Silverwater Correctional Complex
The Silverwater Correctional Complex, an Australian maximum and minimum security prison complex for males and females, is located in Silverwater, 21 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district in New South Wales, Australia. The complex is operated by Corrective Services NSW, an agency of the Department of Attorney General and Justice, of the Government of New South Wales; the complex comprises four separate facilities including Silverwater Correctional Centre. The complex accepts prisoners charged and convicted under New South Wales and/or Commonwealth legislation and serves as a reception prison for inmates on remand or pending classification. Silverwater Correctional Centre, an Australian minimum security facility for males is located within the complex. Sef Gonzales – convicted of murdering his parents and sister. Tony Hines – a standover man shot dead by a member of the Bra Boys. Robert Hughes – a former Australian actor convicted of sexual assaults on minors during filming of the hit Australian TV sitcom Hey Dad...!
Chris Munce – convicted of fixing during a horse racing meeting in Hong Kong. René Rivkin – stockbroker and businessman, sentenced to periodic detention due to ill health; the Silverwater Women's Correctional Centre, an Australian maximum security facility for females is located within the complex. The Centre is divided into twelve living units, a protection/segregation area, an induction unit, a hospital annexe, provides accommodation for both sentenced and unsentenced inmates and various special program units; the facility opened in 1970 as the old women's prison at Long Bay was converted into a medium security facility for men. Fraud is the most common reason for imprisonment. Inmates are eligible to study for national recognised qualifications including vocation and TAFE courses. In the 2010 New South Wales state budget, the prison was allocated $200,000 for a new video conferencing system. Lindy Chamberlain – New Zealand-born Australian convicted and acquitted of murdering her 9-week old daughter Azaria.
Katherine Knight – convicted of the murder of de facto husband John Price Kathleen Folbigg – convicted of the murders of her 3 infant children Theresa Lawson – convicted of the largest fraud in NSW history. Mélina Roberge and Isabelle Lagacé – two French Canadians incarcerated after a world cruise for trying to import a record amount of cocaine into the country; the Metropolitan Remand and Reception Centre, an Australian maximum security facility for males is located within the complex. The prison opened in 1997, has a capacity of 900 inmates, it is the largest single correctional centre in Australia. The majority of inmates are unsentenced. In March, 1999, librarian Lucy Dudko hired a helicopter to check out the upcoming Olympic site in Sydney. Using a gun, she forced pilot, Tim Joyce, to land within the Metropolitan Remand and Reception Centre grounds. Waiting was John Killick, serving 28 years for armed robberies, he jumped in the helicopter making an escape while being fired on by guards and cheered on by inmates.
They landed in a park. The two were able to elude authorities for six weeks before being arrested at the Bass Hill Tourist Park. In 2004, the Independent Commission Against Corruption conducted an investigation at the prison which concluded that mobile phones were becoming a significant security threat in Australian correctional facilities. In April 2012, the facility was inundated with members of outlaw motorcycle clubs. Segregation between members of the same gangs is enforced in an effort to break member ties. Rodney Adler – disgraced former director of HIH Insurance and businessman. Hew Raymond Griffiths – British-born Australian alleged software pirate, before his extradition to the US. Man Haron Monis – convicted "hate mail" campaigner against the families of dead soldiers, faced numerous charges of being an accessory to murder and sexual assault. Perpetrator of the 2014 Sydney Siege, shot dead by New South Wales Police Force Tactical Operations Unit. Phuong Ngo – South Vietnamese Australian politician and businessman convicted of ordering the 1994 killing of Australian NSW state MP John Newman.
Dragan Vasiljković –, former Serbian paramilitary commander and alleged war criminal. The Dawn de Loas Correctional Centre, an Australian minimum security work release centre for males is located within the complex. Silverwater Prison Complex Conservation Area Punishment in Australia
Don Dale Youth Detention Centre
The Don Dale Youth Detention Centre is a facility for juvenile detention in the Northern Territory, located in Berrimah, east of Darwin. It is a maximum security prison for male and female juvenile delinquents; the facility is named after Don Dale, a former Member of the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly from 1983 to 1989 and one-time Minister for Correctional Services. On 25 July 2016, the ABC broadcast a Four Corners report that disclosed the abuse of youths in the Northern Territory corrections system which triggered the Royal Commission into Juvenile Detention in the Northern Territory; the Don Dale Youth Detention Centre was the Northern Territory's first purpose-built institution for young male and female offenders from across the Northern Territory aged from 10 to 16 years. Built in 1991, it was located adjacent to Berrimah Prison; the facility replaced Malak House, which had operated as a detention centre since 1987. Don Dale provided medium to high level detention in single cells.
