A diary is a record with discrete entries arranged by date reporting on what has happened over the course of a day or other period. A personal diary may include a person's experiences, and/or feelings, excluding comments on current events outside the writer's direct experience. Someone who keeps a diary is known as a diarist. Diaries undertaken for institutional purposes play a role in many aspects of human civilization, including government records, business ledgers, military records. In British English, the word may denote a preprinted journal format. A diary is a collection of notes. Today the term is employed for personal diaries intended to remain private or to have a limited circulation amongst friends or relatives; the word "journal" may be sometimes used for "diary," but a diary has daily entries, whereas journal-writing can be less frequent. Although a diary may provide information for a memoir, autobiography or biography, it is written not with the intention of being published as it stands, but for the author's own use.
In recent years, there is internal evidence in some diaries that they are written with eventual publication in mind, with the intention of self-vindication, or for profit. By extension the term diary is used to mean a printed publication of a written diary; the word diary comes from the Latin diarium. The word journal comes from the same root through Old French jurnal; the earliest use of the word refers to a book in which a daily record was written was in Ben Jonson's comedy Volpone in 1605. The oldest extant diaries come from Middle Eastern and East Asian cultures, although the earlier work To Myself, today known as the Meditations, written in Greek by the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius in the second half of the 2nd century AD displays many characteristics of a diary. Pillowbooks of Japanese court ladies and Asian travel journals offer some aspects of this genre of writing, although they consist of diurnal records; the scholar Li Ao, for example, kept a diary of his journey through southern China.
In the medieval Near East, Arabic diaries were written from before the 10th century. The earliest surviving diary of this era which most resembles the modern diary was that of Ibn Banna' in the 11th century, his diary is the earliest known to be arranged in order of date much like modern diaries. The precursors of the diary in the modern sense include daily notes of medieval mystics, concerned with inward emotions and outward events perceived as spiritually important. From the Renaissance on, some individuals wanted not only to record events, as in medieval chronicles and itineraries, but to put down their own opinions and express their hopes and fears, without any intention to publish these notes. One of the early preserved examples is the anonymous Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris that covers the years 1405–49, giving subjective commentaries on the current events. Famous 14th- to 16th-century Renaissance examples, which appeared much as books, were the diaries by the Florentines Buonaccorso Pitti and Gregorio Dati and the Venetian Marino Sanuto the Younger.
Here we find records of less important everyday occurrences together with much reflection, emotional experience and personal impressions. In 1908 the Smythson company created the first featherweight diary, enabling diaries to be carried about. Many diaries of notable figures have been published and form an important element of autobiographical literature. Samuel Pepys is the earliest diarist, well known today. Pepys was amongst the first who took the diary beyond mere business transaction notation, into the realm of the personal. Pepys' contemporary John Evelyn kept a notable diary, their works are among the most important primary sources for the English Restoration period, consist of eyewitness accounts of many great events, such as the Great Plague of London, the Great Fire of London; the practice of posthumous publication of diaries of literary and other notables began in the 19th century. As examples, the Grasmere Journal of Dorothy Wordsworth was published in 1897. Among important U. S. Civil War diaries are those of George Templeton Strong, a New York City lawyer, Mary Chesnut, the wife of a Confederate officer.
The diary of Jemima Condict, living in the area of what is now West Orange, New Jersey, includes local observations of the American Revolutionary War. Since the 19th century the publication of diaries by their authors has become commonplace – notably amongst politicians seeking justification but amongst artists and litterateurs of all descriptions. Amongst late 20th-century British published political diaries, those of Richard Crossman, Tony Benn and Alan Clark are representative, the latter being more indiscreet in the tradition of the diaries of Chips Channon. In Britain in the field of the arts notable diaries were published by James Lees-Milne, Roy Strong and Peter Hall. Harold Nicolson in the mid-20th century covered the arts. One of the m
Education in Sweden
Education in Sweden is mandatory for children between ages 6 and 15. The school year in Sweden runs from mid/late August to early/mid June; the Christmas holiday from mid December to early January divides the Swedish school year into two terms. From the age of one, children can be admitted to preschool. Preschool is free for poorer families and subsidized for everyone else; the year children turn six they start the compulsory preschool class, which act as a transition phase between preschool and comprehensive schools. Children between ages 7 and 15 attend comprehensive school where a wide range of subjects are studied. All students study the same subjects, with exception for different language choices; the majority of schools in Sweden are municipally run, but there are autonomous and publicly funded schools, known as independent schools. All students continue studying in 3 year long upper secondary schools where most students choose one out of 16 national programmes some of which are vocational and some preparatory.
