The Glorious Revolution called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, James's nephew and son-in-law. William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascension to the throne as William III of England jointly with his wife, Mary II, James's daughter, after the Declaration of Right, leading to the Bill of Rights 1689. King James's policies of religious tolerance after 1685 met with increasing opposition from members of leading political circles, who were troubled by the King's Catholicism and his close ties with France; the crisis facing the King came with the birth of his son, James, on 10 June. This changed the existing line of succession by displacing the heir presumptive with young James as heir apparent; the establishment of a Roman Catholic dynasty in the British kingdoms now seemed likely. Some Tory members of parliament worked with members of the opposition Whigs in an attempt to resolve the crisis by secretly initiating dialogue with William of Orange to come to England, outside the jurisdiction of the English Parliament.
Stadtholder William, the de facto head of state of the Dutch United Provinces, feared a Catholic Anglo–French alliance and had been planning a military intervention in England. After consolidating political and financial support, William crossed the North Sea and English Channel with a large invasion fleet in November 1688, landing at Torbay. After only two minor clashes between the two opposing armies in England, anti-Catholic riots in several towns, James's regime collapsed because of a lack of resolve shown by the king; this was followed, however, by the protracted Williamite War in Ireland and Dundee's rising in Scotland. In England's distant American colonies, the revolution led to the collapse of the Dominion of New England and the overthrow of the Province of Maryland's government. Following a defeat of his forces at the Battle of Reading on 9 December 1688, James and his wife Mary fled England. By threatening to withdraw his troops, William, in February 1689, convinced a newly chosen Convention Parliament to make him and his wife joint monarchs.
The Revolution permanently ended any chance of Catholicism becoming re-established in England. For British Catholics its effects were disastrous both and politically: For over a century Catholics were denied the right to vote and sit in the Westminster Parliament; the Revolution led to limited tolerance for Nonconformist Protestants, although it would be some time before they had full political rights. It has been argued by Whig historians, that James's overthrow began modern English parliamentary democracy: the Bill of Rights 1689 has become one of the most important documents in the political history of Britain and never since has the monarch held absolute power. Internationally, the Revolution was related to the War of the Grand Alliance on mainland Europe, it has been seen as the last successful invasion of England. It ended all attempts by England in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th century to subdue the Dutch Republic by military force; the resulting economic integration and military co-operation between the English and Dutch navies, shifted the dominance in world trade from the Dutch Republic to England and to Great Britain.
The expression "Glorious Revolution" was first used by John Hampden in late 1689, is an expression, still used by the British Parliament. The Glorious Revolution is occasionally termed the Bloodless Revolution, albeit inaccurately; the English Civil War was still within living memory for most of the major English participants in the events of 1688, for them, in comparison to that war the deaths in the conflict of 1688 were few. During his three-year reign, King James II became directly involved in the political battles in England between Catholicism and Protestantism, between the concept of the divine right of kings and the political rights of the Parliament of England. James's greatest political problem was his Catholicism, which left him alienated from both parties in England; the low church Whigs had failed in their attempt to pass the Exclusion Bill to exclude James from the throne between 1679 and 1681, James's supporters were the high church Anglican Tories. In Scotland, his supporters in the Parliament of Scotland stepped up attempts to force the Covenanters to renounce their faith and accept episcopalian rule of the church by the monarch.
When James inherited the English throne in 1685, he had much support in the'Loyal Parliament', composed of Tories. His Catholicism was of concern to many, but the fact that he had no son, his daughters and Anne, were Protestants, was a "saving grace". James's attempt to relax the Penal Laws alienated his natural supporters, because the Tories viewed this as tantamount to disestablishment of the Church of England. Abandoning the Tories, James looked to form a'King's party' as a counterweight to the Anglican Tories, so in 1687 James supported the policy of religious toleration and issued the Declaration of Indulgence; the majority of Irish people backed James II for this reason and because of his promise to the Irish
The Commercial Appeal
The Commercial Appeal is a daily newspaper of Memphis and its surrounding metropolitan area. It is owned by the Gannett Company; the 2016 purchase by Gannett of Journal Media Group gave it control of the two major papers in western and central Tennessee, uniting the Commercial Appeal with Nashville's The Tennessean. The Commercial Appeal is a seven-day morning paper, it is distributed in Greater Memphis, including Shelby and Tipton counties in Tennessee. These are the contiguous counties to the city of Memphis. In 1994, The Commercial Appeal won a Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning by Michael Ramirez; the paper's name comes from a 19th-century merger between two predecessors, the Memphis Commercial and the Appeal. The Commercial Appeal traces its heritage to the 1839 publication, The Western World & Memphis Banner of the Constitution. Bought by Col. Henry Van Pelt in 1940, it was renamed The Memphis Appeal. During the American Civil War the Appeal was one of the major newspapers serving the Southern cause.
On June 6, 1862, the presses and plates were loaded into a boxcar and published from Grenada, Mississippi. The Appeal journeyed on to Jackson, Meridian, Atlanta, Montgomery and Columbus, where the plates were destroyed on April 16, 1865, temporarily halting publication days before the Confederate surrender; the press was hidden and saved, publication resumed in Memphis, using it, on November 5, 1865. Another early paper, The Avalanche, was incorporated in 1894, publishing as The Appeal-Avalanche until an 1894 merger created The Commercial Appeal; the name is properly The Commercial Appeal and not the Memphis Commercial Appeal as it is called, although the predecessor Appeal was formally the Memphis Daily Appeal. In 1932 the newspaper moved into a disused Ford Motor Company assembly plant at 495 Union Avenue where it stayed until 1977, when a new building was completed adjacent. In 1936 The Commercial Appeal was purchased by the Scripps Howard newspaper chain, and by the Gannett Company. In 2017, Gannett closed the Commercial Appeal's Memphis printing plant, laying off 19 full-time employees, consolidated printing with its newspaper in Jackson, Tennessee.
In April 2018 The Commercial Appeal sold its longtime offices and plant at 495 Union St. in Memphis for $3.8 million, indicating plans to move to another Memphis site. At the time of sale, the property, comprised a 125,000-square-foot office building, a 150,000-square-foot printing and production plant, adjacent real estate. A New York-based real estate company, Twenty Lake Holdings LLC, bought the 6.5 acres with the five-story office building and attached printing/production building. Twenty Lake Holdings, is a division of a hedge fund, accused of a "mercenary strategy" of buying newspapers, slashing jobs, selling the buildings and other assets; the paper in the 1940s had a well known columnist Paul Flowers. The Commercial Appeal has had a mixed record on civil rights. Despite its Confederate background the paper won a Pulitzer Prize in 1923 for its coverage and editorial opposition to the resurgent Ku Klux Klan. From 1916 to 1968, the paper published; the cartoon featured a black man, that many African Americans came to regard as a racist caricature.
In 1917, the paper published the scheduled place for the upcoming Lynching of Ell Persons. During the Civil Rights Movement, the paper avoided coverage, it did take a stance against pro-segregation rioters during the Ole Miss riot of 1962. However, its owner, Scripps-Howard, exerted a conservative and anti-union influence; the paper opposed the Memphis sanitation strike, portraying both labor organizers and Martin L. King, Jr. as outside meddlers. During the late 1960s, the Federal Bureau of Investigation leaked "information of a derogatory nature regarding the Invaders and other black nationalist militants," some of which may have been fabricated by the FBI itself, to a Commercial Appeal reporter who used that information to write articles critical of the Invaders; this manipulation of the Commercial Appeal was part of the FBI's counterintelligence program against black nationalists in the late 1960s and early 1970s. In the fall of 2007, the Appeal touched off a controversial policy that would have linked specific stories and specific advertisers.