In the early 2000s all detainees at Don Dale were expected to attend school unless they were involved in vocational programs. In 2011, Xzibit, a US rapper, visited the centre and talked to inmates about his life experiences, following being detained in a juvenile detention centre as a 14-year-old. A 16-year-old Aboriginal boy named Johnno Johnson Wurramarrba from Groote Eylandt committed suicide at Don Dale in February 2000. In January, Wurramarrba was sentenced to 28 days detention under the Northern Territory's mandatory sentencing laws for stealing petrol and paint from Angurugu School on Groote Eylandt. A Coronial Inquiry into the circumstances of the death resulted in a number of recommendations being made relating to training of staff and management practices in the centre. In August 2014, six boys were in solitary confinement cells in the Behavioural Management Unit. One boy walked out of an unlocked cell, beat on a locked reinforced door; the staff declared that there was a "riot", released tear gas into the hallway, gassing all six boys.
It took up to eight minutes to remove the boys in their cells from the tear gas. A news release to the media falsely asserted that six boys had escaped from their cells, despite CCTV in the hallway showing only one boy in the hallway; the incident, among others, was investigated by the Northern Territory Children's Commissioner Colleen Gywnne in a report provided in August 2015 to the Corrections Minister John Elferink. Following the tear gas incident, the youths were moved from Malak House to adult Berrimah Prison and Malak House was closed. In September 2014, the prison was renamed Don Dale Youth Detention Centre; the North Australian Aboriginal Justice Agency remained critical of conditions at the new site. Use of restraint chairs and cable ties on children was expressly legalised by the Northern Territory Government in May 2016 and were used at facilities in both Darwin and Alice Springs. Graphic footage of repeated abuse of children at Don Dale, including the 2014 tear gas incident, was featured in ABC's Four Corners episode "Australia's Shame", which aired on 25 July 2016.
In the year the documentary was televised worldwide. Teenage boys were shown being stripped naked and tear-gassed, they were being held in isolation up to 72 hours with no running water. The program showed a 17-year-old boy shackled and hooded in a chair at a facility in Alice Springs; the Office of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights said it was "shocked" at the "appalling treatment" of the detainees, which violates the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel and Degrading Treatment, to which Australia is party. Global broadcast of the documentary caused worldwide astonishment about the inadequate actions of the minister. Following national outrage, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull announced a Royal Commission into Juvenile Detention in the Northern Territory. John Elferink was sacked as Corrections Minister the morning; the corrections and justice portfolios were taken on by Northern Territory Chief Minister Adam Giles. Use of restraint chairs and spit hoods were suspended. On 28 July 2016, it was announced that the 33 youths incarcerated in the centre were to be moved to the Wickham Point Detention Centre, a former immigration detention centre, located around 50 kilometres south of Darwin.
The Wickham Point Detention Centre has been deemed by the Australian Human Rights Commission to be "completely inappropriate for children". Within 24 hours the decision to close the centre and relocate the detainees "had been scrapped for the time being", with Chief Minister Giles saying that the facilities at Don Dale were “good enough”; the Royal Commission into the Protection and Detention of Children in the Northern Territory was established on 1 August 2016. While the commission was expected to report by 31 March 2017, the final reporting date was extended three times due to the extent of documentary evidence and witnesses, to 17 November 2017; the report made more than 200 recommendations including the closure of the Don Dale Youth Detention Centre. In April 2018, the Northern Territory Government announced it would commit $71.4 million to build new youth detention centres in Darwin and Alice Springs as part of a $229.6 million package to overhaul the child protection and youth justice systems and implement the recommendations of the royal commission.
By November 2018 the facility was still in use. It was revealed in Northern Territory Parliament that female detainees were being forced to shower while under video surveillance. On 6 November 2018, a major disturbance broke out at Don Dale Youth Detention Centre. Detainees escaped from their cells by stealing keys and attempted to break out of the facility using power tools; the school room at the facility was burnt a
Supreme Court of the Northern Territory
The Supreme Court of the Northern Territory is the superior court for the Australian Territory of the Northern Territory. It has unlimited jurisdiction within the territory in civil matters, hears the most serious criminal matters, it is around the middle of the Australian court hierarchy. Shortly after the first settlement at Palmerston, Port Darwin in 1869–70, pressure was placed upon the South Australian government to establish a superior court in the Northern Territory of South Australia. Although such a court was mooted, it was decided to send judges to Palmerston on circuit; the first circuit court was held in February 1875. Thereafter, from 1875 to 1884, the government appointed persons as commissioners to exercise the power of a judge of the Supreme Court of South Australia in all but trials of capital offences. From 1884 to 1911, a resident judge, with the title "Judge of the Northern Territory" exercised the full powers of the Supreme Court of South Australia under the Northern Territory Justice Act.
