Hamburgische Weltwirtschaftsinstitut and Berenberg Bank in 2017, Dresden has the fourth best prospects for the future of all cities in Germany. Although Dresden is a recent city of Germanic origin followed by settlement of Slavic people, the area had been settled in the Neolithic era by Linear Pottery culture tribes ca. 7500 BC.
Dresden's founding and early growth is associated with the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples, mining in the nearby Ore Mountains, the establishment of the Margraviate of Meissen. Its name etymologically derives from meaning people of the forest. Dresden evolved into the capital of Saxony. Around the late 12th century, a Slavic settlement called Drežďany had developed on the southern bank. Another settlement existed on the northern bank, it was known as Antiqua Dresdin by 1350, as Altendresden, both "old Dresden". Dietrich, Margrave of Meissen, chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place "Civitas Dresdene". After 1270, Dresden became the capital of the margraviate, it was given to Friedrich Clem after death of Henry the Illustrious in 1288. It was taken by the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1316 and was restored to the Wettin dynasty after the death of Valdemar the Great in 1319. From 1485, it was the seat of the dukes of Saxony, from 1547 the electors as well.
The Elector and ruler of Saxony Frederick Augustus I became King Augustus II the Strong of Poland in 1697. He gathered many of the best musicians and painters from all over Europe to the newly named Royal-Polish Residential City of Dresden, his reign marked the beginning of Dresden's emergence as a leading European city for technology and art. During the reign of Kings Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III of Poland most of the city's baroque landmarks were built; these include the Zwinger Royal Palace, the Japanese Palace, the Taschenbergpalais, the Pillnitz Castle and the two landmark churches: the Catholic Hofkirche and the Lutheran Frauenkirche. In addition significant art collections and museums were founded. Notable examples include the Dresden Porcelain Collection, the Collection of Prints and Photographs, the Grünes Gewölbe and the Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon. In 1726 there was a riot for two days after a Protestant clergyman was killed by a soldier who had converted from Catholicism.
In 1729, by decree of King Augustus II the first Polish Military Academy was founded in Dresden. In 1730, it was relocated to Warsaw. Dresden suffered heavy destruction in the Seven Years' War, following its capture by Prussian forces, its subsequent re-capture, a failed Prussian siege in 1760. Friedrich Schiller wrote his Ode to Joy for the Dresden Masonic lodge in 1785. During the decline of Poland Dresden was site of preparations for the Polish Kościuszko Uprising; the city of Dresden had a distinctive silhouette, captured in famous paintings by Bernardo Bellotto and by Norwegian painter Johan Christian Dahl. Between 1806 and 1918 the city was the capital of the Kingdom of Saxony. During the Napoleonic Wars the French emperor made it a base of operations, winning there the famous Battle of Dresden on 27 August 1813. Following the November Uprising many Poles, including writers Juliusz Słowacki, Stefan Florian Garczyński, Klementyna Hoffmanowa and composer Frédéric Chopin, fled from the Russian Partition of Poland to Dresden.
National poet Adam Mickiewicz stayed several months in Dresden, starting in March 1832. He wrote the poetic drama Dziady, P
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – formally, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland – was a dual state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th– to 17th-century Europe. At its largest territorial extent, in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth covered 400,000 square miles and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million; the Commonwealth was established by the Union of Lublin in July 1569, but the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had been in a de facto personal union since 1386 with the marriage of the Polish queen Hedwig and Lithuania's Grand Duke Jogaila, crowned King jure uxoris Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland. The First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 reduced the state's size and the Commonwealth collapsed as an independent state following the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
The Union possessed many features unique among contemporary states. Its political system was characterized by strict checks upon monarchical power; these checks were enacted by a legislature controlled by the nobility. This idiosyncratic system was a precursor to modern concepts of democracy, constitutional monarchy, federation. Although the two component states of the Commonwealth were formally equal, Poland was the dominant partner in the union; the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was marked by high levels of ethnic diversity and by relative religious tolerance, guaranteed by the Warsaw Confederation Act 1573. The Constitution of 1791 acknowledged Catholicism as the "dominant religion", unlike the Warsaw Confederation, but freedom of religion was still granted with it. After several decades of prosperity, it entered a period of protracted political and economic decline, its growing weakness led to its partitioning among its neighbors during the late 18th century. Shortly before its demise, the Commonwealth adopted a massive reform effort and enacted the May 3 Constitution—the first codified constitution in modern European history and the second in modern world history.