The proposal was greeted by outrage among media analysts, so the authors of the so-called'monetization memo'—the Appeal's editor and its sales manager—quietly withdrew the effort. At the end of 2008, The Commercial Appeal posted a controversial database listing Tennessee residents with permits to carry handguns; the database had not been posted online. After a permit-to-carry holder shot and killed a man in Memphis for parking too close to his SUV and vandalizing it, the gun database came to the attention of pro-gun groups, including the NRA and the Tennessee Firearms Association. Legislators who supported gun groups drafted a bill to close the permit-to-carry database; the Tennessee Coalition for Open Government lobbied to keep the database public and the bill to close the database did not pass in the 2009 legislative session. In a February 15, 2009 editorial, the newspaper defended publication of the handgun permit list and suggested it could protect permit holders by steering criminals away from armed households.
Tabloid (newspaper format)
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet. There is no standard size for this newspaper format; the term tabloid journalism refers to an emphasis on such topics as sensational crime stories, celebrity gossip and television, is not a reference to newspapers printed in this format. Some small-format papers with a high standard of journalism refer to themselves as compact newspapers. Larger newspapers, traditionally associated with higher-quality journalism, are called broadsheets if the newspaper is now printed on smaller pages; the word "tabloid" comes from the name given by the London-based pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome & Co. to the compressed tablets they marketed as "Tabloid" pills in the late 1880s. The connotation of tabloid was soon applied to other small compressed items. A 1902 item in London's Westminster Gazette noted, "The proprietor intends to give in tabloid form all the news printed by other journals." Thus "tabloid journalism" in 1901 meant a paper that condensed stories into a simplified absorbed format.
The term preceded the 1918 reference to smaller sheet newspapers that contained the condensed stories. Tabloid newspapers in the United Kingdom, vary in their target market, political alignment, editorial style, circulation. Thus, various terms have been coined to describe the subtypes of this versatile paper format. There are, two main types of tabloid newspaper: red top and compact; the distinction is of editorial style. Red top tabloids are so named due to their tendency, in British and Commonwealth usage, to have their mastheads printed in red ink. Red top tabloids, named after their distinguishing red mastheads, employ a form of writing known as tabloid journalism. Celebrity gossip columns which appear in red top tabloids and focus on their sexual practices, misuse of narcotics, the private aspects of their lives border on, sometimes cross the line of defamation. Red tops tend to be written with a straightforward vocabulary and grammar; the writing style of red top tabloids is accused of sensationalism.
In the extreme case, red top tabloids have been accused of lying or misrepresenting the truth to increase circulation. Examples of British red top newspapers include the Daily Star and the Daily Mirror. In contrast to red-top tabloids, compacts use an editorial style more associated with broadsheet newspapers. In fact, most compact tabloids used the broadsheet paper size, but changed to accommodate reading in tight spaces, such as on a crowded commuter bus or train; the term compact was coined in the 1970s by the Daily Mail, one of the earlier newspapers to make the change, although it now once again calls itself a tabloid. The purpose behind this was to avoid the association of the word tabloid with the flamboyant, salacious editorial style of the red top newspaper; the early converts from broadsheet format made the change in the 1970s. In 2003, The Independent made the change for the same reasons followed by The Scotsman and The Times. On the other hand, The Morning Star had always used the tabloid size, but stands in contrast to both the red top papers and the former broadsheets.
Compact tabloids, just like broadsheet- and Berliner-format newspapers, span the political spectrum from progressive to conservative and from capitalist to socialist. In Morocco, Maroc Soir, launched in November 2005, is published in tabloid format. In South Africa, the Bloemfontein-based daily newspaper Volksblad became the first serious broadsheet newspaper to switch to tabloid, but only on Saturdays. Despite the format proving to be popular with its readers, the newspaper remains broadsheet on weekdays; this is true of Pietermaritzburg's daily, The Witness in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. The Daily Sun, published by Naspers, has since become South Africa's biggest-selling daily newspaper and is aimed at the black working class, it sells over 500,000 copies per day, reaching 3,000,000 readers. Besides offering a sometimes satirical view of the seriousness of mainstream news, the Daily Sun covers fringe theories and paranormal claims such as tokoloshes, ancestral visions and all things supernatural.