For students not fulfilling the requirements for the national programmes introductory programmes are available where students work to satisfy the requirements for the national programmes. In 2018, 16% of students finishing year 9 of comprehensive school were not eligible for national programmes; the higher education system is compatible with the rest of Europe through the Bolonga Process where degrees are divided into 3 cycles, basic level, advanced level and doctoral level. There are two degrees available in each cycle of different lengths. Universities have no tuition fees and student aid is available from the government. In 1842, the Swedish parliament introduced ndash. In 1882 two grades were added to "folkskola", grade 5 and 6; some "folkskola" had grade 7 and 8, called "Fortsättningsskola". Schooling in Sweden became mandatory for 7 years in the 1930s and for 8 years in the 1950s. In 1962 the current grundskola was introduced with Swedish children having 9 mandatory years in school – from August the year the child turns 7 to June the year the child turns 16.
The 1962 curriculum included two different study paths vocational and preparatory, this was however abolished in the 1969 revision. In 1980 came another major revision increasing the emphasize on the theoretical subjects. In 1994 the grading system was changed and in the latest revision from 2011 the grading system was changed yet again this time introducing grades from year 6. In 1905 realskolan was introduced for students wanting to continue studying after folkskolan it had varying length between 3 and 6 years. In 1968 gymnasieskolan was introduced with a similar structure to the current version. 22 different programmes some of which were vocational and some preparatory. These programmes lasted from between 2 and 4 years something, changed in 1991 making all programmes 3 years long. Preschool is offered to all children who's parents are working, unemployed or on parental leave from the age of one. From the age of 3, all children are eligible for at least 3 hours of preschool every day for free.
For children being at preschool for more than 3 hours a day or under 3 years of age the municipality sets the fee. All municipalities use a system. Poorer families get a free preschool education, it is intended to free up parents to work, establishing a foundation for children going into the comprehensive school and promote fundamental values such as the equal value of all people. This is achieved through pedagogical activities prepared by preschool teachers involving things such as play and drawing; the preschool teachers should incorporate multiple educational moments each day. The educational system in Sweden is based on a nine-year long comprehensive school, with mandatory attendance between 7 and 15 years of age. In the Swedish compulsory school each student take 16 compulsory subjects which are, sorted by time allocated: Swedish, Physical Education, Handicrafts, Visual arts, Physics, Biology, Social Studies, Religion and Home Economics. All of these subjects are taken in all three school stages, lower stage, middle stage, upper stage.
In sixth grade students can choose a non-compulsory foreign language course. Over 85% of grade 9 students studied a third language in 2017. All schools have to offer 2 of the languages Spanish and German. Many schools offer additional help in English and Swedish instead of the language course. Taking the language course can improve the students final grade score and for some more competitive Upper Secondary Schools be required. There is a compulsory, non-graded Student's Choice subject where the student can choose from various activities facilitated by the school. Student's Choice has been criticized for being a bad use of the students and teachers time. In Sweden students start receiving grades from year 6 with proposals of changing it to year 4. Before grade 6 students receive an Individual Development Plan containing the teachers assessment of the students knowledge. Students have regular development talks with their teachers discussing how to improve based on their IUP and grades; the grading system in compulsory school uses the grades A, B, C, D, E as passing grades and F as failing.
