Linda Maria Ronstadt is a retired American popular music singer known for singing in a wide range of genres including rock, light opera, Latin. She has earned 10 Grammy Awards, three American Music Awards, two Academy of Country Music awards, an Emmy Award, an ALMA Award, many of her albums have been certified gold, platinum or multiplatinum in the United States and internationally, she has earned nominations for a Tony Award and a Golden Globe award. She was awarded the Latin Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award by The Latin Recording Academy in 2011 and awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award by The Recording Academy in 2016, she was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in April 2014. On July 28, 2014, she was awarded the National Medal of Humanities. In 2019, she will receive a joint star with Dolly Parton and Emmylou Harris on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for their work as the group Trio. In total, she has released over 30 studio albums and 15 compilation or greatest hits albums.
Ronstadt charted 38 Billboard Hot 100 singles, with 21 reaching the top 40, 10 in the top 10, three at number 2, "You're No Good" at number 1. This success did not translate to the UK, with only her single "Blue Bayou" reaching the UK Top 40, her duet with Aaron Neville, "Don't Know Much", peaked at number 2 in December 1989. In addition, she has charted 36 albums, 10 top-10 albums and three number 1 albums on the Billboard Pop Album Chart, her autobiography, Simple Dreams: A Musical Memoir, was published in September 2013. It debuted in the Top 10 on The New York Times Best Seller list. Ronstadt has collaborated with artists in diverse genres, including Bette Midler, Billy Eckstine, Frank Zappa, Carla Bley, Rosemary Clooney, Flaco Jiménez, Philip Glass, Warren Zevon, Emmylou Harris, Gram Parsons, Dolly Parton, Neil Young, Paul Simon, Earl Scruggs, Johnny Cash, Nelson Riddle, she has lent her voice to over 120 albums and has sold more than 100 million records, making her one of the world's best-selling artists of all time.
Christopher Loudon, of Jazz Times, wrote in 2004 that Ronstadt is "blessed with arguably the most sterling set of pipes of her generation."After completing her last live concert in late 2009, Ronstadt retired in 2011. She was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease in December 2012. Linda Maria Ronstadt was born in 1946 in Tucson, the third of four children of Gilbert Ronstadt, a prosperous machinery merchant who ran the F. Ronstadt Co. and Ruth Mary Ronstadt, a homemaker. Ronstadt was raised on the family's 10-acre ranch with her siblings Michael J. and Gretchen. The family was featured in Family Circle magazine in 1953. Linda's father came from a pioneering Arizona ranching family and was of German and Mexican ancestry; the family's influence on and contributions to Arizona's history, including wagon making, commerce and music, are chronicled in the library of the University of Arizona. Linda Ronstadt's great-grandfather, graduate engineer Friedrich August Ronstadt immigrated to the Southwest in the 1840s from Hanover and married a Mexican citizen settling in Tucson.
In 1991, the City of Tucson opened its central transit terminal on March 16 and dedicated it to Linda's grandfather, Federico José María Ronstadt, a local pioneer businessman. Her mother Ruth Mary, of German and Dutch ancestry, was raised in Flint, Michigan, she was a daughter of a prolific inventor and holder of many patents. Copeman, with nearly 700 patents to his name, invented an early form of the toaster, many refrigerator devices, the grease gun, the first electric stove, an early form of the microwave oven, his flexible rubber ice cube tray earned him millions of dollars in royalties. Establishing her professional career in the mid-1960s at the forefront of California's emerging folk rock and country rock movements – genres which defined post-1960s rock music – Ronstadt joined forces with Bobby Kimmel and Kenny Edwards and became the lead singer of a folk-rock trio, the Stone Poneys; as a solo artist, she released Hand Sown... Home Grown in 1969, described as the first alternative country record by a female recording artist.
