A photographer is a person who makes photographs. As in other arts, the definitions of amateur and professional are not categorical. An amateur photographer takes snapshots for pleasure to remember events, places or friends with no intention of selling the images to others. A professional photographer is to take photographs for a session and image purchase fee, by salary or through the display, resale or use of those photographs. A professional photographer may be an employee, for example of a newspaper, or may contract to cover a particular planned event such as a wedding or graduation, or to illustrate an advertisement. Others, like fine art photographers, are freelancers, first making an image and licensing or making printed copies of it for sale or display; some workers, such as crime scene photographers, estate agents and scientists, make photographs as part of other work. Photographers who produce moving rather than still pictures are called cinematographers, videographers or camera operators, depending on the commercial context.
The term professional may imply preparation, for example, by academic study or apprenticeship by the photographer in pursuit of photographic skills. A hallmark of a professional is that they invest in continuing education through associations. Many associations offer the opportunity to test and exhibit acumen in order to attain credentials such as Certified Professional Photographer or Master Photographer. While there is no compulsory registration requirement for professional photographer status, operating a business requires having a business license in most cities and counties. Having commercial insurance is required by most venues if photographing a wedding or a public event. Photographers who operate a legitimate business can provide these items. Photographers can be categorized based on the subjects; some photographers explore subjects typical of paintings such as landscape, still life, portraiture. Other photographers specialize in subjects unique to photography, including street photography, documentary photography, fashion photography, wedding photography, war photography, aviation photography and commercial photography.
It is worth noting that the type of work commissioned will have pricing associated with the image's usage. The exclusive right of photographers to copy and use their products is protected by copyright. Countless industries purchase photographs on products; the photographs seen on magazine covers, in television advertising, on greeting cards or calendars, on websites, or on products and packages, have been purchased for this use, either directly from the photographer or through an agency that represents the photographer. A photographer uses a contract to sell the "license" or use of his or her photograph with exact controls regarding how the photograph will be used, in what territory it will be used, for which products; this is referred to as usage fee and is used to distinguish from production fees. An additional contract and royalty would apply for each additional use of the photograph; the contract may be for other duration. The photographer charges a royalty as well as a one-time fee, depending on the terms of the contract.
The contract may be for exclusive use of the photograph. The contract can stipulate that the photographer is entitled to audit the company for determination of royalty payments. Royalties vary depending on the industry buying the photograph and the use, for example, royalties for a photograph used on a poster or in television advertising may be higher than for use on a limited run of brochures. A royalty is often based on the size at which the photo will be used in a magazine or book, cover photos command higher fees than photos used elsewhere in a book or magazine. Photos taken by a photographer while working on assignment are work for hire belonging to the company or publication unless stipulated otherwise by contract. Professional portrait and wedding photographers stipulate by contract that they retain the copyright of their photos, so that only they can sell further prints of the photographs to the consumer, rather than the customer reproducing the photos by other means. If the customer wishes to be able to reproduce the photos themselves, they may discuss an alternative contract with the photographer in advance before the pictures are taken, in which a larger up front fee may be paid in exchange for reprint rights passing to the customer.
There are major companies who have maintained catalogues of stock photography and images for decades, such as Getty Images and others. Since the turn of the 21st century many online stock photography catalogues have appeared that invite photographers to sell their photos online and but for little money, without a royalty, without control over the use of the photo, the market it will be used in, the products it will be used on, time duration, etc. Commercial photographers may promote their work to advertising and editorial art buyers via printed and online marketing vehicles. Many people upload their photographs to social networking websites and other websites, in order to share them with a particular group or with the general public; those interested in legal precision may expl
Philip Young (ambassador)
Philip Young was an American government official and diplomat who served as United States Ambassador to the Netherlands. The son of Owen D. Young, Philip Young was born in Lexington, Massachusetts on May 9, 1910, he graduated from the Choate School, received his bachelor's degree from St. Lawrence University, graduated with a master of business administration degree from Harvard University in 1933. Young was employed as an economist at the Securities and Exchange Commission, where he worked until 1938, when he moved to the Treasury Department, where he worked on the Lend-Lease Program at the start of World War II. Young joined the United States Navy after the United States became involved in hostilities, serving as a Lieutenant Commander in the supply corps. After the war Young entered the private sector, where he worked until becoming Dean of Columbia University's Business School in 1948. While at Columbia he worked with Dwight D. Eisenhower during Eisenhower's term as president of the university.
When Eisenhower became President of the United States in 1953, he appointed Young as his personnel manager and named him to a position on the Civil Service Commission. He served until 1957, became the Commission's Chairman, garnered mixed publicity for carrying out an executive order to purge government departments of individuals who were only suspected of being subversive. In 1957 Young was appointed Ambassador to the Netherlands, where he served until 1960. Upon returning to the United States, Young was named Executive Director of the United States Council for the International Chamber of Commerce, where he served until 1965, he worked for several years as a management consultant before retiring to Van Hornesville, New York and Great Falls, Virginia. He died in Arlington, Virginia on January 15, 1987. Philip Young diplomatic career summary, Office of the Historian, United States Department of State
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Goor is a town about 20 km North west of Enschede in the Dutch province of Overijssel. It received town rights in 1263; the population is about 13,000. Goor was a separate municipality until 2001. Railway Station: Goor Erik Cent, cyclist Rutger Kopland, poet Tommy Wieringa, writer Jelle Klaasen, Darts Player Renee Luth, poet Peter Veenhuizen, Orchestra conductor and composer Hinkelien Schreuder, swimmer J. Kuyper, Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, "Goor". Map of the former municipality, around 1868
A camera operator, is a professional operator of a film or video camera. In filmmaking, the person designing the lighting is the director of photography. A camera operator in a video production may be known as a television camera operator, video camera operator, or videographer, depending on the context and technology involved operating a professional video camera; the camera operator is responsible for physically operating the camera and maintaining composition and camera angles throughout a given scene or shot. In narrative filmmaking, the camera operator will collaborate with the director, director of photography and crew to make technical and creative decisions. In this setting, a camera operator is part of a film crew consisting of the director of photography and one or more camera assistants. In documentary filmmaking and news, the camera is called on to film unfolding, unscripted events. In 2006, there were 27,000 television and motion picture camera operators employed in the United States.
