Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Viodos-Abense-de-Bas is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It is located in the former province of Soule; the steeple of the church is a trinitarian one. The lands of the commune are watered by the Season, which flows into the Gave of Oloron, by its tributary, the brook Borlaas; the municipality of Viodos-Abense-de-Bas consists of eight districts: Bürgüa. The activity is focused on agriculture. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE commune file BILDOZE-ONIZEPEA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Esquiule is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It is located in the former province of Béarn, it stands out as an outpost of the Basque area of Soule, the village being Basque speaking. It has played host to the carnivalesque performances known as maskaradak and its inhabitants arranged and performed one traditional theatre piece of Soule under the title Madalena de Jaureguiberry in 2000. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE commune file ESKIULA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Lichans-Sunhar is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France. It is located in the former province of Soule. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE LEXANTZÜ-ZÜNHARRE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Ainharp is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Ainharbars. Or Ainharbear. Ainharp is located some 50 km west by southwest of Pau, 15 km southeast of Saint-Palais, 10 km north-west of Mauleon-Licharre, it is part of the former province of Soule. The commune can be accessed by road D242 from Lohitzun-Oyhercq in the west passing through the village and continuing southeast to Mauleon-Licharre; the D344 road goes to the north from the village through the commune east to Espes-Undurein. The commune terrain is undulating of mixed forest. Located in the drainage basin of the Adour, the commune is the source of numerous streams including the Lagardoye which forms part of the south-eastern border, the Quihilleri which forms much of the western border, the Lafaure which forms much of the northern border; the commune name in Basque is Ainharbe. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan proposed two etymological interpretations: a meaning of "low heather" from ilharr meaning "heather" and -be or "height of the low rocks" from gain meaning "high" and har meaning "rock" that indicates the high position of the village on the left bank of the Saison.
The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque ToponymyOrigins: Notaries: Notaries of Labastide-Villefranche Ohix:Contracts retained by Ohix, Notary of Soule Insinuations: Insinuations of the Diocese of Oloron Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Paul Raymond noted on page 4 of his 1863 dictionary that the commune was a former priory in the diocese of Oloron and that there was a hospital for pilgrims. List of Successive Mayors of Ainharp Mayors from 1929 Ainharp is a member of seven intercommunal structures: the community of communes of Soule-Xiberoa the association to support Basque culture the intercommunal association of the Valley the intercommunal association for the construction and operation of the CES of Mauleon the AEP association for Soule Country the remediation association for Soule Country the energy association of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques The activity is agricultural.
The town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. The commune has a church which dates back to the 11th century and a Calvary-Bell Tower from the 17th century, its cemetery features Hilarri dating from the time of the bell tower. The village is located on a secondary road of the pilgrimage to Saint Jacques de Compostela which passes on the highway to Ports de Cize, the priory of Saint-Palais to Saint-Michel-le-Vieux which had a hospice for pilgrims called Benta to L'Hôpital-Saint-Blaise, Pagolle, Haux and Ordiarp; the commune has a primary school. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Cantons of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Arrondissements of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department AINHARBE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Ainharp on Lion1906 Ainharp on Google Maps Ainharp on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Ainharp on the 1750 Cassini Map Ainharp on the INSEE website INSEE
Pyrénées-Atlantiques is a department in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, in southwestern France. It takes its name from the Atlantic Ocean, it covers the Béarn. Named Basses-Pyrénées, it is one of the first 83 departments of France created during the French Revolution, on 4 March 1790, it was created out of parts belonging to the former greater province of Guyenne and Gascony, as well as the Béarn-Navarre, i.e. the Basques provinces of Basse-Navarre, Labourd and Soule, Béarn. The 1790 administrative design brought about the end of native laws; the Basque third-estate representatives overtly opposed the new administrative layout since it suppressed their institutions and laws. The representatives of Lower Navarre refused to vote arguing that they were not part of the Kingdom of France, those of Soule voted against, while the brothers Garat, representing Labourd voted yes, thinking that would give them a say in upcoming political decisions. On 10 October 1969, Basses-Pyrénées was renamed Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
Pyrénées-Atlantiques is part of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of Southwest France. It is bordered by Hautes-Pyrénées, Gers departments and the Bay of Biscay. Principal settlements include Pau, Oloron-Sainte-Marie, Biarritz, Anglet, Saint-Jean-de-Luz and Hendaye. Lac Gentau is located here. Pyrénées-Atlantiques, a border province, has cultivated a number of economic and cultural links with Spain. Two urban concentrations exist in the east and west of the département: Pau, which has 145,000 inhabitants, 344,000 workers in the local area. Both the Gascon Bearnese variant and Basque language are indigenous to the region in their respective districts. Gascon in turn is a dialect of Occitan the main language of southern France, it is more related to Catalan than it is to French. Basque is a language isolate, not related to any known language. Today, the sole official language of the French Republic, is the predominant native language and is spoken by all inhabitants. Pyrénées-Atlantiques is home to a number of professional sports teams, including Aviron Bayonnais, Biarritz Olympique, Section Paloise, Élan Béarnais Pau-Orthez and Pau FC.