B and D work as filling grades, for when a student hasn't reached all objectives for C or A but has reached most of them. If the student can't be graded, e.g. extensive truancy, the student will receive a dash instead of an F. A dash is not considered a grade. If a student is
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden, fifth-largest in the Nordic countries, capital of the Västra Götaland County. It is situated by Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, has a population of 570,000 in the city center and about 1 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area. Gothenburg was founded as a fortified Dutch, trading colony, by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. In addition to the generous privileges given to his Dutch allies from the then-ongoing Thirty Years' War, the king attracted significant numbers of his German and Scottish allies to populate his only town on the western coast. At a key strategic location at the mouth of the Göta älv, where Scandinavia's largest drainage basin enters the sea, the Port of Gothenburg is now the largest port in the Nordic countries. Gothenburg is home to many students, as the city includes the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology. Volvo was founded in Gothenburg in 1927; the original parent Volvo Group and the now separate Volvo Car Corporation are still headquartered on the island of Hisingen in the city.
Other key companies are Astra Zeneca. Gothenburg is served by Göteborg Landvetter Airport 30 km southeast of the city center; the smaller Göteborg City Airport, 15 km from the city center, was closed to regular airline traffic in 2015. The city hosts the Gothia Cup, the world's largest youth football tournament, alongside some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia; the Gothenburg Film Festival, held in January since 1979, is the leading Scandinavian film festival with over 155,000 visitors each year. In summer, a wide variety of music festivals are held in the city, including the popular Way Out West Festival; the city was named Göteborg in the city's charter in 1621 and given the German and English name Gothenburg. The Swedish name was given after the Göta älv, called Göta River in English, other cities ending in -borg. Both the Swedish and German/English names were in use before 1621 and had been used for the previous city founded in 1604 and burned down in 1611. Gothenburg is one of few Swedish cities to still have an official and used exonym.
Another example is the province of Scania in southern Sweden. The city council of 1641 consisted of four Swedish, three Dutch, three German, two Scottish members. In Dutch, Scots and German, all languages with a long history in this trade and maritime-oriented city, the name Gothenburg is or was used for the city. Variations of the official German/English name Gothenburg in the city's 1621 charter existed or exist in many languages; the French form of the city name is Gothembourg, but in French texts, the Swedish name Göteborg is more frequent. "Gothenburg" can be seen in some older English texts. In Spanish and Portuguese the city is called Gotemburgo; these traditional forms are sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish Göteborg, for example by The Göteborg Opera and the Göteborg Ballet. However, Göteborgs universitet designated as the Göteborg University in English, changed its name to the University of Gothenburg in 2008; the Gothenburg municipality has reverted to the use of the English name in international contexts.
In 2009, the city council launched a new logotype for Gothenburg. Since the name "Göteborg" contains the Swedish letter "ö" the idea was to make the name more international and up to date by "turning" the "ö" sideways; as of 2015, the name is spelled "Go:teborg" on a large number of signs in the city. In the early modern period, the configuration of Sweden's borders made Gothenburg strategically critical as the only Swedish gateway to the North Sea and Atlantic, situated on the west coast in a narrow strip of Swedish territory between Danish Halland in the south and Norwegian Bohuslän in the north. After several failed attempts, Gothenburg was founded in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus; the site of the first church built in Gothenburg, subsequently destroyed by Danish invaders, is marked by a stone near the north end of the Älvsborg Bridge in the Färjenäs Park. The church was built in 1603 and destroyed in 1611; the city was influenced by the Dutch and Scots, Dutch planners and engineers were contracted to construct the city as they had the skills needed to drain and build in the marshy areas chosen for the city.
The town was designed like Dutch cities such as Amsterdam and New Amsterdam. The planning of the streets and canals of Gothenburg resembled that of Jakarta, built by the Dutch around the same time; the Dutchmen won political power, it was not until 1652, when the last Dutch politician in the city's council died, that Swedes acquired political power over Gothenburg. During the Dutch period, the town followed Dutch town laws and Dutch was proposed as the official language in the town. Robust city walls were built during the 17th century. In 1807, a decision was made to tear down most of the city's wall; the work started in 1810, was carried out by 150 soldiers from the Bohus regiment. Along with the Dutch, the town was influenced by Scots who settled down in Gothenburg. Many became people of high-profile. William Chalmers, the son of a Scottish immigrant, donated his fortunes to set up what became the Chalmers University of Technology. In 1841, the Scotsman Alexander Keiller founded the Götaverken shipbuilding company, in business until 1989.