The official name of the state was The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Latin term was used in international treaties and diplomacy. In the 17th century and it was known as the Most Serene Commonwealth of Poland, the Commonwealth of the Polish Kingdom, or the Commonwealth of Poland, its inhabitants referred to it in everyday speech as the "Rzeczpospolita". Western Europeans simply called it Poland and in most past and modern sources it is referred to as the Kingdom of Poland, or just Poland; the terms: the Commonwealth of Poland and the Commonwealth of Two Nations were used in the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations. The English term'Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth' and German'Polen-Litauen' are seen as renderings of the Commonwealth of Two Nations variant. Other names include the Republic of Nobles and the First Commonwealth, the latter common in Polish historiography. Poland and Lithuania underwent an alternating series of wars and alliances during the 14th century and early 15th century.
Several agreements between the two were struck before the permanent 1569 Union of Lublin. This agreement was one of the signal achievements of Sigismund II Augustus, last monarch of the Jagiellon dynasty. Sigismund believed, his death in 1572 was followed by a three-year interregnum during which adjustments were made to the constitutional system. The Commonwealth reached its Golden Age in the early 17th century, its powerful parliament was dominated by nobles who were reluctant to get involved in the Thirty Years' War. The Commonwealth was able to hold its own against Sweden, the Tsardom of Russia, vassals of the Ottoman Empire, launched successful expansionist offensives against its neighbors. In several invasions during the Time of Troubles, Commonwealth troops entered Russia and managed to take Moscow and hold it from 27 September 1610 to 4 November 1612, when they were driven out after a siege. Commonwealth power began waning after a series of blows during the following decades. A major rebellion of Ukrainian Cossacks in the southeastern portion of the Commonwealth began in 1648.
It resulted in a Ukrainian request, under the terms of the Treaty of Pereyaslav, for protection by the Russian Tsar. Russian annexation of part of Ukraine supplanted Polish influence; the other blow to the Commonwealth was a Swedish invasion in 1655, known as the Deluge, supported by troops of Transylvanian Duke George II Rákóczi a
Rees is a town in the district of Cleves in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located on the right bank of the Rhine 20 km east of Cleves; the population in 2005 was 22,559. Founded in 1228, Rees is the oldest town in the lower Rhine area. Rees is administratively organized in eight communities: Community of Bienen Community of Empel Community of Esserden Community of Haffen Community of Haldern Community of Mehr Community of Millingen Community of ReesThe neighbouring municipalities are Oude IJsselstreek and Isselburg in the North and Wesel in the East, Xanten in the South, Kalkar and Emmerich in the West; the origin of the town is a Frankish settlement established between 500-800 AD. The name Rees most goes back to the Franconian term "Rys", which means "willow grove"; the Lower Rhine area was Christianized by the Irish missionary Willibrord between 657-739. Around 1000 the nearby monastery of Aspel was first mentioned. On 14 July 1228 Rees was granted municipal rights by Heinrich I von Müllenark, Archbishop of Cologne.
At that time it had about 600 inhabitants. In 1289/90 the works on a fortified city wall began, completed in 1350. In 1392 Rees and the monastery of Aspel became parts of the County of Cleves. During the Eighty Years War, the town was captured by Spanish troops in 1598. After the death of the last duke of Cleves in 1609 the town belonged to the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Between 1616 and 1625 Rees was occupied by Dutch troops who transformed the town into a huge fortress. In 1701 Rees became a part of the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1816 Rees became capital of the newly founded Rees District within Regierungsbezirk Kleve; the railway line from Oberhausen to Arnhem was inaugurated in 1856 and a railway station was built near Rees. At the beginning of the 20th century Rees had 4,096 inhabitants of whom 330 were Protestants and 52 were Jews. During the Nazi period, many Jewish inhabitants were deported. Today the only reminders of Jewish culture in Rees are two historic Jewish cemeteries; the city was completely destroyed by an Allied air raid on February 16, 1945 during World War II.
