Davis is a city in the U. S. state of California and the most populous city in Yolo County. It had a population of 65,622 in 2010, not including the population of the University of California, Davis. The city is a suburb of Californias capital, Davis grew into a Southern Pacific Railroad depot built in 1868. It was known as Davisville, named after Jerome C, the post office at Davisville shortened the town name simply to Davis in 1907. The name stuck, and the city of Davis was incorporated on March 28,1917, from its inception as a farming community, Davis has been known for its contributions to agricultural policy along with veterinary care and animal husbandry. The farm, renamed the Northern Branch of the College of Agriculture in 1922, was upgraded into the seventh UC general campus, the University of California, Davis, in 1959. Davis is located in Yolo County, California,11 mi west of Sacramento,70 mi northeast of San Francisco,385 mi north of Los Angeles, at the intersection of Interstate 80, neighboring towns include Dixon and Woodland.
Davis lies in the Sacramento Valley, the portion of the Central San Joaquin Valley, in Northern California. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 10.5 square miles. 10.4 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water, the topography is flat, which has helped Davis to become known as a haven for bicyclists. The Davis climate resembles that of nearby Sacramento and is typical of Californias Central Valley Mediterranean climate regime, hot summers and cool, rainy and it is classified as a Köppen Csa climate. Average temperatures range from 46 °F in December and January to 75 °F in July, thick ground fog called tule fog settles into Davis during late fall and winter. This fog can be dense with visibility to nearly zero, as in other areas of northern California, the tule fog is a leading cause of road accidents in the winter season. Record temperatures range from a high of 116 °F on July 17,1925, Davis is internally divided by two freeways, a north–south railroad, an east-west mainline and several major streets.
The city is divided into six main districts made up of smaller neighborhoods, Central Davis, north of Fifth Street and Russell Boulevard. East of SR113, and west of the tracks running along G Street. Within these boundaries is the officially denoted neighborhood of Old North Davis, Downtown Davis, roughly the numbered-and-lettered grid north of I-80, south of Fifth Street, east of A Street, and west of the railroad tracks, including the Aggie Village and Olive Drive areas. East Davis, north of I-80, south of Covell Blvd. North Davis, north of Covell Blvd
Bureau of Land Management
President Harry S. Truman created the BLM in 1946 by combining two existing agencies, the General Land Office and the Grazing Service. Most BLM public lands are located in these 12 western states, Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. The mission of the BLM is to sustain the health, originally BLM holdings were described as land nobody wanted because homesteaders had passed them by. All the same, ranchers hold nearly 18,000 permits, the agency manages 221 wilderness areas,23 national monuments and some 636 other protected areas as part of the National Landscape Conservation System totaling about 30 million acres. There are more than 63,000 oil and gas wells on BLM public lands, total energy leases generated approximately $5.4 billion in 2013, an amount divided among the Treasury, the states, and Native American groups. The BLMs roots go back to the Land Ordinance of 1785 and these laws provided for the survey and settlement of the lands that the original 13 colonies ceded to the federal government after the American Revolution.
As additional lands were acquired by the United States from Spain and other countries, the United States Congress directed that they be explored, during the Revolutionary War, military bounty land was promised to soldiers who fought for the colonies. After the war, the Treaty of Paris of 1783, signed by the United States, France, in the 1780s, other states relinquished their own claims to land in modern-day Ohio. By this time, the United States needed revenue to function, Land was sold so that the government would have money to survive. In order to sell the land, surveys needed to be conducted, the Land Ordinance of 1785 instructed a geographer to oversee this work as undertaken by a group of surveyors. The first years of surveying were completed by trial and error, once the territory of Ohio had been surveyed, in 1812, Congress established the General Land Office as part of the Department of the Treasury to oversee the disposition of these federal lands. By the early 1800s, promised bounty land claims were finally fulfilled, over the years, other bounty land and homestead laws were enacted to dispose of federal land.