Important camera operator skills include choreographing and framing shots, knowledge of and the ability to select appropriate camera lenses, other equipment to portray dramatic scenes. The principles of dramatic story telling and film editing fundamentals are important skills as well; the camera operator is required to communicate and concisely on sets where time and film budget constraints are present
Cannes Film Festival
The Cannes Festival, until 2002 called the International Film Festival and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world. Founded in 1946, the invitation-only festival is held annually at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès, it is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival. On 1 July 2014, co-founder and former head of French pay-TV operator Canal+, Pierre Lescure, took over as President of the Festival, while Thierry Fremaux became the General Delegate; the board of directors appointed Gilles Jacob as Honorary President of the Festival. The 2018 Cannes Film Festival took place between 8 and 19 May 2018; the jury president was Australian actress Cate Blanchett, Shoplifters, directed by Hirokazu Kore-eda, won the Palme d'Or. The Cannes Film Festival has its origins in 1932 when Jean Zay, the French Minister of National Education, on the proposal of historian Philippe Erlanger and with the support of the British and Americans, set up an international cinematographic festival.
Its origins may be attributed in part to the French desire to compete with the Venice Film Festival, which at the time was shocking the democratic world by its fascist bias. The first festival was planned for 1939, Cannes was selected as the location for it, but the funding and organization were too slow and the beginning of World War II put an end to this plan. On 20 September 1946, twenty-one countries presented their films at the First Cannes International Film Festival, which took place at the former Casino of Cannes. In 1947, amid serious problems of efficiency, the festival was held as the "Festival du film de Cannes", where films from sixteen countries were presented; the festival was not held in 1950 on account of budgetary problems. In 1949, the Palais des Festivals was expressly constructed for the occasion on the seafront promenade of La Croisette, although its inaugural roof, while still unfinished, blew off during a storm. In 1951, the festival was moved to spring to avoid a direct competition with the Venice Festival, held in autumn.
During the early 1950s, the festival attracted a lot of tourism and press attention, with showbiz scandals and high-profile personalities' love affairs. At the same time, the artistic aspect of the festival started developing; because of controversies over the selection of films, the Critics' Prize was created for the recognition of original films and daring filmmakers. In 1954, the Special Jury Prize was awarded for the first time. In 1955, the Palme d'Or was created, replacing the Grand Prix du Festival, given until that year. In 1957, Dolores del Río was the first female member of the jury for the official selection. In 1959, the Marché du Film was founded, giving the festival a commercial character and facilitating exchanges between sellers and buyers in the film industry. Today it has become the first international platform for film commerce. Still, in the 1950s, some outstanding films, like Night and Fog in 1956 and Hiroshima, My Love in 1959 were excluded from the competition for diplomatic concerns.
Jean Cocteau, three times president of the jury in those years, is quoted to have said: "The Cannes Festival should be a no man's land in which politics has no place. It should be a simple meeting between friends."In 1962, the International Critics' Week was born, created by the French Union of Film Critics as the first parallel section of the Cannes Film Festival. Its goal was to showcase first and second works by directors from all over the world, not succumbing to commercial tendencies. In 1965 Olivia de Havilland was named the first female president of the jury, while the next year Sofia Loren became president; the 1968 festival was halted on 19 May. Some directors, such as Carlos Saura and Miloš Forman, had withdrawn their films from the competition. On 18 May filmmaker Louis Malle along with a group of directors took over the large room of the Palais and interrupted the projections in solidarity with students and labour on strike throughout France, in protest to the eviction of the President of the Cinémathèque Française.
The filmmakers achieved the reinstatement of the President, they founded the Film Directors' Society that same year. In 1969 the SRF, led by Pierre-Henri Deleau created the Directors' Fortnight, a new non-competitive section that programs a selection of films from around the world, distinguished by the independent judgment displayed in the choice of films. During the 1970s, important changes occurred in the Festival. In 1972, Robert Favre Le Bret was named the new President, Maurice Bessy the General Delegate, he introduced important changes in the selection of the participating films, welcoming new techniques, relieving the selection from diplomatic pressures, with films like MASH, Chronicle of the Years of Fire marking this turn. In some cases, these changes helped directors like Tarkovski overcome problems of censorship in their own country; until that time, the different countries chose the films that would represent them in the festival. Yet, in 1972, Bessy created a committee to select French films, another for foreign films.
In 1978, Gilles Jacob assumed the position of General Delegate, introducing the Caméra d'Or award, for the best first film of any of the main events, the Un Certain Regard section, for the non-competitive categories. Other changes were the decrease of length of the festival down to thirteen days, thus reducing the number of selected films.