It became part of North Rhine-Westphalia after the war. The Rhine bridge of Rees was completed in 1967. Christoph Gerwers has been mayor of Rees since 2009, he was reelected in 2015 with 66.6 % of the votes. In the Middle Ages Rees was surrounded by a city wall, built from 1289 - 1307. Several parts of the wall are well-preserved and can be visited, e.g. the "White Tower" built in 1410, used as a prison until the 18th century. The watch tower near the Jewish cemetery dates from 1480, it was destroyed by bombs in 1945 and rebuilt in 1993. Mühlenturm, the tallest tower, was used as a windmill, it suffered comparatively little bomb damage and was renovated in 1984. Near the river bank there are further remains of the ancient city fortification. Several casemates are open to the public. One of them was built in 1583 and transformed into a war memorial after 1945; the municipal Koenraad-Bosman-Museum houses various exhibitions explaining the history of Rees and pieces of art. The catholic church "Saint Mary's Ascension" was built from 1820-1828 in a classicist style.
It was destroyed in 1945 and rebuilt from 1956-1964. The small Protestant church in the Market Place was built in 1624, destroyed in 1945 and reconstructed after the war. In the town center, there are many restored wells and water pumps that have become recognizable landmarks. An annual Pumpenkirmes celebrates their former role as places for gossip; the Jewish cemetery of Rees was founded at the beginning of the 18th century. As Jews in medieval Rees were forbidden from being buried in the city their cemetery was laid out on the medieval wall, 8 metres broad, thus the graves were safe in case of a Rhine flood. In 1872 the cemetery was closed because it was occupied and a new Jewish cemetery was founded in the outskirts of the town on Wesel Road. On 8 of November 1938 the cemetery was desecrated by the Fascists and damaged by bombs on 16 February 1945. Today 24 graves can be seen on the cemetery with the oldest gravestone dating from 1788; the cemetery is not open to the public but the graves on the wall can be seen from the outside.
The sculpture park of Rees was founded in 2003. Pieces of art by German und Dutch artists are exhibited. In Millingen, a former village which became a part of Rees in 1974, catholic Saint Quirin's Church dating from the 15th and 16th century is worth a visit. Rees has one of the most beautiful Rhine promenades in Germany with restaurants and cafes arranged along the riverbank. Most visitors come from the nearby Netherlands, the Münsterland, the urban Ruhr Area, from where Rees can be accessed via the Autobahn A3 in approx. 30 minutes. Boat tours on the Rhine river can be taken from the small shipping pier; the town offers a motorhome park, as well as many bicycling routes. The facilities of the SV Rees have been used by several national and international soccer teams, most memorably playing host to the national team of Cameroon in 2002. Haldern is venue of the Haldern Pop festival, which takes place every August and attracts indie music artists from all over the world as well as thousands of enthusiastic fans.
The train station Empel-Rees, located about 4 km from the city center, is connected northbound to Emmerich and Arnhem and southbound to Wesel, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Cologne and Koblenz. From the station, there is a bus line downtown. There are train stations in Millingen and Halde
Patrician (post-Roman Europe)
Patricianship, the quality of belonging to a patriciate, began in the ancient world, where cities such as Ancient Rome had a class of patrician families whose members were the only people allowed to exercise many political functions. In the rise of European towns in the 12th and 13th century, the patriciate, a limited group of families with a special constitutional position, in Henri Pirenne's view, was the motive force. In 19th century central Europe, the term had become synonymous with the upper Bourgeoisie and can't be compared with the medieval patriciate in Central Europe. In the German speaking parts of Europe as well as in the maritime republics of Italy, the patricians were as a matter of fact the ruling body of the medieval town and in Italy part of the nobility. With the establishment of the medieval towns, Italian city-states and maritime republics, the patriciate was a formally defined class of governing wealthy families, they were found in the Italian city states and maritime republics such as Venice, Pisa and Amalfi and but in many of the Free imperial cities of the Holy Roman Empire such as Nuremberg, Augsburg, Lindau, Basel and many more.
