The Honda Motocompo is a folding scooter sold by Honda 1981–1983. The Motocompo was introduced as a Trunk Bike to fit inside subcompact cars like the Honda Today, the Citys baggage compartment was actually developed around the Motocompo. The City surpassed its targets, but in all only 53,369 Motocompos were sold by the end of production in 1983 and it was marketed in conjunction with the City in television ads featuring British ska/2-tone band Madness. The Motocompo is probably best known as the used by Natsumi Tsujimoto on Youre Under Arrest. It was released as a Bandai Model kit, folding Video at honda. co. jp Motocompo Owners Gallery at honda. co. jp Honda Motocompo brochure at Product Design Data Base Flickr photo results for Honda Motocompo
Bose Corporation /ˈboʊz/ is an American privately held corporation, based in Framingham, that designs and sells audio equipment. Founded in 1964 by Amar Bose, the company sells its products throughout the world, forbes estimates that in the 2015 financial year, Bose received revenue of US$3.5 billion and employed approximately 11,700 people. Bose is best known for its home audio systems and speakers, noise cancelling headphones, professional audio systems, the company has conducted research into suspension technologies for cars and heavy-duty trucks and into the subject of cold fusion. Bose has a reputation for being particularly protective of its patents, trademarks, a majority of Bose Corporations shares were given by Amar Bose in 2011 to his alma mater and former employer, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. However, while they receive cash dividends, they are prohibited from selling their shares in Bose and are unable to participate in the management, the company was founded in 1964 by Amar Bose.
Eight years earlier, Bose, a student at MIT, had purchased a stereo system and was disappointed with its performance. This led him to research the importance of reverberant sound on perceived audio quality, Bose began extensive research aimed at clarifying factors that he saw as fundamental weaknesses plaguing high-end audio systems. e. The listeners head as a sonic diffraction object as part of the system, eight years later, he started the company, charging it with a mission to achieve Better Sound Through Research, now the company slogan. In an interview in 2007 Bose talked about a review that kept the company alive. One magazine in the United States High Fidelity, a really credible magazine, had one reviewer named Norman Eisenburg who really knew his music, in those days I used to take the loudspeaker to the reviewer. I packed my son and loudspeaker in the car and went off and he came out with a review titled Surround and Conquer. He was not known to do things like that, everybody in the press knew he knew music, and it resulted in rave reviews one after another, and we were able to survive.
Boses first loudspeaker product, the model 2201, dispersed 22 small mid-range speakers over an eighth of a sphere and it was designed to be located in the corner of a room, using reflections off the walls to increase the apparent size of the room. An electronic equalizer was used to flatten the spectrum of this system. The results of listening tests were disappointing and he believes that distortion is much overrated as a factor in perceived quality in the complex sounds that comprise music. The ultimate test, Bose insists, is the perception of audible quality. This reluctance to publish information is due to Boses rejection of these measurements in favour of more meaningful measurement and this led to a speaker design that aimed eight identical mid-range drivers at the wall behind the speaker, and a ninth driver towards the listener. The purpose of design was to achieve a dominance of reflected over direct sound in home listening spaces
Geneva Motor Show
The International Geneva Motor Show is an annual auto show held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Geneva Palexpo, a centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport. The Salon is organised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs dAutomobiles, exotic supercars often steal the spotlight during their debuts at the show. Prototypes, new equipment, technical breakthroughs, international partnerships, as well as political and social debates, have announced at the exhibition. The show is regarded as a playing field for the worlds automakers. Areas of the show, Motor cars 3 or 4 or more wheels, electric cars and alternative powered cars. Special bodywork for motor cars, car design, the International Advanced Mobility Forum is the Geneva Motor Show forum on the mobility of the future. The 87th Geneva Motor Show was held from 9 to 19 March 2017, the 86th Geneva Motor Show was held from 3 to 13 March 2016. The 85th Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 15 March 2015, the 84th Geneva Motor Show was held from 6 to 16 March 2014.