Several different types of patents existed and these include cash entry, homestead, military warrants, mineral certificates, private land claims, state selections, town sites, and town lots. A system of land offices spread throughout the territories, patenting land that was surveyed via the corresponding Office of the Surveyor General of a particular territory. This pattern gradually spread across the entire United States, the laws that spurred this system with the exception of the General Mining Law of 1872 and the Desert Land Act of 1877 have since been repealed or superseded. The Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 allowed leasing and production of selected commodities, such as coal, gas, the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 established the United States Grazing Service to manage the public rangelands by establishment of advisory boards that set grazing fees. The Oregon and California Revested Lands Sustained Yield Management Act of 1937, commonly referred as the O&C Act, in 1946, the Grazing Service was merged with the General Land Office to form the Bureau of Land Management within the Department of the Interior.
It took several years for new agency to integrate and reorganize
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from 2009 to 2017. He is the first African American to have served as president and he previously served in the U. S. Senate representing Illinois from 2005 to 2008, and in the Illinois State Senate from 1997 to 2004. Obama was born in Honolulu, two years after the territory was admitted to the Union as the 50th state and he grew up mostly in Hawaii, but spent one year of his childhood in Washington State and four years in Indonesia. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago, in 1988 Obama enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduation, he became a civil rights attorney and professor, Obama represented the 13th District for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004, when he ran for the U. S. Senate. In 2008, Obama was nominated for president, a year after his campaign began and he was elected over Republican John McCain, and was inaugurated on January 20,2009.
Nine months later, Obama was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate, during his first two years in office, Obama signed more landmark legislation than any Democratic president since LBJs Great Society. Main reforms were the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, after a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, Obama signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, Obama increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the U. S. -Russian New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi, after winning re-election over Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. Obama advocated gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, Obama ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, Obama left office in January 2017 with a 60% approval rating.
He currently resides in Washington, D. C and his presidential library will be built in Chicago. Obama was born on August 4,1961, at Kapiʻolani Maternity & Gynecological Hospital in Honolulu and he is the only President to have been born in Hawaii. He was born to a mother and a black father. His mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Wichita, Kansas, of mostly English descent, with some German, Scottish and his father, Barack Obama Sr. was a married Luo Kenyan man from Nyangoma Kogelo. Obamas parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, the couple married in Wailuku, Hawaii on February 2,1961, six months before Obama was born. In late August 1961, Obamas mother moved him to the University of Washington in Seattle for a year
The fisher is a small carnivorous mammal native to North America. It is a member of the family and a part of the marten genus. The fisher is closely related to but larger than the American marten, the fisher is a forest-dwelling creature whose range covers much of the boreal forest in Canada to the northern United States. Names derived from aboriginal languages include pekan, wejack and it is called a fisher cat, although it is not a feline. Adult males are 90 to 120 cm long and weigh 3.5 to 6 kilograms, adult females are 75 to 95 cm long and weigh 2 to 2.5 kg. The fur of the fisher varies seasonally, being denser and glossier in the winter, during the summer, the color becomes more mottled, as the fur goes through a moulting cycle. The fisher prefers to hunt in full forest, though an agile climber, it spends most of its time on the forest floor, where it prefers to forage around fallen trees. An omnivore, the fisher feeds on a variety of small animals and occasionally on fruits. It prefers the snowshoe hare and is one of the few able to prey successfully on porcupines.
Despite its common name, the fisher seldom eats fish, the reproductive cycle of the fisher lasts almost a year. Female fishers give birth to a litter of three or four kits in the spring and they nurse and care for their kits until late summer, when they are old enough to set out on their own. Females enter estrus shortly after giving birth and leave the den to find a mate, implantation of the blastocyst is delayed until the following spring, when they give birth and the cycle is renewed. Fishers have few predators besides humans and they have been trapped since the 18th century for their fur. Their pelts were in demand that they were extirpated from several parts of the United States in the early part of the 20th century. Conservation and protection measures have allowed the species to rebound, in the 1920s, when pelt prices were high, some fur farmers attempted to raise fishers. However, their unusual delayed reproduction made breeding difficult, when pelt prices fell in the late 1940s, most fisher farming ended.