His son James Keiller donated Keiller Park to the city in 1906. The Gothenburg coat of arms was based on the lion of the coat of arms of Sweden, symbolically holding a shield w
Öreskoga is a fictional town in Sweden, where most of the Bert-diaries take place. Bert Ljung lives in Öreskoga, at Klosterstigen 18. In the books, he lives in a three floors high house with six flats, while he in the TV series live in a high-rise apartment building, similar to those in Hagalund; the name Öreskoga is a portmanteau of the hometowns of the authors of the Bert-diaries - Sören Olsson's hometown, Örebro, Anders Jacobsson's hometown, Karlskoga. Öreskoga is located somewhere between Karlskoga-Örebro. Outside Öreskoga is the lake of Nöckeln, where Bert and his friends are swimming and bathing in the summertime; the cover of the book Bert och badbrudarna depicts Bert swimming in the lake. Öreskoga has a town park, where Bert and Nadja meet below the old oak at the end of Berts dagbok, where Bert and Emilia walk together in the summertime in Berts bravader. It's not mentioned in which municipality Öreskoga is, but Berts vidare betraktelser and Berts bravader refer to local government official "Svante Brylén".
Berts bryderier refers to a newspaper named Öreskogas Allehanda. Beckaskolan is a school with the grade levels 1-9 where his class friends are; the comics depicts a try squared schoolhouse. The 1994 TV-series shows the "mellanstadium" and "högstadium". Someone has written "bögstadium" at the front door. In the books, class 6 B, Bert's class, has 15 pupils. Klass 6 from Östbergsskolan, consisting of 14 pupils, is merged with Bert's from the 7th grade; the class is 7-9 A. In Berts bekymmer, the school is appointed the school in Sweden. "Banan-Boris", Bert's högstadium chemistry Malte, Henrik Strutz, head teacher Sonja Ek, Berts' mellanstadium teacher Jungbergska skolan is a mellanstadium school, Gabriella's school, some kilometers away from Bert's hem. In Berts bekännelser Bert, in the 8th grade, travels there by moped to meet Gabriella who's in the 6th grade, he is disguissed as a substitute. From the 7th grade she switches to Beckaskolan. Jungbergska skolan is a 1-6-school, Nadja's school. In Berts första betraktelser, a disco occurs at the school.
In the TV series a violin concerto occurs at the school. From the 7th grade, Nadja switches to Beckaskolan. Österbergsskolan is the school for the pupbils. In Öreskoga is the sports club Öreskoga-Kamraternas Idrottsförening, where Bert plays soccer, the name is mentioned in Bert och brorsorna; the boys' team is led by soccer manager Gordon. Berts vidare betraktelser depicts the team playing "Böljas BK". In Berts bravader, Åke recruits 9 year old Charlie to the 14 yer old's team. In Berts bekännelser, it's mentioned how the team fought with the spectators in the first game of an important regional tournament during the previous year, was suspended for several months; this makes Åke angry, he steals referee's clothes from a dressing room, judge a girls game using rugby football rules before facing a black eye in the paus. In Öreskoga is Öreskoga Ishockeyklubb, which Åke blames for racism not touching the "black puck" in Berts ytterligare betraktelser, in Berts bryderier they play Bollehult. Glimmerdagg, the main setting for the Sune series
Table tennis known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using small rackets. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. Except for the initial serve, the rules are as follows: players must allow a ball played toward them to bounce one time on their side of the table, must return it so that it bounces on the opposite side at least once. A point is scored. Play demands quick reactions. Spinning the ball alters its trajectory and limits an opponent's options, giving the hitter a great advantage. Table tennis is governed by the worldwide organization International Table Tennis Federation, founded in 1926. ITTF includes 226 member associations; the table tennis official rules are specified in the ITTF handbook. Table tennis has been an Olympic sport since 1988, with several event categories. From 1988 until 2004, these were women's singles, men's doubles and women's doubles. Since 2008, a team event has been played instead of the doubles.
The sport originated in Victorian England, where it was played among the upper-class as an after-dinner parlour game. It has been suggested that makeshift versions of the game were developed by British military officers in India in around 1860s or 1870s, who brought it back with them. A row of books stood up along the center of the table as a net, two more books served as rackets and were used to continuously hit a golf-ball; the name "ping-pong" was in wide use before British manufacturer J. Jaques & Son Ltd trademarked it in 1901; the name "ping-pong" came to describe the game played using the rather expensive Jaques's equipment, with other manufacturers calling it table tennis. A similar situation arose in the United States, where Jaques sold the rights to the "ping-pong" name to Parker Brothers. Parker Brothers enforced its trademark for the term in the 1920s making the various associations change their names to "table tennis" instead of the more common, but trademarked, term; the next major innovation was by James W. Gibb, a British enthusiast of table tennis, who discovered novelty celluloid balls on a trip to the US in 1901 and found them to be ideal for the game.
This was followed by E. C. Goode who, in 1901, invented the modern version of the racket by fixing a sheet of pimpled, or stippled, rubber to the wooden blade. Table tennis was growing in popularity by 1901 to the extent that tournaments were being organized, books being written on the subject, an unofficial world championship was held in 1902. In 1921, the Table Tennis Association was founded, in 1926 renamed the English Table Tennis Association; the International Table Tennis Federation followed in 1926. London hosted the first official World Championships in 1926. In 1933, the United States Table Tennis Association, now called USA Table Tennis, was formed. In the 1930s, Edgar Snow commented in Red Star Over China that the Communist forces in the Chinese Civil War had a "passion for the English game of table tennis" which he found "bizarre". On the other hand, the popularity of the sport waned in 1930s Soviet Union because of the promotion of team and military sports, because of a theory that the game had adverse health effects.
In the 1950s, paddles that used a rubber sheet combined with an underlying sponge layer changed the game introducing greater spin and speed. These were introduced to Britain by sports goods manufacturer S. W. Hancock Ltd; the use of speed glue increased the spin and speed further, resulting in changes to the equipment to "slow the game down". Table tennis was introduced as an Olympic sport at the Olympics in 1988. After the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, the ITTF instituted several rule changes that were aimed at making table tennis more viable as a televised spectator sport. First, the older 38 mm balls were replaced by 40 mm balls in October 2000; this increased the ball's air resistance and slowed down the game. By that time, players had begun increasing the thickness of the fast sponge layer on their paddles, which made the game excessively fast and difficult to watch on television. A few months the ITTF changed from a 21-point to an 11-point scoring system, effective in September 2001; this was intended to make games more exciting.
The ITTF changed the rules on service to prevent a player from hiding the ball during service, in order to increase the average length of rallies and to reduce the server's advantage, effective in 2002. For the opponent to have time to realize a serve is taking place, the ball must be tossed a minimum of 16 cm in the air; the ITTF states. The international rules specify that the game is played with a sphere having a mass of 2.7 grams and a diameter of 40 millimetres. The rules say that the ball shall bounce up 24–26 cm when dropped from a height of 30.5 cm onto a standard steel block thereby having a coefficient of restitution of 0.89 to 0.92. Balls are now made of a polymer instead of celluloid as of 2015, colored white or orange, with a matte finish; the choice of ball color is made according to its surroundings. For example, a white ball is easier to see on a blue table than it is on a grey table. Manufacturers indicate the quality of the ball with a star rating system from one to three, three being the highest grade.
As this system is not standard across manufacturers, the only way a ball may be used in official competition is upon ITTF approval (the ITTF approval can be seen printed on the
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi
Dental braces are devices used in orthodontics that align and straighten teeth and help position them with regard to a person's bite, while aiming to improve dental health. Braces fix gaps, they are used to correct underbites, as well as malocclusions, open bites, deep bites, cross bites, crooked teeth, various other flaws of the teeth and jaw. Braces can be either structural. Dental braces are used in conjunction with other orthodontic appliances to help widen the palate or jaws and to otherwise assist in shaping the teeth and jaws. According to scholars and historians, braces date back to ancient times. Around 400-300 BC, Hippocrates and Aristotle contemplated ways to straighten teeth and fix various dental conditions. Archaeologists have discovered numerous mummified ancient individuals with what appear to be metal bands wrapped around their teeth. Catgut, a type of cord made from the natural fibers of an animal's intestines, performed a similar role to today’s orthodontic wire in closing gaps in the teeth and mouth.
The Etruscans buried their dead with dental appliances in place to maintain space and prevent collapse of the teeth during the afterlife. A Roman tomb was found with a number of teeth bound with gold wire documented as a ligature wire, a small elastic wire, used to affix the arch wire to the bracket. Cleopatra wore a pair. Roman philosopher and physician Aulus Cornelius Celsus first recorded the treatment of teeth by finger pressure. Due to lack of evidence, poor preservation of bodies, primitive technology, little research was carried out on dental braces until around the 17th century, although dentistry was making great advancements as a profession by then. Orthodontics began developing in the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1728, French dentist Pierre Fauchard, credited with inventing modern orthodontics, published a book entitled "The Surgeon Dentist" on methods of straightening teeth. Fauchard, in his practice, used a device called a "Bandeau", a horseshoe-shaped piece of iron that helped expand the palate.
In 1754, another French dentist, Louis Bourdet, dentist to the King of France, followed Fauchard's book with The Dentist's Art, which dedicated a chapter to tooth alignment and application. He perfected the "Bandeau" and was the first dentist on record to recommend extraction of the premolar teeth to alleviate crowding and to improve jaw growth. Although teeth and palate straightening and/or pulling was used to improve alignment of remaining teeth and had been practiced since early times, orthodontics, as a science of its own, did not exist until the mid-19th century. Several important dentists helped to advance dental braces with specific instruments and tools that allowed braces to be improved. In 1819, Delabarre introduced the wire crib, which marked the birth of contemporary orthodontics, gum elastics were first employed by Maynard in 1843. Tucker was the first to cut rubber bands from rubber tubing in 1850. Dentist, writer and sculptor Norman William Kingsley in 1858 wrote the first article on orthodontics and in 1880, his book, Treatise on Oral Deformities, was published.
A dentist named John Nutting Farrar is credited for writing two volumes entitled, A Treatise on the Irregularities of the Teeth and Their Corrections and was the first to suggest the use of mild force at timed intervals to move teeth. In the early 20th century, Edward Angle devised the first simple classification system for malocclusions, such as Class I, Class II, so on, his classification system is still used today as a way for dentists to describe how crooked teeth are, what way teeth are pointing, how teeth fit together. Angle contributed to the design of orthodontic and dental appliances, making many simplifications, he founded the first school and college of orthodontics, organized the American Society of Orthodontia in 1901 which became the American Association of Orthodontists in the 1930s, founded the first orthodontic journal in 1907. Other innovations in orthodontics in the late 19th and early 20th centuries included the first textbook on orthodontics for children, published by J.
J. Guilford in 1889, the use of rubber elastics, pioneered by Calvin S. Case, along with Henry Albert Baker; the application of braces moves the teeth as a result of pressure on the teeth. There are traditionally four basic elements that are used: brackets, bonding material, arch wire, ligature elastic; the teeth move when the arch wire puts pressure on the teeth. Sometimes springs or rubber bands are used to put more force in a specific direction. Braces have constant pressure; the process loosens the tooth after which new bone grows in to support the tooth in its new position. This is called bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is a biomechanical process responsible for making bones stronger in response to sustained load-bearing activity and weaker in the absence of carrying a load. Bones are made of cells called osteoblasts. Two different kinds of bone resorption are possible: direct resorption, which starts from the lining cells of the alveolar bone, indirect or retrograde resorption, which takes place when the periodontal ligament has been subjected to an excessive amount and duration of compressive stress.
Another important factor associated with tooth movement is bone deposition. Bone deposition occurs in the distracted periodontal ligament. Without bone deposition, the tooth will loosen and voids will occur distal to the direction of tooth movement. Traditional metal wired braces are stainless-steel and are sometimes used in combination with titanium. Traditional metal braces