The 83rd Geneva Motor Show was held from 5 to 17 March 2013, the 82nd edition was held from 8 to 18 March 2012. The 2011 edition was held from 3 to 13 March 2011, the 80th edition of the Geneva Motor Show was held from 4–14 March 2010. Over 80 introductions were expected for the show, press days for the show started on 2 March 2010, when most of the major introductions occurred. The 2009 Geneva Motor Show was held from 5–15 March 2009, the following vehicles were introduced, The 2008 Geneva Motor Show was held from 4–16 March 2008. Bolloré Bluecar Fiat Panda, hybrid petrol -natural gas, ford Focus Turnier 2.0 Honda Small Hybrid Sports Honda FCX Clarity Opel Corsa D, with optimized 100HP1. 6l natural gas engine. Reva Greeny AC1 and AC1 Z Subaru R1e, small city car
Honda City (AA)
The first generation Honda City was a subcompact hatchback aimed mainly at the Japanese domestic market. The somewhat ungainly designed City, referred to by Honda as Tall Boy style, was marketed abroad and was available in a number of versions. First introduced in November 1981 it carried the model codes AA for sedans, VF for vans and it was sold at the Honda Japan dealership sales channel called Honda Clio. This, combined with class leading fuel economy led to it being a rapid, in spite of the creativity and novelty of its design, the City was narrowly pipped for the Japanese motoring journalists Car Of The Year Award by the luxurious Toyota Soarer. The engine was the CVCC-II1,231 cc four-cylinder ER and it was available together with the Motocompo, a special 50 cc foldaway scooter constructed to fit in the Citys small luggage area, itself designed around the Motocompo. Originally a sportier R version, the economical E and two commercial van versions were introduced, in September 1982 a turbocharged version of the Honda ER engine was added to the lineup.
These widetrack models were designated FA rather than AA, the Cabriolet was well equipped, with a glass rear window and twelve pastel colors not available on the hatchback versions. Part of a worldwide wave of convertibles based on family cars. A March 1985 light facelift brought a new grille and some interior improvements. The E and E II models were replaced by the new E III, the U was the only non-commercial City to be available with a four-speed manual in the Japanese domestic market. Naturally aspirated engines in the AA Citys gained a new fiber-reinforced aluminum alloy connecting rods, in addition to vans and convertibles, there was an R Manhattan Roof version with a 10 cm taller roof. A R Manhattan Sound version incorporated high-quality stereo equipment, the E-series used higher geared transmissions and trip computers to increase gas mileage. The E III, in addition to benefitting from the FRM conrods, first generation production ended in late 1986 with the introduction of the GA type City.
Commercial versions were called Pro in Japan, and were available with two or five seats. The Pro had to make do without brake boost and transistorized ignition, the bare-bones Pro had a manual choke. Exports of the City were only of naturally aspirated hatchback and van versions, in Europe it was renamed Honda Jazz, due to Opel having the rights to the City name after having used it on a hatchback version of the Kadett C. It was marketed in Europe from 1982 to 1986, but was priced too high to compete. The European Jazz was only classified as a four-seater, and offered either 45 or 56 hp depending on fuel grade, the City was sold in Australia and New Zealand
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to heat, which is used to create a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use energy to create forces. The word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines. In this manner, an engine in its original form was merely a water pump. Devices converting heat energy into motion are commonly referred to simply as engines, examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts.
Examples of engines which produce thrust include turbofans and rockets, the term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to set in motion, or maintain motion. Thus a motor is a device that imparts motion and engine came to be used largely interchangeably in casual discourse. However, the two words have different meanings, rocketry uses the term rocket motor, even though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by a combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, by the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times
Gruppo Bertone, commonly known simply as Bertone, was an Italian automobile company, which specialized in car styling and manufacturing. Bertone styling is distinctive, with most cars having a family resemblance even if they are badged by different manufacturers. Bertone has styled cars for Abarth, Alfa Romeo, Aston Martin, Citroën, Fiat, Lancia, Mercedes Benz and Volvo, in addition, the Bertone studio was responsible for two of the designs of the Lambretta motorscooter. In the late 1980s, Bertone styled the K20 motorcycle helmet for Swiss bicycle and motorcycle helmet manufacturer Kiwi, the company was based in Grugliasco in northern Italy. Gruppo Bertone was founded as Carrozzeria Bertone in 1912 by Giovanni Bertone, designer Nuccio Bertone took charge of the company after World War II and the company was divided into two units, Carrozzeria for manufacturing and Stile Bertone for styling. Until its bankruptcy in 2014, the company was headed by the widow of Nuccio Bertone, Giovanni Bertone started a carriage manufacturing business in Turin, at the age of 28.