It is published as the Sunday Sun. In Bangladesh, The Daily Manabzamin became the first and is now the largest circulated Bengali language tabloid in the world, in 1998. Published from Bangladesh, by renowned news presenter Mahbuba Chowdhury, the Daily Manab Zamin is ranked in the Top 500 newspaper websites, in the Top 10 Bengali news site categories in the world, is the only newspaper in Bangladesh which houses credentials with FIFA, UEFA, The Football Association, Warner Bros. A
Peterborough is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, with a population of 196,640 in 2015. Part of Northamptonshire, it is 75 miles north of London, on the River Nene which flows into the North Sea 30 miles to the north-east; the railway station is an important stop on the East Coast Main Line between Edinburgh. The city is 70 miles east of Birmingham, 38 miles east of Leicester, 81 miles south of Kingston upon Hull and 65 miles west of Norwich; the local topography is flat, in some places the land lies below sea level, for example in parts of the Fens to the east of Peterborough. Human settlement in the area began before the Bronze Age, as can be seen at the Flag Fen archaeological site to the east of the current city centre with evidence of Roman occupation; the Anglo-Saxon period saw the establishment of a monastery, which became Peterborough Cathedral. The population grew after the railways arrived in the 19th century, Peterborough became an industrial centre noted for its brick manufacture.
After the Second World War, growth was limited until designation as a New Town in the 1960s. Housing and population are expanding and a £1 billion regeneration of the city centre and surrounding area is under way; as in much of the United Kingdom, industrial employment has fallen, with a significant proportion of new jobs in financial services and distribution. EtymologyThe town's name changed to Burgh from the late tenth century after Abbot Kenulf had built a defensive wall around the abbey, developed into the form Peterborough; the contrasting form Gildenburgh is found in the 12th century history of the abbey, the Peterborough version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and in a history of the abbey by the monk Hugh Candidus. Present-day Peterborough is the latest in a series of settlements which have at one time or other benefited from its site where the Nene leaves large areas of permanently drained land for the fens. Remains of Bronze Age settlement and what is thought to be religious activity can be seen at the Flag Fen archaeological site to the east of the city centre.
The Romans established a fortified garrison town at Durobrivae on Ermine Street, five miles to the west in Water Newton, around the middle of the 1st century AD. Durobrivae's earliest appearance among surviving records is in the Antonine Itinerary of the late 2nd century. There was a large 1st century Roman fort at Longthorpe, designed to house half a legion, or about 3,000 soldiers. Peterborough was an important area of ceramic production in the Roman period, providing Nene Valley Ware, traded as far away as Cornwall and the Antonine Wall, Caledonia. Peterborough is shown by its original name Medeshamstede to have been an Anglian settlement before AD 655, when Sexwulf founded a monastery on land granted to him for that purpose by Peada of Mercia, who converted to Christianity and was ruler of the smaller Middle Angles sub-group, his brother Wulfhere murdered his own sons converted and finished the monastery by way of atonement. Hereward the Wake rampaged through the town in 1069 or 1070. Outraged, Abbot Turold erected a fort or castle, from his name, was called Mont Turold: this mound, or hill, is on the outside of the deanery garden, now called Tout Hill, although in 1848 Tot-hill or Toot Hill.
The abbey church was rebuilt and enlarged in the 12th century. The Peterborough Chronicle, a version of the Anglo-Saxon one, contains unique information about the history of England after the Norman conquest, written here by monks in the 12th century; this is the only known prose history in English between the conquest and the 14th century. The burgesses received their first charter from "Abbot Robert" – Robert of Sutton; the place suffered materially in the war between King John and the confederate barons, many of whom took refuge in the monastery here and in Crowland Abbey, from which sanctuaries they were forced by the king's soldiers, who plundered the religious houses and carried off great treasures. The abbey church became one of Henry VIII's retained, more secular, cathedrals in 1541, having been assessed at the Dissolution as having revenue of £1,972.7s.0¾d per annum. When civil war broke out, Peterborough was divided between supporters of King Charles I and the Long Parliament; the city lay on the border of the Eastern Association of counties which sided with Parliament, the war reached Peterborough in 1643 when soldiers arrived in the city to attack Royalist strongholds at Stamford and Crowland.
The Royalist forces were defeated within a few weeks and retreated to Burghley House, where they were captured and sent to Cambridge. While the Parliamentary soldiers were in Peterborough, they ransacked the cathedral, destroying the Lady Chapel, chapter house, high altar and choir stalls, as well as mediaeval decoration and records. Housing and sanitary improvements were effected under the provisions of an Act of Parliament passed in 1790. After the dissolution the dean and chapter, who succeeded the abbot as lords of the manor, appointed a high bailiff and the constables and other borough officers were elected at their court leet. Among the privileges claimed by the abbot as early as the 13th century was that of ha
The Argus Leader is the daily newspaper of Sioux Falls, South Dakota. It is part of the USA TODAY Network, it is South Dakota's largest newspaper by circulation. The Argus Leader is South Dakota's largest newspaper in circulation; the weekday circulation for the newspaper was 23,721 as of October, 2017. The Sunday edition has a circulation of 32,981 as of October, 2017; the associated website, ArgusLeader.com boasts most traffic and unique visitors in its market, according to Comscore.com's data. Along with the daily newspaper the Argus Leader owns smaller local papers in the region. Brandon Valley Challenger Dell Rapids TribuneThe newspaper publishes an economic weekly, the Sioux Falls Business Journal, a handful of magazines. List of newspapers in South Dakota Wikitorial Argus Leader website Official mobile website Brandon Valley Challenger Dell Rapids Tribune Sioux Falls Business Journal
Newsquest Media Group Ltd. is the second largest publisher of regional and local newspapers in the United Kingdom. It has 205 brands across the UK, publishing online and in print and reaches 28 million visitors a month online and 6.5 million readers a week in print. Based in London, Newsquest employs a total of more than 5,500 people across the UK, it has a specialist arm that publishes both commercial and business-to-business titles such as Insurance Times, The Strad, Boxing News. Newsquest was founded in 1995 when US private equity partnership Kohlberg Kravis Roberts financed a £210 million management buy-out of the Reed Regional Newspapers group of British papers from Reed Elsevier. In 1996 Newsquest swapped its Yorkshire titles for Johnston Press’s Bury, Lancashire area titles and £9.25 million, sold some of its titles in the English Midlands to Midland Independent Newspapers and bought the Westminster Press local newspapers group for £12.3 million from Pearson, owner of Penguin Books and the Financial Times, resulting in Newsquest doubling in size.
The next year it floated on the London Stock Exchange realising a market capitalisation of £500 million. In 1998, Newsquest added the Sussex-based Contact-a-Car, the London Property Weekly titles, two titles in the North West of England, three Review Group titles in Hertfordshire. In 1999, The US Gannett media group's newly formed UK subsidiary paid £922 million for Newsquest and took on the company’s debt. In 2000, Gannett paid £525 million for Southampton-based News Communications and Media’s South Coast dailies and weeklies – and its Southernprint magazine printing division – to add to Newsquest’s portfolio, it picked up the regional newspapers business – outside Manchester – of the Guardian Media Group, a takeover that the Competition Commission cleared as there was'no overlap, in the companies' circulation areas. In 2001, Newsquest bought Surrey and Sussex Publishing and Horley Publishing, publishers of Gatwick Life and Horley Life and the Dimbleby Newspaper Group’s nine Greater London weeklies, including the Richmond and Twickenham Times for a reported £8 million.
In 2003, Gannett UK paid £216 million for the Scottish Media Group’s three newspapers – Glasgow’s Herald, Sunday Herald and Evening Times – 11 specialist consumer and business-to-business magazines and an online advertising and content business. The Competition Commission again cleared it. In 2005, Newsquest’s Exchange Enterprises division paid £50.25 million for Exchange and Mart and Auto Exchange from United Advertising Publications after the small ads weeklies' publisher's parent, United Business Media, decided to concentrate on its'core activities'. Newsquest owned the named Brentford and Isleworth Times known as the Hounslow and Brentford Times, which closed in 2010. On 11 December 2006, Gannett denied having plans to sell Newsquest, contradicting a story in the previous day's Sunday Express that claimed the media giant was carrying out a company review with the Credit Suisse investment bank, could sell Newsquest for up to £1.5bn. Gannett had replied by saying: "There is no truth in the report.
Newsquest is a valuable part of the Gannett company."On 2 July 2007, in his blog on The Guardian’s website, media analyst Roy Greenslade revealed the content of a Newsquest company memo which acknowledged that its staff pension scheme was £65 million in deficit. Members of the company’s workforce were given the options of increasing their contributions to keep the same final salary scheme, paying in less for an inferior version, opting for a ‘money purchase’ scheme; the company’s US parent Gannett had on 18 June reported that revenues from its newspapers and broadcasting had fallen – but, the US press release said: ‘Newsquest experienced higher national advertising revenue’. It was "hardly a picture of a company suffering from commented Greenslade. On 8 August 2007 Newsquest started offering users of its Greater London titles' websites downloadable supermarket coupons, which could be redeemed at supermarkets including Tesco, Sainsbury’s and Morrisons for money off a range of goods from cranberry products to canned pet food.
Newsquest’s regional digital and display manager Eddie Embleton was "very excited by the prospects that this new initiative presenusers An online and offline campaign has been prepared to drive our readers and users directly to the appropriate coupon galleries, with the print element aimed at driving traffic to our website and turning our readers into users." The company hoped to "launch the gallery across the whole of the Newsquest network", the press release added. In March 2012, The Guardian reported the results of an indicative ballot held by the National Union of Journalists among its members at Newsquest, which found that more than 80% were prepared to strike if they were not given a pay rise within the year. In April 2014, following CEO/Chairman Paul Davidson's retirement, Henry Faure Walker was appointed CEO at Newsquest. In November 2014 began publication of The National, a Scottish daily newspaper that support Scottish independence. On 26 May 2015, Newsquest announced that it had acquired Romanes Media Group, a local news publishing business operating in Scotland and Northern Ireland, for an undisclosed sum.
The Romanes newspaper portfolio comprises one daily, 19 weekly paid-fors and nine weekly frees, associated websites, the company employs 270 staff. On 28 April 2016, Newsquest announced that the latest comScore figures showed that users spend more time per month on Newsquest sites than any other regional press group. Newsquest has a digital audience of 28 million un
Abilene Reporter-News is a daily newspaper based in Abilene, Texas, USA. The newspaper started publishing as the weekly Abilene Reporter, helmed by Charles Edwin Gilbert on June 17, 1881, just three months after Abilene was founded, it is hence the oldest continuous business in the city. It became a daily newspaper in 1885. Two months after starting the paper, a fire destroyed several buildings in Abilene, including Gilbert's office, he rode the train 21 miles east to Baird and used a borrowed printing press to produce an extra edition on the fire. Two other Abilene papers began publication in the 1880s; the newspaper, owned in the early 1920s by Bernard Hanks, became one of the two original flagships of the Harte-Hanks newspaper chain in 1924. In 1937, the company merged its morning paper,The Morning News, with the afternoon Daily Reporter to form the Abilene Reporter-News; the newspaper published evening editions into the 1950s. The E. W. Scripps Company bought the newspaper, along with other Texas-based Harte-Hanks papers, in 1997.
The company spun out its newspaper assets into Journal Media Group in April 2015