As in Ancient Rome, patrician status could only be inherited. However, membership in the patriciate could be passed on through the female line. For example, if the union was approved by her parents, the husband of patrician daughter was granted membership in the patrician society Zum Sünfzen of the Imperial Free City of Lindau as a matter of right, on the same terms as the younger son of a patrician male if the husband was otherwise deemed ineligible. Accession to a patriciate through this mechanism was referred to as "erweibern."In any case, only male patricians could hold, or participate in elections for, most political offices. As in Venice, non-patricians had no political rights. Lists were maintained of who had the status, of which the most famous is the Libro d'Oro of the Venetian Republic. From the fall of the Hohenstaufen city-republics became principalities, like Milan and Verona, the smaller ones were swallowed up by monarchical states or sometimes other republics, like Pisa and Siena by Florence, any special role for the local patricians was restricted to municipal affairs.
The few remaining patrician constitutions, notably those of Venice and Genoa, were swept away by the conquering French armies of the period after the French Revolution, although many patrician families remained and politically important, as some do to this day. In the modern era the term "patrician" is used broadly for the higher bourgeoisie in many countries. There was an intermediate period under the Late Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire when the title was given to governors in the Western parts of the Empire, such as Sicily— Stilicho and other 5th-century magistri militari usefully exemplify the role and scope of the patricius at this point; the role, like that of the Giudicati of Sardinia, acquired a judicial overtone, was used by rulers who were de facto independent of Imperial control, like Alberic II of Spoleto, "Patrician of Rome" from 932 to 954. In the 9th and 10th centuries, the Byzantine emperors strategically used the title of patrikios to gain the support of the native princes of southern Italy in the contest with the Carolingian Empire for control of the region.
The allegiance of the Principality of Salerno was bought in 887 by investing Prince Guaimar I, again in 955 from Gisulf I. In 909 the Prince of Benevento, Landulf I sought and received the title in Constantinople for both himself and his brother, Atenulf II. In forging the alliance that won the Battle of the Garigliano in 915, the Byzantine strategos Nicholas Picingli granted the title to John I and Docibilis II of Gaeta and Gregory IV and John II of Naples. At this time there was only one "Patrician" for a particular city or territory at a time. Amalfi was ruled by a series of Patricians. Though mistakenly so described, patrician families of Italian cities were not in their origins members of the territorial nobility, but members of the minor landowners, the bailiffs and stewards of the lords and bishops, against whose residual powers they led the struggles in establishing the urban communes. At Genoa the earliest records of trading partnerships are in documents of the early 11th century. In the 12th and 13th centuries, to this first patrician class were added the families who had risen through trade, the Doria and Lercari In Milan, the earliest consuls were chosen from among the valvasores and cives.
H. Sapori found the first patriaciates of Italian towns to usurp the public and financial functions of the overlord to have been drawn from such petty vassals, holders of heritable tenancies and rentiers who farmed out the agricultural labours of their holdings. At a certain point it was necessary to obtain recognition of the independence of the city, its constitution, from either the Pope or the Holy Roman Emperor - "free" cities in the Empire continued to owe allegiance to the Emperor, but without any intermediate rulers
Nuremberg is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, its 511,628 inhabitants make it the 14th largest city in Germany. On the Pegnitz River and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it lies in the Bavarian administrative region of Middle Franconia, is the largest city and the unofficial capital of Franconia. Nuremberg forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring cities of Fürth and Schwabach with a total population of 787,976, while the larger Nuremberg Metropolitan Region has 3.5 million inhabitants. The city lies about 170 kilometres north of Munich, it is the largest city in the East Franconian dialect area. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, with 39,780 students Bavaria's third and Germany's 11th largest university with campuses in Erlangen and Nuremberg and a university hospital in Erlangen. Nuremberg Airport is the second-busiest airport of Bavaria after Munich Airport, the tenth-busiest airport of Germany.
Staatstheater Nürnberg is one of the five Bavarian state theatres, showing operas, operettas and ballets, plays, as well as concerts. Its orchestra, Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg, is Bavaria's second-largest opera orchestra after the Bavarian State Opera's Bavarian State Orchestra in Munich. Nuremberg is the birthplace of Johann Pachelbel. Nuremberg was the site of major Nazi rallies, it provided the site for the Nuremberg trials, which held to account many major Nazi officials; the first documentary mention of the city, in 1050, mentions Nuremberg as the location of an Imperial castle between the East Franks and the Bavarian March of the Nordgau. From 1050 to 1571 the city expanded and rose in importance due to its location on key trade-routes. King Conrad III established the Burgraviate of Nuremberg, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of Raab. With the extinction of their male line around 1190, the last Raabs count's son-in-law, Frederick I from the House of Hohenzollern, inherited the burgraviate in 1192.
From the late 12th century to the Interregnum, the power of the burgraves diminished as the Hohenstaufen emperors transferred most non-military powers to a castellan, with the city administration and the municipal courts handed over to an Imperial mayor from 1173/74. The strained relations between the burgraves and the castellans, with gradual transferral of powers to the latter in the late 14th and early 15th centuries broke out into open enmity, which influenced the history of the city. Nuremberg is referred to as the "unofficial capital" of the Holy Roman Empire because the Imperial Diet and courts met at Nuremberg Castle; the Diets of Nuremberg played an important role in the administration of the empire. The increasing demands of the Imperial court and the increasing importance of the city attracted increased trade and commerce in Nuremberg. In 1219 Emperor Frederick II granted the Großen Freiheitsbrief, including town rights, Imperial immediacy, the privilege to mint coins, an independent customs policy - wholly removing the city from the purview of the burgraves.
Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade-centers on the route from Italy to Northern Europe. In 1298 the Jews of the town were falsely accused of having desecrated the host, 698 of them were killed in one of the many Rintfleisch massacres. Behind the massacre of 1298 was the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city, which were divided by the Pegnitz; the Jews of the German lands suffered many massacres during the plague years of the mid-14th century. In 1349 Nuremberg's Jews suffered a pogrom, they were burned at the stake or expelled, a marketplace was built over the former Jewish quarter. The plague returned to the city in 1405, 1435, 1437, 1482, 1494, 1520 and 1534; the largest growth of Nuremberg occurred in the 14th century. Charles IV's Golden Bull of 1356, naming Nuremberg as the city where newly elected kings of Germany must hold their first Imperial Diet, made Nuremberg one of the three most important cities of the Empire. Charles was the patron of the Frauenkirche, built between 1352 and 1362, where the Imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg.
The royal and Imperial connection grew stronger in 1423 when the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg granted the Imperial regalia to be kept permanently in Nuremberg, where they remained until 1796, when the advance of French troops required their removal to Regensburg and thence to Vienna. In 1349 the members of the guilds unsuccessfully rebelled against the patricians in a Handwerkeraufstand, supported by merchants and some by councillors, leading to a ban on any self-organisation of the artisans in the city, abolishing the guilds that were customary elsewhere in Europe.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts, expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual ideas, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, the aesthetic dissemination of art; the three classical branches of art are painting and architecture. Music, film and other performing arts, as well as literature and other media such as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of the arts; until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts. Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency and creation.
The nature of art and related concepts, such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. In the perspective of the history of art, artistic works have existed for as long as humankind: from early pre-historic art to contemporary art. One early sense of the definition of art is related to the older Latin meaning, which translates to "skill" or "craft," as associated with words such as "artisan." English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artifice, medical arts, military arts. However, there are many other colloquial uses of all with some relation to its etymology. Over time, philosophers like Plato, Aristotle and Kant, among others, questioned the meaning of art. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, is not rational, he speaks approvingly of this, other forms of divine madness in the Phaedrus, yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer's great poetic art, laughter as well.
In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer. The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer's Iliad functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literary art that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted. With regards to the literary art and the musical arts, Aristotle considered epic poetry, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be mimetic or imitative art, each varying in imitation by medium and manner. For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, poetry with language; the forms differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, through drama or no drama. Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.
The more recent and specific sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Fine art refers to a skill used to express the artist's creativity, or to engage the audience's aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of more refined or finer work of art. Within this latter sense, the word art may refer to several things: a study of a creative skill, a process of using the creative skill, a product of the creative skill, or the audience's experience with the creative skill; the creative arts are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks that are compelled by a personal drive and convey a message, mood, or symbolism for the perceiver to interpret. Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. Works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. For some scholars, such as Kant, the sciences and the arts could be distinguished by taking science as representing the domain of knowledge and the arts as representing the domain of the freedom of artistic expression.
If the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art. If the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand and design are sometimes considered applied art; some art followers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference. However fine art has goals beyond pure creativity and self-expression; the purpose of works of art may be to communicate ideas, such as in politically, spiritually, or philosophically motivated art. The purpose may be nonexistent; the nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Wollheim as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture". Art has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exp