Although fame eluded her during these years, Ronstadt toured with the Doors, Neil Young, Jackson Browne, others, appeared numerous times on television shows, began to contribute her singing to albums by other artists. With the release of chart-topping albums such as Heart Like a Wheel, Simple Dreams, Living in the USA, Ronstadt became the first female "arena class" rock star, she set records as one of the top-grossing concert artists of the decade. Referred to as the "First Lady of Rock" and the "Queen of Rock", Ronstadt was voted the Top Female Pop Singer of the 1970s, her rock-and-roll image was as famous as her music. In the 1980s, Ronstadt went to Broadway and garnered a Tony nomination for her performance in The Pirates of Penzance, teamed with the composer Philip Glass, recorded traditional music, collaborated with the conductor Nelson Riddle, an event at that time viewed as an original and unorthodox move for a rock-and-roll artist; this venture paid off, Ronstadt remained one of the music industry's best-selling acts throughout the 1980s, with multi-platinum-selling albums such as What's New, Canciones de Mi Padre, Cry Like a
Theme from New York, New York
"Theme from New York, New York" is the theme song from the Martin Scorsese film New York, New York, composed by John Kander, with lyrics by Fred Ebb. It was performed in the film by Liza Minnelli, it remains one of the best-known songs about New York City. In 2004 it finished #31 on AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs survey of top tunes in American Cinema. In 1979, "Theme from New York, New York" was re-recorded by Frank Sinatra for his album Trilogy: Past Present Future, has since become associated with him, he performed it live with Minnelli as a duet. Sinatra recorded it a second time for his 1993 album Duets, with Tony Bennett; the first line of the song is: Start spreadin' the news, I'm leaving todayI want to be a part of it: New York, New York. Within are two similar lines: I wanna wake up in a city that doesn't sleep I want to wake up in a city that never sleepsThe song concludes with the line: If I can make it there, I'm gonna make it anywhere,It's up to you, New York, New York. Minnelli's original recording of the song uses the following closing line: If I can make it there, I'll make it anywhere,Come on come through, New York, New York.
It should not be confused with the song "New York, New York", from Leonard Bernstein/Adolph Green/Betty Comden's musical On the Town, which features the lyric "New York, New York, it’s a helluva town / The Bronx is up and the Battery's down..." Composers Kander and Ebb stated on the A&E Biography episode about Liza Minnelli, that they attribute the song's success to actor Robert De Niro, who rejected their original theme for the film because he thought it was "too weak". The song did not become a popular hit until it was picked up in concert by Frank Sinatra during his performances at Radio City Music Hall in October 1978.. Subsequently, Sinatra recorded it in 1979 for his 1980 Trilogy set, it became one of his signature songs; the single peaked at # 32 in June 1980. It was an Adult Contemporary hit, reaching #10 in the US and #2 in Canada; the song made a minor showing in the UK, recharted several years and reached #4 in 1986. The song was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Pop Vocal Performance and Sinatra made two more studio recordings of the song in 1981 and 1993.
From the latter, an electronic duet with Tony Bennett was produced for Sinatra's Duets album. The lyrics of the Sinatra versions differ from Ebb's original lyrics. Notably, the phrase "A-number-one", which does not appear at all in the original lyrics, is sung twice at the song's rallentando climax.. The phrase is both the first and fourth on a list of three superlative titles the singer strives to achieve — "A-number-one, top of the list, king of the hill, A-number-one" — where Ebb's original lyrics were "king of the hill, head of the list, cream of the crop, at the top of the heap." Despite Sinatra's version becoming more familiar, original singer Minnelli had two of the tune's most memorable live performances – during the July 4, 1986 ceremony marking the rededication of the Statue of Liberty after extensive renovations, in the middle of the seventh inning at Shea Stadium during a New York Mets game, the first pro sports event in the metro area after the September 11, 2001 attacks. She sang it at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum during the 1984 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, accompanied by 24 pianos and strobe lights.