The Pau Grand Prix, an auto race first held in 1901, has hosted the World Touring Car Championship, British Formula Three, Formula 3 Euro Series and FIA European Formula 3 Championship. The coat of arms of Pyrénées-Atlantiques combines those of four traditional provinces: Béarn Labourd Lower Navarre Soule Arrondissements of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Cantons of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department General Council website Archives of the Pyrenees-Atlantiques department website Photography Panoramics 360° website Prefecture official website Pyrenees-Atlantiques at Curlie Pyrenees-Atlantiques Monuments, Villages and Attractions Information on living and visiting Pyrenees Atlantiques
Aroue-Ithorots-Olhaïby is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Arouetarrak. Aroue-Ithorots-Olhaïby is located in the former Basque province of Soule some 10 km east of Saint-Palais and 10 km south of Sauveterre-de-Béarn. Access to the commune is by the D11 road from Domezain-Berraute in the west passing through the west fork of the commune Etcharry the east fork and the village before continuing south-east to Charritte-de-Bas; the commune is mixed farmland. Located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, the commune is traversed from south to north by the Lafoure with its tributary the Hourquet and the Lauhirasse with its tributary the Thiancoenia erreka; the commune name in basque is Arüe-Ithorrotze-Olhaibi. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan indicated that Ithorots signified "source of cold water" and Olhaïby "the ford of the huts"; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune.
Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy on the page numbers indicated in the table. Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 EHESS: Ithorots-Olhaïby on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database EHESS: Olhaïbi on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Duchesne: Duchesne collection volume CXIV'Ohix: Contracts retained by Ohix, Notary of Soule Luntz: Military: Military Inspection of Béarn Languedoc: Confessions of Languedoc) Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Arthez-Lasalle: Titles of Arthez-Lassalle Paul Raymond noted on page 11 of his 1863 dictionary that Aroue was one of the seven districts of Soule and depended on the messagerie of Barhoue. There was a Lay Abbey at Ithorots, vassal of the Viscounts of Soule; the fief of Olhaïby was a vassal of the Viscounts of Soule and its owner was one of ten potestats of Soule. The commune had a "Temple of Reason" during the French Revolution, undoubtedly because in the Béarnais region, Aroue was the only Basque commune to adopt the Jacobin anti-religion policy.
Between 1790 and 1794 Ithorots commune was merged with Olhaïby to form the new commune of Ithorots-Olhaïby. On 1 August 1973, the commune of Aroue merged with Ithorots-Olhaïby to form the new commune of Aroue-Ithorots-Olhaïby. List of Successive Mayors The commune is part of eight inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of Amikuze. In 2009 the commune had 245 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty; the village has architecture typical of the eastern Basque Country: gable roofs covered with tiles, whitewashed walls with houses from the 16th century. As in many Basque villages, the fronton is adjacent to the church.
Two churches are registered as historical monuments: The Church of Saint-Étienne at Aroue is a Romanesque church rebuilt in the 19th century. There is a sculpture from the 12th century of Saint Jacques on a horse and a Spanish image of "Matamoro"; the Church of Saint-Samson at Ithorots The Church at Olhaïby has several items that are registered as historical objects: A Retable over the main altar A Candlestick An altar cross A tabernacle at the main altar A candlestick Statuettes A Painting: The Martyrdom of Saints Cyr and Judith A Tabernacle, Retable, 2 Candlesticks, Altar Cross, Painting A Processional Cross The town lies on the GR 65. It is at the beginning of the 7th section of the GR, listed by UNESCO as World Heritage; the presentation file to UNESCO locates the commune on the Via Podiensis on the Way of St. James. There is no real historical justification for this but it is an important fact for this small town. Justification was found by the pioneer who traced the paths in the region.
He saw in the horseman shown on the lintel of the door of the sacristy, a representation of Saint Jacques Matamoros. Franz Duboscq, born in Saint-Jean-de-Luz in 1924, MP and senator, former president of the council and mayor of the town until 2001. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department ITHORROTZE and OLHAIBI in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Aroue and the 7th stage of GR 65 registered as World Heritage Aroue-Ithorots-Olhaïby on Lion1906 Aroue-Ithorots-Olhaïby on Google Maps Aroue-Ithorots-Olhaïby on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Aroüe, Olliaybi on the 1750 Cassini Map Aroue-Ithorots-Olhaïby on the INSEE website (in F