The court was established on 30 May 1911, shortly after South Australia surrendered the territory to the Commonwealth. The first judge of the court was Samuel James Mitchell; the only person to hold the office of Chief Judge, created in 1975, was Sir William Forster who held the position from 1977-1979. The position title was changed to Chief Justice in 1979, Forster was the first Chief Justice from 1979-1985. There have been 6 Chief Justices since 1979. There are six resident judges and two additional judges and two acting judges, making a total of ten Supreme Court justices. In 1927, when the Northern Australia 1926 Act came into force, the Northern Territory was divided into two territories; the Supreme Court was not abolished, but continued to exist as the Supreme Court of North Australia and the Supreme Court of Central Australia. After the Northern Territory Act was repealed in 1931, the Northern Territory was reconstituted as a single Territory of the Commonwealth; the Supreme Court of Central Australia was abolished and the Supreme Court of North Australia continued as the Supreme Court of the Northern Territory.
In 1935 the Court began its first sittings on circuit in Alice Springs, a practice which still continues today. Circuit sittings in Katherine were introduced in 1996; when a new Supreme Court complex was built, Indigenous artist Norah Nelson Napaljarri was chosen to design a mosaic for its forecourt. The design concept of the Supreme Court, as requested by the client the Northern Territory Government, was to reflect the elements of the "Greek Revival" Hong Kong Shanghai Bank constructed in Hong Kong in the 1800s viz: the colonnade around the building, the mansard roof and the portico entrance as well as giving reference to its tropical location and its colonial past; the collaborating architects were Peter Doig, Ron Findlay and Roger Linklater: the interior was designed by Susie Cole. The architectural style is best described as Neo-colonial; the Supreme Court sits in other locations in the Northern Territory, including Katherine, Tennant Creek and Nhulunbuy. The Supreme Court has on occasion sat at remote aboriginal communities.
The Supreme Court includes the Court of Appeal, Court of Criminal Appeal and Criminal Trials and Appeals from the Northern Territory Magistrates Court. Judgments from Supreme Court trials are available to the public, as are the sentencing remarks, unless a suppression order has been taken preventing these being released; as at September 2016: Family Court of Australia Federal Court of Australia Judiciary of Australia List of Judges of the Supreme Court of the Northern Territory The Northern Territory Supreme Court Website Sentencing Principles
Darwin, Northern Territory
Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory of Australia, situated on the Timor Sea. It is the largest city in the sparsely populated Northern Territory, with a population of 145,916, it is the smallest and most northerly of the Australian capital cities, acts as the Top End's regional centre. Darwin's proximity to South East Asia makes it a link between Australia and countries such as Indonesia and East Timor; the Stuart Highway begins in Darwin, extends southerly across central Australia through Tennant Creek and Alice Springs, concluding in Port Augusta, South Australia. The city is built upon a low bluff overlooking the harbour, its suburbs begin at Lee Point in the stretch to Berrimah in the east. Past Berrimah, the Stuart Highway goes on to its suburbs; the Darwin region, like much of the Top End, experiences a tropical climate with a wet and dry season. A period known locally as "the build up" leading up to Darwin's wet season sees temperature and humidity increase. Darwin's wet season arrives in late November to early December and brings with it heavy monsoonal downpours, spectacular lightning displays, increased cyclone activity.
During the dry season, the city has clear skies and mild sea breezes from the harbour. The greater Darwin area is the ancestral home of the Larrakia people. On 9 September 1839, HMS Beagle sailed into Darwin harbour during its survey of the area. John Clements Wickham named the region "Port Darwin" in honour of their former shipmate Charles Darwin, who had sailed with them on the ship's previous voyage which ended in October 1836; the settlement there became the town of Palmerston in 1869, but it was renamed Darwin in 1911. The city has been entirely rebuilt four times, following devastation caused by the 1897 cyclone, the 1937 cyclone, Japanese air raids during World War II, Cyclone Tracy in 1974; the Aboriginal people of the Larrakia language group are the traditional custodians and the first inhabitants of the greater Darwin area. They had trading routes with Southeast Asia, imported goods from as far afield as South and Western Australia. Established songlines penetrated throughout the country, allowing stories and histories to be told and retold along the routes.
The extent of shared songlines and history of multiple clan groups within this area is still contestable. The Dutch visited Australia's northern coastline in the 1600s and landed on the Tiwi Islands only to be repelled by the Tiwi peoples; the Dutch created the first European maps of the area. This accounts for the Dutch names such as Arnhem Land and Groote Eylandt; the first British person to see Darwin harbour appears to have been Lieutenant John Lort Stokes of HMS Beagle on 9 September 1839. The ship's captain, Commander John Clements Wickham, named the port after Charles Darwin, the British naturalist who had sailed with them both on the earlier second expedition of the Beagle. In 1863, the Northern Territory was transferred from New South Wales to South Australia. In 1864 South Australia sent B. T. Finniss north as Government Resident to survey and found a capital for its new territory. Finniss chose a site at Escape Cliffs, near the entrance to Adelaide River, about 60 kilometres northeast of the modern city.
This attempt was short-lived and the settlement abandoned by 1865. On 5 February 1869, George Goyder, the Surveyor-General of South Australia, established a small settlement of 135 people at Port Darwin between Fort Hill and the escarpment. Goyder named the settlement Palmerston, after the British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston. In 1870, the first poles for the Overland Telegraph were erected in Darwin, connecting Australia to the rest of the world; the discovery of gold by employees of the Australian Overland Telegraph Line digging holes for telegraph poles at Pine Creek in the 1880s spawned a gold rush which further boosted the young colony's development. In February 1872 the brigatine Alexandra was the first private vessel to set sail from an English port directly to Darwin, carrying people many of whom were coming to recent gold finds. In early 1875 Darwin's white population had grown to 300 because of the gold rush. On 17 February 1875 the SS Gothenburg left Darwin en route for Adelaide.
The 88 passengers and 34 crew included government officials, circuit-court judges, Darwin residents taking their first furlough, miners. While travelling south along the north Queensland coast, the Gothenburg encountered a cyclone-strength storm and was wrecked on a section of the Great Barrier Reef. Only 22 men survived, while between 112 people perished. Many passengers who perished were Darwin residents and news of the tragedy affected the small community, which took several years to recover. In the 1870s large numbers of Chinese settled at least temporarily in the Northern Territory. By 1888 there were 6122 Chinese in the Northern Territory in or around Darwin; the early Chinese settlers were from the Kwantung Province in south China. However at the end of the nineteenth century anti-Chinese feelings grew in response to the 1890s economic depression and the White Australia policy meant many Chinese left the Territory. However, some families stayed and became Australian citizens, established a commercial base in Darwin.
Darwin became the city's official name in 1911. The period between 1911 and 1919 was filled with political turmoil with trade union unrest, which culminated on 17 December 1918. Led by Harold Nelson, some 1000 demonstrators marched to Government House at Liberty
Barkly Work Camp
Barkly Work Camp is a low-security correctional work camp near Tennant Creek in the Northern Territory of Australia. The Barkly Work Camp opened on 8 September 2011 with a capacity of 50 prisoners, it aims to rehabilitate inmates by providing employment opportunities. As of April 2018, the world camp housed 61 prisoners, 122 per cent of its design capacity. Official website
Death of Azaria Chamberlain
Azaria Chamberlain was an Australian 2-month-old baby girl, killed by a dingo on the night of 17 August 1980 on a family camping trip to Uluru in the Northern Territory. Her body was never found, her parents and Michael Chamberlain, reported that she had been taken from their tent by a dingo. Lindy Chamberlain was, tried for murder and spent more than three years in prison, she was released when a piece of Azaria's clothing was found near a dingo lair, new inquests were opened. In 2012, 32 years after Azaria's death, the Chamberlains' version of events was supported by a coroner. An initial inquest held in Alice Springs supported the parents' claim and was critical of the police investigation; the findings of the inquest were broadcast live on television—a first in Australia. Subsequently, after a further investigation and a second inquest held in Darwin, Lindy Chamberlain was tried for murder, convicted on 29 October 1982 and sentenced to life imprisonment. Azaria's father, Michael Chamberlain, was convicted as an accessory after the fact and given a suspended sentence.
The media focus for the trial was unusually intense and aroused accusations of sensationalism, while the trial itself was criticised for being unprofessional and biased. The Chamberlains made several unsuccessful appeals, including the final High Court appeal. After all legal options had been exhausted, the chance discovery in 1986 of a piece of Azaria's clothing in an area with numerous dingo lairs led to Lindy Chamberlain's release from prison. On 15 September 1988, the Northern Territory Court of Criminal Appeals unanimously overturned all convictions against Lindy and Michael Chamberlain. A third inquest was conducted in 1995. At a fourth inquest held on 12 June 2012, Coroner Elizabeth Morris delivered her findings that Azaria Chamberlain had been taken and killed by a dingo. After being released, Lindy Chamberlain was paid $1.3 million for false imprisonment and an amended death certificate was issued immediately. Numerous books have been written about the case; the story has been made into a TV movie, a feature film, Evil Angels, a TV miniseries, a play by Brooke Pierce, a concept album by Australian band The Paradise Motel and an opera, Lindy, by Moya Henderson.
The initial coronial inquest into the disappearance was opened in Alice Springs on 15 December 1980 before magistrate Denis Barritt. On 20 February 1981, in the first live telecast of Australian court proceedings, Barritt ruled that the cause was a dingo attack. In addition to this finding, Barritt concluded that, subsequent to the attack, "the body of Azaria was taken from the possession of the dingo, disposed of by an unknown method, by a person or persons, name unknown"; the Northern Territory Police and prosecutors were dissatisfied with this finding. Investigations continued, leading to a second inquest in Darwin in September 1981. Based on ultraviolet photographs of Azaria's jumpsuit, James Cameron of the London Hospital Medical College alleged that "there was an incised wound around the neck of the jumpsuit—in other words, a cut throat" and that there was an imprint of the hand of a small adult on the jumpsuit, visible in the photographs. Following this and other findings, the Chamberlains were charged with Azaria's murder.
In 1995, a third inquest was conducted which failed to determine a cause of death, resulting in an "open" finding. The Crown alleged that Lindy Chamberlain had cut Azaria's throat in the front seat of the family car, hiding the baby's body in a large camera case, she according to the proposed reconstruction of the crime, rejoined the group of campers around a campfire and fed one of her sons a can of baked beans, before going to the tent and raising the cry that a dingo had taken the baby. It was alleged that at a time, while other people from the campsite were searching, she disposed of the body; the key evidence supporting this allegation was the jumpsuit, as well as a contentious forensic report claiming to have found evidence of foetal haemoglobin in stains on the front seat of the Chamberlains' 1977 Torana hatchback. Foetal haemoglobin is present in infants younger. Lindy Chamberlain was questioned about the garments, she claimed that Azaria was wearing a matinee jacket over the jumpsuit, but the jacket was not present when the garments were found.
She was questioned about the fact that Azaria's singlet, inside the jumpsuit, was inside out. She insisted that she never put a singlet on her babies inside out and that she was most particular about this; the statement conflicted with the state of the garments. The garments had been arranged by the investigating officer for a photograph. In her defence, eyewitness evidence was presented of dingoes having been seen in the area on the evening of 17 August 1980. All witnesses claimed to believe the Chamberlains' story. One witness, a nurse reported having heard a baby's cry after the time when the prosecution alleged Azaria had been murdered. Evidence was presented that adult blood passed the test used for foetal haemoglobin, that other organic compounds can produce similar results on that particular test, including mucus from the nose and chocolate milkshakes, both of, present in the vehicle where Azaria was murdered. Engineer Les Harris, who had conducted dingo research for over a decade, said that, contrary to Cameron's findings, a dingo's carnassial teeth can shear through material as tough as motor vehicle seat belts.
He cited an example of a captive fem
Bicentennial Park (Darwin)
Bicentennial Park is a large area of parkland located in the Darwin city centre, Northern Territory. It runs the length of Darwin's waterfront; the park stretches from Northern Territory Parliament House to Doctor's Gully. The park is home to monuments dedicated to those who died during the Bombing of Darwin, including: the Darwin Cenotaph War Memorial, the Civilian Memorial and the USS Peary Memorial. Major festivals that are held at Bicentennial Park include Greek Glenti where the Greek community gathers to celebrate their culture and food. Other major festivals are the Darwin Festival. Media related to Bicentennial Park at Wikimedia Commons Bicentennial Park Darwin Darwin Travel