Along with three workers, he built horse-drawn vehicles, in the first decades of the 20th century, cars were not common. The road traffic was dominated by horse-drawn carriages and the built by the young Bertone were particularly regarded for their accuracy. In 1914, Giuseppe Bertone, nicknamed Nuccio, the son of Giovanni Bertone, was born. This nickname became known as the signature to Nuccio, one of the greatest Italian style masters in the world. The outbreak of the first world war triggered a crisis of the young Italian industrial sector and heavily affected Giovanni Bertone. At the end of the First World War, Bertones business restarted and expanded its activities, in 1920, a new plant was opened near the Monginevro 119 in Turin. Twenty people were on the payroll, one year later, the first important contract was signed to the company. This was a torpedo styled body based on the SPA 23S chassis, the FIAT501 Sport Siluro Corsa, the first of a family of models that would characterize the brand in the years to come, was designed.
With that, the high performance car was born. During the 1920s, Turin was represented as one of the centers of excellence of the car industry. Bertone was sitting on the hub of it and formed partnerships with almost all the manufacturers of the day, Giovanni Bertone began doing bodywork on the Fast, Aurea, SCAT and Diatto chassis. The most important and long lasting relationships were those with the two biggest Turin manufacturers were FIAT and Lancia, vincenzo Lancia realised straight away that Giovanni Bertone was an outstanding skilled craftsman with a great future ahead of him
Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, usually known under its abbreviation BMW, is a German luxury vehicle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. It is one of the luxury automakers in the world. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, headquartered in Munich, Bavaria, BMW owns Mini cars and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW was established as a business entity following a restructuring of the Rapp Motorenwerke aircraft manufacturing firm in 1912 named Aerowerke Gustav Otto, after the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft-engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. The company consequently shifted to production as the restrictions of the treaty started to be lifted in 1923. BMWs first significant aircraft engine, and commercial product of any sort, was the BMW IIIa inline-six liquid-cooled engine of 1918, known for good fuel economy, with German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe.
The factory in Munich made ample use of forced labour, foreign civilians, prisoners of war, the few Me 262 A-1b test examples built used the more developed version of the 003 jet, recording an official top speed of 800 km/h. The first-ever four-engine jet aircraft flown were the sixth and eighth prototypes of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance-bomber. Through 1944 the 003s reliability improved, making it a power plant for air frame designs competing for the Jägernotprogramms light fighter production contract. Which was won by the Heinkel He 162 Spatz design, the BMW003 aviation turbojet was under consideration as the basic starting point for a pioneering turboshaft powerplant for German armored fighting vehicles in 1944–45, as the GT101. Towards the end of the Third Reich, BMW developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built. By the year 1958, the division of BMW was in financial difficulties.
It was decided to carry on by trying to cash in on the current economy car boom exploited so successfully by German ex-aircraft manufacturers such as Messerschmitt, BMW bought the rights to manufacture the Italian Iso Isetta. BMWs version of the cars were to be powered by a modified form of BMWs motorcycle engine. This was moderately successful and helped the company get back on its feet, since 1959, the controlling majority shareholder of the BMW Aktiengesellschaft has been the Quandt family, which owns about 46% of the stock. The rest is in public float, BMW acquired the Hans Glas company based in Dingolfing, Germany, in 1966. Glas vehicles were badged as BMW until the company was fully absorbed. However, this factory was outmoded and BMWs biggest immediate gain was, according to themselves, the Glas factories continued to build a limited number of their existing models, while adding the manufacture of BMW front and rear axles until they could be closer incorporated into BMW
Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the automobile layout for most of the 20th century. Modern designs commonly use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout, the first FR car was an 1895 Panhard model, so this layout was known as the Système Panhard in the early years. The layout has the advantage of minimizing mechanical complexity, as it allows the transmission to be placed in-line with the output shaft. In comparison, a vehicle with the engine over the driven wheels eliminates the need for the drive shaft, in order to reduce the relative weight of the drive shaft, the transmission was normally split into two parts, the gearbox and the final drive. The gearbox was produced with its highest gear being 1,1. The final drive, in the axle, would reduce this to the most appropriate speed for the wheels. As power is the product of torque and angular velocity, spinning the shaft faster for any given power reduces the torque, in an era when gasoline was cheap and cars were heavy, the mechanical advantages of the FR drivetrain layout made up for any disadvantage in weight terms.