While fishers usually avoid human contact, encroachments into forest habitats have resulted in some conflicts, There are anecdotal reports of fishers attacking pets and, in a 2009 case in Rhode Island, a 6-year-old boy. In 2014, a 12-year-old boy was attacked by what was believed to be a fisher in Massachusetts, despite the name fisher, the animal is not known to eat fish
Solano County, California
Solano County is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 413,344, Solano County comprises the Vallejo-Fairfield, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. Solano County is the county in the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region. A portion of the South Campus at the University of California, Solano County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Chief Solano at one time led the tribes between the Petaluma River and the Sacramento River, the chief was called Sem-Yeto, which signifies brave or fierce hand. The Chief was given the Spanish name Francisco Solano during baptism at the Catholic Mission, Solano is a common surname in the north of Spain, especially in Navarra, Zaragoza and La Rioja. Travis Air Force Base is located just east of Fairfield, Solano County is the easternmost county of the North Bay. As such, it is reported by news agencies as being in the East Bay.
Additionally, a portion of the county extends into the Sacramento Valley, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 906 square miles, of which 822 square miles is land and 84 square miles is water. Service connects with BART stations in Contra Costa County, transit links are provided to Napa and Sacramento counties as well. Greyhound and Amtrak provide long-distance intercity service, general aviation airports in Solano County which are open to the public are the Nut Tree Airport and Rio Vista Municipal Airport. The following table includes the number of reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. The 2010 United States Census reported that Solano County had a population of 413,344. The racial makeup of Solano County was 210,751 White,60,750 African American,3,212 Native American,60,473 Asian,3,564 Pacific Islander,43,236 from other races, and 31,358 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 99,356 persons, at 52,641 Filipinos in the County making up 12% of the population, Solano County has the largest percentage Filipino population of any County in all of the United States.
As of the census of 2000, there were 394,542 people,130,403 households, the population density was 476 people per square mile. There were 134,513 housing units at a density of 162 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 56. 4% White,14. 9% Black or African American,0. 8% Native American,12. 8% Asian,0. 8% Pacific Islander,8. 0% from other races, and 6. 4% from two or more races
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times, commonly referred to as the Times or LA Times, is a paid daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It was the largest metropolitan newspaper in circulation in the United States in 2008, the Times is owned by tronc. The Times was first published on December 4,1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and it was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Unable to pay the bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. Mathes had joined the firm, and it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication, in July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the papers editor. Otis made the Times a financial success, in an era where newspapers were driven by party politics, the Times was directed at Republican readers. As was typical of newspapers of the time, the Times would sit on stories for several days, historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment.
Otiss editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles, the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1,1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people. Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged, the American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who eventually pleaded guilty. Upon Otiss death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios, the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980, Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his familys paper, often forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance.
He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nations most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times, believing that the newsroom was the heartbeat of the business, Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with the Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times-Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for news organizations. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined, eventually the coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies went public, or split apart, thats the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family. The papers early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big and it has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades.
In 2000, the Tribune Company acquired the Times, placing the paper in co-ownership with then-WB -affiliated KTLA, which Tribune acquired in 1985
Two forms of black-tailed deer or blacktail deer that occupy coastal woodlands in the Pacific Northwest are subspecies of the mule deer. They have sometimes been treated as a species, but virtually all recent authorities maintain they are subspecies, the Columbian black-tailed deer is found in western North America, from Northern California into the Pacific Northwest and coastal British Columbia. The Sitka deer is found coastally in British Columbia, Southeast Alaska, Black-tailed deer once lived at least as far east as Wyoming. The black-tailed deer is currently common in California, western Oregon, Washington, in coastal and interior British Columbia and it is a popular game animal. Though it has argued that the black-tailed deer is a species. Strictly speaking, the black-tailed deer group consists of two subspecies, as it includes O. h. sitkensis, the black-tailed deer group and the mule deer group hybridize and appear to have evolved from the black-tailed deer group. Despite this, the mtDNA of the deer and mule deer are similar.
This may be the result of introgression, although hybrids between the deer and white-tailed deer are rare in the wild, and the hybrid survival rate is low even in captivity. One of the plants that black-tailed deer browse is western poison oak and this deer often is most active at dawn and dusk, and is frequently involved in collisions with automobiles. During the winter and early spring, they feed on Douglas-fir, western red cedar, red huckleberry, deer fern, late spring to fall, they consume grasses, apples, pearly everlasting, salmonberry and maple. The mating or rutting season occurs during November and early December, bucks can be observed running back and forth across the roads in the pursuit of does. After the rut, the bucks tend to hide and rest and they suffer broken antlers, and have lost weight. They drop their antlers between January and March, antlers on the forest floor provide a source of calcium and other nutrients to other forest inhabitants. Bucks regrow their antlers beginning in April through to August, the gestation period for does is six to seven months, with fawns being born in late May and into June.
Twins are the rule, although young does often have only single fawns, fawns weigh 2.7 to 4 kilograms and have no scent for the first week or so. This enables the mother to leave the fawn hidden while she goes off to browse and she must eat enough to produce enough milk to feed her fawns. Although does are excellent mothers, fawn mortality rate is 45 to 70%, does are very protective of their young and humans are viewed as predators. Deer communicate with the aid of scent and pheromones from glands located on the lower legs
The tule elk is a subspecies of elk found only in California, ranging from the grasslands and marshlands of the Central Valley to the grassy hills on the coast. The subspecies name derives from the tule, a species of native to freshwater marshes on which the Tule elk feeds. When the Europeans first arrived, an estimated 500,000 tule elk roamed these regions, however, in 1874-1875 a single breeding pair was discovered in the tule marshes of Buena Vista Lake in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Conservation measures were taken to protect the species in the 1970s, the wild population exceeds 4,000. Considered the smallest of the wapiti in North America, the elk were the dominant large ungulate in California prior to the arrival of the Spanish. It is typically described as the smallest subspecies of all American elks, with the weight of adult males only 450 to 550 lb. California Department of Fish and Wildlife records show recent bull elk on Grizzly Island in Suisun Bay weigh up to 900 pounds and this is a similar size to Roosevelt elk bulls which weigh between 700 pounds and 1,100 pounds.
Wildlife biologist Dale McCullough described an elk transplanted from Buttonwillow in the San Joaquin Valley to a course in Monterey that grew to the size of a Rocky Mountain elk. The calves are similar to deer fawns, with brown coats, genetic studies based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA confirm that Tule elk, Roosevelt elk and Rocky Mountain elk should be considered distinct subspecies. Tibbet, or there were three surviving tule elk at the genetic bottleneck, the arrival of the Spanish in the late 18th century introduced cattle and horses to the grasslands of the Central Valley, competing with the native elk. Unrestricted hunting further reduced the herds, by the time elk hunting was banned by the State Legislature in 1873, the tule elk was believed to be extinct. California cattle baron Henry Miller protected tule elk after a pair was discovered on his ranch in the marshes near Buena Vista Lake by game warden A. C. Miller ordered his men to protect the elk and is credited for the survival of the subspecies, after his death, the huge Miller-Lux ranch was subdivided and the hunting of the elk resumed.
The population was reduced to 72 head, by 1895, habitat loss and poaching had reduced the elk population to only 28. In the years followed, the elk were transplanted 21 times. In 1933, rancher Walter Dow took a group of penned elk to his ranch in Owens Valley. Although not native habitat for the elk, they thrived, in the same year, the state put a small herd at Cache Creek. This herd has not fared well due to poor range conditions and this herd may have interbred with the Rocky Mountain elk which were introduced near Mount Shasta
Mendocino National Forest
The Mendocino National Forest is located in the Coastal Mountain Range in northwestern California and comprises 913,306 acres. It is the national forest in the state of California without a major paved road entering it. There are a variety of recreational opportunities — camping, mountain biking, backpacking, fishing, nature study, the forest lies in parts of six counties. In descending order of forestland area they are Lake, Mendocino, Trinity, Forest headquarters are located in Willows, California. There are local district offices in Covelo, Upper Lake. Rivers include, Eel River, Rice Fork Eel River, Middle Fork Eel River, Black Butte River, Lake Pillsbury is the largest recreational lake in the forest at 2,280 acres and offers boat ramps and resorts. Letts Lake, southeast of Lake Pillsbury is 35 acres in size and has hiking trails, another recreational spot is Crabtree Hot Springs. Other lakes include Plaskett Lakes in the middle of the forest, Hammerhorn, Square, in 1905 the U. S. Congress moved the reserves from the General Land Office in the Department of the Interior to the new Division of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture.
The Division of Forestry became the U. S. Forest Service, the development of the forest increased to 81 offices and guard stations until improvements in transportation and communications allowed some offices to be closed. Today there are three districts, with some of the former guard stations now being utilized as work centers that are primarily staffed by fire crews. Acquired by the Forest Service in 1974, it was originally a plant breeding research, the centers research gradually changed to developing and producing genetically improved plant material for the reforestation program of the Pacific Southwest Region. Major work is done in the areas of biological, the infamous Rattlesnake Fire occurred here in 1953. One Forest Service employee and 14 volunteer firefighters perished, the circumstances of the tragedy resulted in major changes in firefighting strategy and training. The firefighters are memorialized at the Rattlesnake Fire Memorial overlooking Rattlesnake Canyon, access to it can be found off of Forest Highway 7 on County Road 307/Alder Springs Road.
The Trough Fire burned almost 25,000 acres of the Mendocino National Forest in 2001 including land in the Snow Mountain Wilderness. The tule elk is one of the largest land mammals native to California, with cows weighing up to 350 pounds, and the largest bulls weighing roughly 500 pounds. The elk live on the shore of the lake at the bottom of Hull Mountain. Mendocino National Forest and Los Padres National Forest are the two national forests in California to have tule elk
The martens constitute the genus Martes within the subfamily Mustelinae, in the family Mustelidae. Martens are slender, agile animals, adapted to living in taigas and they have bushy tails, and large paws with partially retractible claws. The fur varies from yellowish to brown, depending on the species. Martens are omnivorous animals related to wolverines, badgers and their diet consists of squirrels, rabbits, fish and eggs, and they will eat fruit and nuts when these are available. Martens are solitary animals, meeting only to breed in spring or early summer. Litters of up to five blind and nearly hairless kits are born in early spring and they are weaned after around two months, and leave the mother to fend for themselves at about three to four months of age. The genus first evolved up to seven years ago during the Miocene epoch. During the fur trade, commissioned by the Hudson Bay Company in the 17th and 18th century, the marten is still traded locally. The locals place a value on this pelt, typically trading it for chips, pop.
In the Middle Ages, marten pelts were highly valued goods used as a form of payment in Slavonia, the Croatian Littoral, the banovac, a coin struck and used between 1235 and 1384, included the image of a marten. This is one of the reasons why the Croatian word for marten, a marten is depicted on the obverse of the 1-, 2-, and 5-kuna coins, minted since 1993, and on the reverse of the 25-kuna commemorative coins. A running marten is shown on the coat of arms of Slavonia, the official seal of the Croatian Sabor from 1497 until the late 18th century had a similar design. The Finnish communications company Nokia derives its name, via the river Nokianvirta, data related to Martes at Wikispecies Media related to Martes at Wikimedia Commons