Liza Minnelli versionFrank Sinatra version The song has been embraced as a celebration of New York City, is heard at New York-area social events, such as weddings and bar mitzvahs. Many sports teams in the New York area have played this song in their arenas/stadiums, but the New York Yankees are the most prominent example, it has been played over the loudspeakers at both the original and current Yankee Stadiums at the end of every Yankee home game since July 1980. Sinatra's version was played after a Yankees win, the Minnelli version after a loss. However, due to a complaint from Minnelli, the Sinatra version is now heard regardless of the game's outcome; as of the 2005 season, at the Richmond County Bank Ballpark following Staten Island Yankees games, the Sinatra version is heard regardless of the game's outcome, was done at Shea Stadium at the end of New York Mets games after the September 11, 2001 attack. Mets fans felt it was a "Yankee song", began booing it when it was played, it first had snippets of the song played after World Series home runs by Ray Knight and Darryl Strawberry during Game 7 of the 1986 World Series.
The song is sometimes played at New York Knicks games. The Sinatra version is played at the end of every New York Rangers game at Madison Square Garden, it was played at the opening faceoff of Game 7 of the 1994 Stanley Cup Finals at the Garden. The song has been the post parade song for the Belmont Stakes from 1997 to 2009, again from 2011 to the present. Sinatra's version of the song has been played at the end of all four Super Bowls that the New York Giants have won to date, as well as before kickoff of Super Bowl XLVIII, while Minnelli's version was heard after the Giants' Super Bowl XXXV loss; the song was the musical basis for Jimmy Picker's 1983 three-minute animated short, Sundae in New York, which won the Academy Award for Best Short Film that year, with a likeness of then-mayor Ed Koch somewhat stumbling through the song, with clay caricatures of New York-based celebritie
Gilbert Bécaud was a French singer, composer and actor, known as "Monsieur 100,000 Volts" for his energetic performances. His best-known hits are "Nathalie" and "Et maintenant", a 1961 release that became an English language hit as "What Now My Love", he remained a popular artist for nearly fifty years, identifiable in his dark blue suits, with a white shirt and "lucky tie". When asked to explain his gift he said, "A flower doesn't understand botany." His favourite venue was the Paris Olympia under the management of Bruno Coquatrix. He debuted there in 1954 and headlined in 1955, attracting 6,000 on his first night, three times the capacity. On 13 November 1997 Bécaud was present for the re-opening of the venue after its reconstruction. Born François Gilbert Léopold Silly in Toulon, Bécaud learned to play the piano at a young age, went to the Conservatoire de Nice. In 1942, he left school to join the French Resistance during World War II, he began songwriting in 1948, after meeting Maurice Vidalin, who inspired him to write his early compositions.
He began writing for Marie Bizet. While touring with Jacques Pills as a pianist, Bécaud met Édith Piaf, the wife of Jacques Pills at the time, he began singing at her suggestion in 1953, with "Mes Mains" and "Les Croix". His first performance came the year after, his hits in the part of the decade included "La Corrida", "Le Jour où la Pluie Viendra", "C'est Merveilleux L'amour". His first hit in the English-speaking world was Jane Morgan's cover version of "Le Jour où la Pluie Viendra" in 1958, he began acting in the same period, starting with "Le Pays D'où Je Viens". In 1960, he composed "L'enfant à L'étoile," a Christmas cantata; that same year, "Let It Be Me", an English version of his "Je t'appartiens", became a hit for the Everly Brothers, over the years, by Bob Dylan, Nina Simone, Elvis Presley, Willie Nelson, Jerry Butler, Sam & Dave and James Brown. In 1961, Bécaud wrote and recorded "Et Maintenant", one of the biggest selling singles in French history. Translated as "What Now My Love", the song became a hit by Shirley Bassey, Sonny & Cher, Elvis Presley, Judy Garland, Andy Williams, Herb Alpert and Frank Sinatra.
In 1962, he completed his largest composition, the 2-act opera L'Opéra d'Aran, premiered at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées on 25 October 1962. The plot of the opera takes place on the Aran Islands, off the west coast of Ireland, although Bécaud up to that point had never been to Ireland. After the opera's performances, Bécaud toured Europe and continued recording a string of pop music hits, including "Crois-moi ça durera" and "Tu le regretteras", he co-wrote "Love on the Rocks" with Neil Diamond, featured on the soundtrack of The Jazz Singer and was an international hit. In addition, he co-wrote "September Morn" with Diamond. Marlene Dietrich performed it in her stage shows, he wrote the song "Nathalie" to the text by Pierre Delanoë about a Moscow female guide in 1964. Bécaud visited Moscow in 1965 invited by students; the Czech writer Bohumil Doležal commented the song describing the guide as a KGB officer. A Russian blogger believes; the song has been used to soften the image of the Soviet Union if Pierre Delanoë was anti-Soviet.
His song "Seul sur son étoile" became "It Must Be Him", a hit in 1967 for the American singer Vikki Carr, the following year another Bécaud song, "L'important c'est la rose" was given an English lyric and became a hit for the British singer Vince Hill under the title "Importance of Your Love". On 19 June 1968, the American Broadcasting Company aired a half-hour color special starring Bécaud, taped in Saarbrücken. Bécaud performed "Nathalie", "Mademoiselle Lise" and "The Day the Rains Came" and sang a duet with Inge Brück, "Sand and Sea"; the programme featured performances by João Gilberto, Lill Lindfors and Hans Koller. Bécaud turned his focus more toward touring than recording in the 1970s. An example was his live performance at the festival The Golden Orpheus in June 1971 in Communist Bulgaria, he followed this with some acting work and at last took time off in 1973, citing exhaustion. In 1974, he was named Chevalier in the Légion d'honneur; the following year, he scored his one and only entry on the UK Singles Chart with "A Little Love and Understanding" which reached number 10 in the spring.
In the century, he began writing with Pierre Grosz and Neil Diamond penning the Broadway musical Roza with Julian More. In 1982, he recorded the duet "L'Amour est mort" with Québécoise singer Martine St. Clair at the start of her career; the 1980s and 1990s saw a slowdown of Bécaud's activity. He toured occasionally. On 18 December 2001 he died from cancer, aged 74, on his houseboat on the Seine and was interred in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. Bécaud's song catalogue, running to around 450 songs, is published by BMG Music Publishing. Bécaud's song "L'Orange" was the featured track in one of the trailers of the movie Léon by Luc Besson. 1953: Gilbert Bécaud et ses chansons 1954: Young Man of Paris in Moods of Love 1955: Récital N° 1 – Mes grands succès 1956: Alors raconte 1958: Salut les copains 1959: Pilou... Pilou... hé 1961: Tête de bois 1962: Le Bateau blanc 1964: Le Pianiste de Varsovie 1969: L'Un d'entre eux inventa la mor
Francis Albert Sinatra was an American actor and singer, one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 150 million records worldwide. Born to Italian immigrants in Hoboken, New Jersey, Sinatra began his musical career in the swing era with bandleaders Harry James and Tommy Dorsey. Sinatra found success as a solo artist after he signed with Columbia Records in 1943, becoming the idol of the "bobby soxers", he released his debut album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra, in 1946. Sinatra's professional career had stalled by the early 1950s, he turned to Las Vegas, where he became one of its best known residency performers as part of the Rat Pack, his career was reborn in 1953 with the success of From Here to Eternity, with his performance subsequently winning an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. Sinatra released several critically lauded albums, including In the Wee Small Hours, Songs for Swingin' Lovers!, Come Fly with Me, Only the Lonely and Nice'n' Easy.
Sinatra left Capitol in 1960 to start his own record label, Reprise Records, released a string of successful albums. In 1965, he recorded the retrospective September of My Years and starred in the Emmy-winning television special Frank Sinatra: A Man and His Music. After releasing Sinatra at the Sands, recorded at the Sands Hotel and Casino in Vegas with frequent collaborator Count Basie in early 1966, the following year he recorded one of his most famous collaborations with Tom Jobim, the album Francis Albert Sinatra & Antonio Carlos Jobim, it was followed by 1968's Francis Edward K. with Duke Ellington. Sinatra retired for the first time in 1971, but came out of retirement two years and recorded several albums and resumed performing at Caesars Palace, reached success in 1980 with "New York, New York". Using his Las Vegas shows as a home base, he toured both within the United States and internationally until shortly before his death in 1998. Sinatra forged a successful career as a film actor.
After winning an Academy Award for From Here to Eternity, he starred in The Man with the Golden Arm, received critical acclaim for his performance in The Manchurian Candidate. He appeared in various musicals such as On the Town and Dolls, High Society, Pal Joey, winning another Golden Globe for the latter. Toward the end of his career, he became associated with playing detectives, including the title character in Tony Rome. Sinatra would receive the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1971. On television, The Frank Sinatra Show began on ABC in 1950, he continued to make appearances on television throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Sinatra was heavily involved with politics from the mid-1940s, campaigned for presidents such as Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan. In crime, the FBI investigated his alleged relationship with the Mafia. While Sinatra never learned how to read music, he had an impressive understanding of it, he worked hard from a young age to improve his abilities in all aspects of music.
A perfectionist, renowned for his dress sense and performing presence, he always insisted on recording live with his band. His bright blue eyes earned him the popular nickname "Ol' Blue Eyes". Sinatra led a colorful personal life, was involved in turbulent affairs with women, such as with his second wife Ava Gardner, he married Mia Farrow in 1966 and Barbara Marx in 1976. Sinatra had several violent confrontations with journalists he felt had crossed him, or work bosses with whom he had disagreements, he was honored at the Kennedy Center Honors in 1983, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Ronald Reagan in 1985, the Congressional Gold Medal in 1997. Sinatra was the recipient of eleven Grammy Awards, including the Grammy Trustees Award, Grammy Legend Award and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, he was collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. After his death, American music critic Robert Christgau called him "the greatest singer of the 20th century", he continues to be seen as an iconic figure.
Francis Albert Sinatra was born on December 12, 1915, in an upstairs tenement at 415 Monroe Street in Hoboken, New Jersey, the only child of Italian immigrants Natalina "Dolly" Garaventa and Antonino Martino "Marty" Sinatra. Sinatra weighed 13.5 pounds at birth and had to be delivered with the aid of forceps, which caused severe scarring to his left cheek and ear, perforated his eardrum—damage that remained for life. Due to his injuries at birth, his baptism at St. Francis Church in Hoboken was delayed until April 2, 1916. A childhood operation on his mastoid bone left major scarring on his neck, during adolescence he suffered from cystic acne that further scarred his face and neck. Sinatra was raised Roman Catholic. Sinatra's mother was energetic and driven, biographers believe that she was the dominant factor in the development of her son's personality traits and self-confidence. Sinatra's fourth wife Barbara would claim that Dolly was abusive to him as a child, "knocked him around a lot".
Dolly became influential in local Democratic Party circles. She worked as a midwife, earning $50 for each delivery, according to Sinatra biographer Kitty Kelley ran an illegal abortion service that catered to Italian Catholic girls, for which she was nicknamed "Hatpin Dolly", she had a gift for languages and served as a local interpreter. Sinatra's illiterate father was a bantamweight boxer who fought under the name Mar
Luther Ronzoni Vandross Jr. was an American singer and record producer. Throughout his career, Vandross was an in-demand background vocalist for several different artists including Todd Rundgren, Judy Collins, Chaka Khan, Bette Midler, Diana Ross, David Bowie, Barbra Streisand, Ben E. King, Donna Summer, he became a lead singer of the group Change, which released its gold-certified debut album, The Glow of Love, in 1980 on Warner Bros. Records. After Vandross left the group, he was signed to Epic Records as a solo artist and released his debut solo album, Never Too Much, in 1981, his hit songs include "Never Too Much", "Here and Now", "Any Love", "Power of Love/Love Power", "I Can Make It Better" and "For You to Love". Many of his songs were covers of original music by other artists such as "If This World Were Mine", "Since I Lost My Baby", "Superstar" and "Always and Forever". Duets such as "The Closer I Get to You" with Beyoncé, "Endless Love" with Mariah Carey and "The Best Things in Life Are Free" with Janet Jackson were all hit songs in his career.
During his career, Vandross sold over 35 million records worldwide, received eight Grammy Awards including Best Male R&B Vocal Performance four different times. He won a total of four Grammy Awards in 2004 including the Grammy Award for Song of the Year for a song recorded not long before his death, "Dance with My Father". Luther Ronzoni Vandross, Jr. was born on April 20, 1951, at Bellevue Hospital, in the Kips Bay neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. He was the fourth child and second son of Sr.. His father was an upholsterer and singer, his mother was a nurse. Vandross was raised in Manhattan's Lower East Side in the NYCHA Alfred E. Smith Houses public housing development. At the age of three, having his own phonograph, Vandross taught himself to play the piano by ear. Vandross's father died of diabetes. In 2003, Vandross dedicated it to him, his family moved to the Bronx. His sisters, Patricia "Pat" and Ann began taking Vandross to the Apollo Theater and to a theater in Brooklyn to see Dionne Warwick and Aretha Franklin.
Patricia sang with the vocal group The Crests and was featured on the songs "My Juanita" and "Sweetest One". Vandross graduated from William Howard Taft High School in the Bronx in 1969, attended Western Michigan University for a year before dropping out to continue pursuing a career in music. While in high school, Vandross founded the first Patti LaBelle fan club, he performed in a group, Shades of Jade, that once played at the Apollo Theater. During his early years in show business he appeared several times at the Apollo's famous amateur night. While a member of a theater workshop, Listen My Brother, he was involved in the singles "Only Love Can Make a Better World" and "Listen My Brother", he appeared with the group in several episodes of the first season of Sesame Street during 1969–1970. Vandross added backing vocals to Roberta Flack & Donny Hathaway in 1972, worked on Delores Hall's Hall-Mark album, he sang with her on the song "Who's Gonna Make It Easier for Me", which he wrote, he contributed another song, "In This Lonely Hour".
Having co-written "Fascination" for David Bowie's Young Americans, he went on to tour with him as a back-up vocalist in September 1974. Vandross wrote "Everybody Rejoice" for the 1975 Broadway musical The Wiz. Vandross sang backing vocals for artists including Roberta Flack, Chaka Khan, Ben E. King, Bette Midler, Diana Ross, Carly Simon, Barbra Streisand, Donna Summer, for the bands Chic and Todd Rundgren's Utopia. Before his solo breakthrough, Vandross was part of a singing quintet in the late 1970s named Luther, consisting of former Shades of Jade members Anthony Hinton and Diane Sumler, as well as Theresa V. Reed, Christine Wiltshire, signed to Cotillion Records. Although the singles "It's Good for the Soul", "Funky Music", "The Second Time Around" were successful, their two albums, the self-titled Luther and This Close to You, which Vandross produced, did not sell enough to make the charts. Vandross bought back the rights to those albums after Cotillion dropped the group, preventing them from being re-released.
Vandross wrote and sang commercial jingles from 1977 until the early 1980s, for companies including NBC, Mountain Dew, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Burger King, Juicy Fruit. He continued his successful career as a popular session singer during the late 1970s, he played Jamison in the 1993 film The Meteor Man. In 1978, Vandross sang lead vocals for Greg Diamond's disco band, Bionic Boogie, on the song titled "Hot Butterfly". In 1978, he appeared on Quincy Jones's Sounds...and Stuff Like That!!, most notably on the song "I'm Gonna Miss You in the Morning" along with Patti Austin. Vandross sang with the band Soirée and was the lead vocalist on the track "You Are the Sunshine of My Life". Additionally, he sang the lead vocals on the group Mascara's LP title song "See You in L. A." released in 1979. Vandross appeared on the group Charme's 1979 album Let It In. Vandross made his career breakthrough as a featured singer with the vaunted pop-dance act Change, a studio concept created by French-Italian businessman Jacques Fred Petrus.
Their 1980 hits, "The Glow of Love" and "Searching", featured Vandross as the lead singer. In a 200
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Paul David Hewson, KBE OL, known by his stage name Bono, is an Irish singer-songwriter, venture capitalist and philanthropist. He is best known as the lead vocalist and primary lyricist of rock band U2. Bono was raised in Dublin, Ireland, he attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School where he met his future wife, Alison Stewart, as well as schoolmates with whom he founded U2 in 1976. Bono soon established himself as a passionate frontman for the band through his expressive vocal style and grandiose gestures and songwriting, his lyrics are known for their social and political themes, for their religious imagery inspired by his Christian beliefs. During U2's early years, Bono's lyrics contributed to the group's spiritual tone; as the band matured, his lyrics became inspired more by personal experiences shared with the other members. As a member of U2, Bono has received 22 Grammy Awards and has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Bono is well known for his activism both through U2 and as an individual.
He is active in campaigning for Africa, for which he co-founded DATA, EDUN, the ONE Campaign, Product Red. In pursuit of these causes, he has participated in benefit concerts and met with influential politicians. Bono has been praised for his philanthropic efforts. In 2005, Bono was named one of the Time Persons of the Year. Outside the band, he has recorded with numerous artists, he has collaborated with U2 bandmate the Edge on several projects, including: songs for Roy Orbison and Tina Turner. He is Managing Director and a Managing Partner of the private equity firm Elevation Partners, which has invested in several companies. Bono was born in the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, on 10 May 1960, he was raised in the Northside suburb of Finglas with his brother by their mother, Iris, a member of the Church of Ireland, their father, Brendan Robert "Bob" Hewson, a Roman Catholic. His parents agreed that the first child would be raised Anglican and the second Catholic. Although Bono was the second child, he attended Church of Ireland services with his mother and brother.
He went to the local primary Glasnevin National School. Bono's mother died on 10 September 1974, after suffering a cerebral aneurysm at her father's funeral. Many U2 songs, including "I Will Follow", "Mofo", "Out of Control", "Lemon" and "Tomorrow" focus on the loss of his mother. Bono attended a multi-denominational school in Clontarf. During his childhood and adolescence and his friends were part of a surrealist street gang called "Lypton Village". Bono met one of Guggi, in Lypton Village; the gang had a ritual of nickname-giving. Bono had several names: first, he was "Steinhegvanhuysenolegbangbangbang" just "Huyseman", followed by "Houseman", "Bon Murray", "Bono Vox of O'Connell Street", just "Bono". "Bono Vox" is an alteration of Bonavox, a Latin phrase which translates to "good voice". It is said he was nicknamed "Bono Vox" by his friend Gavin Friday, he disliked the name. Hewson has been known as "Bono" since the late 1970s. Although he uses Bono as his stage name, close family and friends refer to him as Bono, including fellow band members.
After he left school, his father Bob Hewson, told him he could live at home for one year but if he was not able to pay his own way, he would have to leave the house. Bono is married to businesswoman Alison Hewson; the couple have four children: daughters Jordan and Memphis Eve and sons Elijah Bob Patricius Guggi Q and John Abraham. Bono was a close friend to INXS frontman Michael Hutchence. Bono is never seen in public without sunglasses, as he suffers from glaucoma. During a Rolling Stone interview he stated: sensitive eyes to light. If somebody takes my photograph, I will see the flash for the rest of the day. My right eye swells up. I've a blockage there. So it's it's part privacy and part sensitivity. In the late 1980s or early 90s, Bono bought a top-floor duplex apartment in Manhattan's San Remo apartment building from Steve Jobs for $15 million. Jobs never moved in. In 2004, Bono was given an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from the University of Pennsylvania. In May 2010, Bono suffered a spinal injury while preparing for a U2 tour, was taken to a German clinic in Munich for emergency neurosurgery.
The North American leg of the tour was postponed and rescheduled for 2011. Bono was named one of the 17 Irish artists to be proud of by the Irish Post on 9 April 2013. Time magazine ranked him at the 8th place on its list of the "Most Influential Celebrities" in 2013. Bono's work as an activist, due to his Christian beliefs, began in earnest when, inspired by Live Aid, he travelled to Ethiopia to work in a feeding camp with his wife Alison and the charity World Vision, an Evangelical Christian humanitarian aid and advocacy organisation. With regard to Bono's 2013 declarations in interviews published and videotaped of his faith in Jesus Chri