It remained almost universal among car designs until the 1970s, after the Arab oil embargo of 1973 and the 1979 fuel crises, a majority of American FR vehicles were phased out for the FF layout – this trend would spawn the SUV-van conversion market. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, most American companies set as a priority the eventual removal of rear-wheel drive from their mainstream, chrysler went 100% FF by 1990 and GMs American production went entirely FF by 1997 except the Corvette and Camaro. This configuration is referred to as a transaxle since the transmission. In Europe, front-wheel drive was popularized by small cars like the Mini, Renault 5 and Volkswagen Golf, upscale marques like Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Jaguar remained mostly independent of this trend, and retained a lineup mostly or entirely made up of FR cars. Japanese mainstream marques such as Toyota were almost exclusively FR until the late 1970s, toyotas first FF vehicle was the Toyota Tercel, with the Corolla and Celica becoming FF while the Camry was designed as an FF from the beginning.
The Supra, Cressida and Century remained FR, luxury division Lexus has a mostly FR lineup. Subarus BRZ is an FR car, currently most cars are FF, including all front-engined economy cars, though FR cars are making a return as an alternative to large sport-utility vehicles. In North America, GM returned to production of FR-based luxury vehicles with the 2003 Cadillac CTS, as of 2012, all but the SRX and XTS are FR-based vehicles. Chevrolet reintroduced the FR-based Camaro in 2009, and the Caprice PPV in 2011, Pontiac had a short run with the FR-based G8 and Pontiac Solstice. A Chevrolet replacement for the G8 called the Chevrolet SS was released in 2013, chrysler and Dodge reintroduced the 300 and Charger on a FR platform
A manual transmission, known as a manual gearbox, stick shift, n-speed manual, standard, MT, or in colloquial U. S. English, a stick, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. The number of gear ratios is often expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions often feature a clutch and a movable gear stick. This type of transmission is called a sequential manual transmission. In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engines crankshaft, the clutch disk is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, and is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate. When the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate, as the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk. This makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, when the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, and the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine.
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio, automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic. Operating aforementioned transmissions often use the pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. The earliest form of a transmission is thought to have been invented by Louis-René Panhard. This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases and these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that often accompanied.
Newer manual transmissions on cars have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, in both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a gear, the transmission is put in neutral. The vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade, for both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released while in neutral. Some drivers use the only for starting from a stop. Even though automobile and light truck transmissions are now almost universally synchronized, transmissions for trucks and machinery, motorcycles
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed. In British English, the term refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft, differential. In American English, the term more specifically to the gearbox alone. The most common use is in vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping. The transmission reduces the engine speed to the slower wheel speed. Transmissions are used on bicycles, fixed machines. Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies and this switching may be done manually or automatically. Directional control may be provided, single-ratio transmissions exist, which simply change the speed and torque of motor output.
The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, while a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation, automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in conjunction with an ecm. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, and steam engines, in support of pumping, most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in speed with a reduction of torque. Some of the simplest gearboxes merely change the rotational direction of power transmission.
Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios, in this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at an angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°. In its simplest form, the V8 is basically two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft, since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations. This results in an engine that is smoother than a V6, most racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light and he called it the Antoinette after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of competition speedboats, the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte dAzur and decided to try it on his 14-bis aircraft.
Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, Santos-Dumont ordered a larger and more powerful version from Levavasseur. He changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight and its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur eventually produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII, hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet. Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines, notably the one first flown successfully by Henry Farman in 1908, the V8 engine configuration became popular in France from 1904 onward, and was used in a number of aircraft engines introduced by Renault, and Buchet among others.
Some of these found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a car to beat the world speed record. They came up with two racing car built on a common crankcase and camshaft. The result was monstrous engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, victor Hemery fixed that record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, in 1907 The Hewitt Motor Company built a large 5 passenger Touring Car. It was equipped with a hefty V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 inches, the Hewitt was the first American Automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine. De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and it was produced only in small quantities, but inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit