A devil is the personification of evil as it is conceived in many and various cultures and religious traditions. It is seen as the objectification of a destructive force, it is difficult to specify a particular definition of any complexity that will cover all of the traditions, beyond that it is a manifestation of evil. It is meaningful to consider the devil through the lens of each of the cultures and religions that have the devil as part of their mythos; the history of this concept intertwines with theology, psychiatry and literature, maintaining a validity, developing independently within each of the traditions. It occurs in many contexts and cultures, is given many different names — Satan, Beelzebub, Mephistopheles — and attributes: It is portrayed as blue, black, or red; the idea of the devil has been taken often, but not always, for example when devil figures are used in advertising and on candy wrappers. The Modern English word devil derives from the Middle English devel, from the Old English dēofol, that in turn represents an early Germanic borrowing of the Latin diabolus.
This in turn was borrowed from the Greek: διάβολος diábolos, "slanderer", from διαβάλλειν diabállein, "to slander" from διά diá, "across, through" and βάλλειν bállein, "to hurl" akin to the Sanskrit gurate, "he lifts up". In his book The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Jeffrey Burton Russell discusses various meanings and difficulties that are encountered when using the term devil, he does not claim to define the word in a general sense, but he describes the limited use that he intends for the word in his book — limited in order to “minimize this difficulty” and “for the sake of clarity”. In this book Russell uses the word devil as "the personification of evil found in a variety of cultures", as opposed to the word Satan, which he reserves for the figure in the Abrahamic religions. In the Introduction to his book Satan: A Biography, Henry Ansgar Kelly discusses various considerations and meanings that he has encountered in using terms such as devil and Satan, etc.
While not offering a general definition, he describes that in his book "whenever diabolos is used as the proper name of Satan", he signals it by using "small caps". The Oxford English Dictionary has a variety of definitions for the meaning of "devil", supported by a range of citations: "Devil" may refer to Satan, the supreme spirit of evil, or one of Satan's emissaries or demons that populate Hell, or to one of the spirits that possess a demonic person; the earliest Hindu texts do not offer further explanations for evil, regarding evil as something natural. However texts offer various explanations for evil. According to an explanation given by the Brahmins, both demons and gods spoke truth and untruth, but the demons relinquished the truth and the gods relinquished the untruth, but both spirits are regarded as different aspects of one supreme god. Some fierce deities like Kali are not thought of as devils but just as darker aspects of God and may manifest benevolence. Zoroastrianism introduced the first idea of the conceptual devil.
In Zoroastrianism and evil derive from two opposed forces. The force of good is called Ahura Mazda and the "destructive spirit" in Avestan-language called Angra Mainyu; the Middle Persian equivalent is Ahriman. They are in eternal struggle and neither is all-powerful Angra Mainyu is limited to space and time: in the end of time, he will be defeated. While Ahura Mazda creates what is good, Angra Mainyu is responsible for every evil and suffering in the world, such as toads and scorpions. Among the Tengristic myths, Erlik refers to a devil-like figure as the ruler of Hell, the first human. According to one narrative and God swam together over the primordial waters; when God was about to create the Earth, he send Erlik to collect some mud. Erlik hid some inside his mouth to create his own world, but when God commanded the Earth to expand, Erlik got troubled by the mud in his mouth. God aided Erlik to spit it out; the mud carried by Erlik gave place to the unpleasant areas of the world. Because of his sin, he was assigned to evil.
In another variant, the creator-god is identified with Ulgen. Again, Erlik appears to be the first human, he desired to create a human just as Ulgen did, thereupon Ulgen reacted by punishing Erlik, casting him into the Underworld where he becomes its ruler. According to Tengrism, there is no death by meaning that life comes to an end, it is a transition into the invisible world; as the ruler of Hell, Erlik enslaves the souls. Further, he lurks on the souls of those humans living on Earth by causing death and illnesses. At the time of birth, Erlik sends a Kormos to seize the soul of the newborn, following him for the rest of his life in an attempt to seize his soul by hampering and injuring him; when Erlik succeeds in destroying a human's body, the Kormos sent by Erlik will try take him down into the Underworld. However a good soul will be brought to Paradise by a Yayutshi sent by Ulgen; some shamans made sacrifices to Erlik, for gaining a higher rank in the Underworld, if they should be damned to Hell.
According to Yazidism there is no entity that represents evil in opposi
The horse is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae; the horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began domesticating horses around 4000 BC, their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses; these feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse, a separate subspecies, the only remaining true wild horse. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, colors, breeds and behavior. Horses' anatomy enables them to make use of speed to escape predators and they have a well-developed sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response.
Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down, with younger horses tending to sleep more than adults. Female horses, called mares, carry their young for 11 months, a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth. Most domesticated horses begin training in harness between the ages of two and four, they reach full adult development by age five, have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years. Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited "hot bloods" with speed and endurance. There are more than 300 breeds of horse in the world today, developed for many different uses. Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police work, agriculture and therapy. Horses were used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control.
Many products are derived from horses, including meat, hide, hair and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers. Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomy, different life stages and breeds. Depending on breed and environment, the modern domestic horse has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years. Uncommonly, a few animals live into their 40s and beyond; the oldest verifiable record was "Old Billy", a 19th-century horse that lived to the age of 62. In modern times, Sugar Puff, listed in Guinness World Records as the world's oldest living pony, died in 2007 at age 56. Regardless of a horse or pony's actual birth date, for most competition purposes a year is added to its age each January 1 of each year in the Northern Hemisphere and each August 1 in the Southern Hemisphere; the exception is in endurance riding, where the minimum age to compete is based on the animal's actual calendar age.
The following terminology is used to describe horses of various ages: Foal: A foal of either sex less than one year old. A nursing foal is sometimes called a suckling and a foal, weaned is called a weanling. Most domesticated foals are weaned at five to seven months of age, although foals can be weaned at four months with no adverse physical effects. Yearling: A horse of either sex, between one and two years old. Colt: A male horse under the age of four. A common terminology error is to call any young horse a "colt", when the term only refers to young male horses. Filly: A female horse under the age of four. Mare: A female horse four years old and older. Stallion: A non-castrated male horse four years old and older; the term "horse" is sometimes used colloquially to refer to a stallion. Gelding: A castrated male horse of any age. In horse racing, these definitions may differ: For example, in the British Isles, Thoroughbred horse racing defines colts and fillies as less than five years old. However, Australian Thoroughbred racing defines fillies as less than four years old.
The height of horses is measured at the highest point of the withers. This point is used because it is a stable point of the anatomy, unlike the head or neck, which move up and down in relation to the body of the horse. In English-speaking countries, the height of horses is stated in units of hands and inches: one hand is equal to 4 inches; the height is expressed as the number of full hands, followed by a point the number of additional inches, ending with the abbreviation "h" or "hh". Thus, a horse described; the size of horses varies by breed, but is influenced by nutrition. Light riding horses range in height from 14 to 16 hands and can weigh from 380 to 550 kilograms. Larger riding horses start at about 15.2 hands and are as tall as 17 hands, weighing from 500 to 600 kilograms. Heavy or draft horses are at least 16 hands (64 inches, 16
The torso or trunk is an anatomical term for the central part or core of many animal bodies from which extend the neck and limbs. The torso includes: the thoracic segment of the trunk, the abdominal segment of the trunk, the perineum. Most critical organs are housed within the torso. In the upper chest, the heart and lungs are protected by the rib cage, the abdomen contains most of the organs responsible for digestion: the stomach, which breaks down digested food via gastric acid; the pelvic region houses both the male and female reproductive organs. The torso harbours many of the main groups of muscles in the body, including the: pectoral muscles abdominal muscles lateral muscle epaxial muscles The organs and other contents of the torso are supplied by nerves, which originate as nerve roots from the thoracic and lumbar parts of the spinal cord; some organs receive a nerve supply from the vagus nerve. The sensation to the skin is provided by: Lateral cutaneous branches of torso|Lateral cutaneous branches Dorsal cutaneous branches Belly cast Waist Belvedere Torso
A legendary and mythological creature traditionally called a fabulous beast and fabulous creature, is a fictitious and supernatural animal a hybrid, sometimes part human, whose existence has not or cannot be proved and, described in folklore or fiction but in historical accounts before history became a science. In the classical era, monstrous creatures such as the cyclops and the Minotaur appear in heroic tales for the protagonist to destroy. Other creatures, such as the unicorn, were claimed in accounts of natural history by various scholars of antiquity; some legendary creatures have their origin in traditional mythology and were believed to be real creatures, for example dragons and unicorns. Others were based on real encounters, originating in garbled accounts of travelers' tales, such as the Vegetable Lamb of Tartary, which grew tethered to the earth. A variety of mythical animals appear in the art and stories of the Classical era. For example, in the Odyssey, monstrous creatures include the Cyclops and Charybdis for the hero Odysseus to confront.
In other tales there appear the Medusa to be defeated by Perseus, the Minotaur to be destroyed by Theseus, the Hydra to be killed by Heracles, while Aeneas battles with the harpies. These monsters thus have the basic function of emphasizing the greatness of the heroes involved; some classical era creatures, such as the centaur, chimaera and the flying horse, are found in Indian art. Sphinxes appear as winged lions in Indian art and the Piasa Bird of North America. In medieval art, both real and mythical, played important roles; these included decorative forms as in medieval jewellery, sometimes with their limbs intricately interlaced. Animal forms were used to add majesty to objects. In Christian art, animals carried symbolic meanings, where for example the lamb symbolized Christ, a dove indicated the Holy Spirit, the classical griffin represented a guardian of the dead. Medieval bestiaries included animals regardless of biological reality. One function of mythical animals in the Middle Ages was allegory.
Unicorns, for example, were described as extraordinarily swift and uncatchable by traditional methods. It was believed; the unicorn was supposed to leap into her lap and go to sleep, at which point a hunter could capture it. In terms of symbolism, the unicorn was a metaphor for Christ. Unicorns represented the idea of purity. In the King James Bible, Psalm 92:10 states, "My horn shalt thou exalt like the horn of an unicorn." This is because the translators of the King James erroneously translated the Hebrew word re'em as unicorn. Versions translate this as wild ox; the unicorn's small size signifies the humility of Christ. Another common legendary creature which served allegorical functions within the Middle Ages was the dragon. Dragons were identified with serpents, though their attributes were intensified; the dragon was supposed to have been larger than all other animals. It was believed that the dragon had no harmful poison but was able to slay anything it embraced without any need for venom. Biblical scriptures speak of the dragon in reference to the devil, they were used to denote sin in general during the Middle Ages.
Dragons were said to have dwelled in places like Ethiopia and India, based on the idea that there was always heat present in these locations. Physical detail was not the central focus of the artists depicting such animals, medieval bestiaries were not conceived as biological categorizations. Creatures like the unicorn and griffin were not categorized in a separate "mythological" section in medieval bestiaries, as the symbolic implications were of primary importance. Animals we know to have existed were still presented with a fantastical approach, it seems the religious and moral implications of animals were far more significant than matching a physical likeness in these renderings. Nona C. Flores explains, "By the tenth century, artists were bound by allegorical interpretation, abandoned naturalistic depictions." The historian Richard Kieckhefer explains, "Magic is not meant to work but to express wishes, or to encode in symbols a perception of how things do or should work." Cryptozoology Lists of legendary creatures List of legendary creatures by type Mythical creature in the New World Encyclopedia
The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears illuminated from Earth's perspective. This occurs when Earth is located between the Moon; this means that the lunar hemisphere facing Earth – the near side – is sunlit and appears as a circular disk, while the far side is dark. The full moon occurs once every month; when the Moon moves into Earth's shadow, a lunar eclipse occurs, during which all or part of the Moon's face may appear reddish due to the Rayleigh scattering of blue wavelengths and the refraction of sunlight through Earth's atmosphere. Lunar eclipses happen only during full moon and around points on its orbit where the satellite may pass through the planet's shadow. A lunar eclipse does not occur every month because the Moon's orbit is inclined 5.14° with respect to the ecliptic plane of Earth. Lunar eclipses happen only. Therefore, a lunar eclipse occurs every 6 months and 2 weeks before or after a solar eclipse, which occurs during new moon around the opposite node; the interval period between a new or full moon and the next same phase, a synodic month, averages about 29.53 days.
Therefore, in those lunar calendars in which each month begins on the day of the new moon, the full moon falls on either the 14th or 15th day of the lunar month. Because a calendar month consists of a whole number of days, a lunar month may be either 29 or 30 days long. A full moon is thought of as an event of a full night's duration; this is somewhat misleading because its phase seen from Earth continuously wanes. Its maximum illumination occurs at the moment waxing. For any given location, about half of these maximum full moons may be visible, while the other half occurs during the day, when the full moon is below the horizon. Many almanacs list full moons not only by date, but by their exact time in Coordinated Universal Time. Typical monthly calendars that include lunar phases may be offset by one day when used in a different time zone. Full moon is a suboptimal time for astronomical observation of the Moon because shadows vanish, it is a poor time for other observations because the bright sunlight reflected by the Moon, amplified by the opposition surge outshines many stars.
On 12 December 2008, the full moon occurred closer to the Earth than it had been at any time for the previous 15 years, called a supermoon. On 19 March 2011, another full supermoon occurred, closer to the Earth than at any time for the previous 18 years. On 14 November 2016, a full supermoon occurred closer to the Earth than at any time for the previous 68 years; the date and approximate time of a specific full moon can be calculated from the following equation: d = 20.362000 + 29.530588861 × N + 102.026 × 10 − 12 × N 2 where d is the number of days since 1 January 2000 00:00:00 in the Terrestrial Time scale used in astronomical ephemerides. The true time of a full moon may differ from this approximation by up to about 14.5 hours as a result of the non-circularity of the moon's orbit. See New moon for an explanation of the formula and its parameters; the age and apparent size of the full moon vary in a cycle of just under 14 synodic months, referred to as a full moon cycle. Full moons are traditionally associated with temporal insomnia and various "magical phenomena" such as lycanthropy.
Psychologists, have found that there is no strong evidence for effects on human behavior around the time of a full moon. They find that studies are not consistent, with some showing a positive effect and others showing a negative effect. In one instance, the 23 December 2000 issue of the British Medical Journal published two studies on dog bite admission to hospitals in England and Australia; the study of the Bradford Royal Infirmary found that dog bites were twice as common during a full moon, whereas the study conducted by the public hospitals in Australia found that they were less likely. Month names are names of moons in lunisolar calendars. Since the introduction of the solar Julian calendar in the Roman Empire, the Gregorian calendar worldwide, people no longer perceive month names as "moon" names; the traditional Old English month names were equated with the names of the Julian calendar from an early time. Some full moons have developed new names in modern times, e.g. the blue moon, the names "harvest moon" and "hunter's moon" for the full moons of autumn.
Lunar eclipses only happen during a full moon and cast a reddish tint over the face of the moon. This has been called a blood moon in popular culture; the "harvest moon" and "hunter's moon" are traditional terms for the full moons occurri
In religion and folklore, Hell is an afterlife location, sometimes a place of torment and punishment. Religions with a linear divine history depict hells as eternal destinations while religions with a cyclic history depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations; these traditions locate hell in another dimension or under the Earth's surface and include entrances to Hell from the land of the living. Other afterlife destinations include Heaven, Purgatory and Limbo. Other traditions, which do not conceive of the afterlife as a place of punishment or reward describe Hell as an abode of the dead, the grave, a neutral place located under the surface of Earth; the modern English word hell is derived from Old English hel, helle reaching into the Anglo-Saxon pagan period. The word has cognates in all branches of the Germanic languages, including Old Norse hel, Old Frisian helle, Old Saxon hellia, Old High German hella, Gothic halja. All forms derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic feminine noun *xaljō or *haljō.
In turn, the Proto-Germanic form derives from the o-grade form of the Proto-Indo-European root *kel-, *kol-:'to cover, save'. Indo-European cognates including Latin cēlāre and early Irish ceilid. Upon the Christianization of the Germanic peoples, extension of Proto-Germanic *xaljō were reinterpreted to denote the underworld in Christian mythology, for which see Gehenna. Related early Germanic terms and concepts include Proto-Germanic *xalja-rūnō, a feminine compound noun, *xalja-wītjan, a neutral compound noun; this form is reconstructed from the Latinized Gothic plural noun *haliurunnae, Old English helle-rúne, Old High German helli-rūna'magic'. The compound is composed of two elements: *xaljō and *rūnō, the Proto-Germanic precursor to Modern English rune; the second element in the Gothic haliurunnae may however instead be an agent noun from the verb rinnan, which would make its literal meaning "one who travels to the netherworld". Proto-Germanic *xalja-wītjan is reconstructed from Old Norse hel-víti'hell', Old English helle-wíte'hell-torment, hell', Old Saxon helli-wīti'hell', the Middle High German feminine noun helle-wīze.
The compound is a compound of * * wītjan. Hell appears in several religions, it is inhabited by demons and the souls of dead people. A fable about Hell which recurs in folklore across several cultures is the allegory of the long spoons. Hell is depicted in art and literature most famously in Dante's Divine Comedy. Punishment in Hell corresponds to sins committed during life. Sometimes these distinctions are specific, with damned souls suffering for each sin committed, but sometimes they are general, with condemned sinners relegated to one or more chamber of Hell or to a level of suffering. In many religious cultures, including Christianity and Islam, Hell is depicted as fiery and harsh, inflicting suffering on the guilty. Despite these common depictions of Hell as a place of fire, some other traditions portray Hell as cold. Buddhist - and Tibetan Buddhist - descriptions of Hell feature an equal number of hot and cold Hells. Among Christian descriptions Dante's Inferno portrays the innermost circle of Hell as a frozen lake of blood and guilt.
But cold played a part in earlier Christian depictions of Hell, beginning with the Apocalypse of Paul from the early third century. The Sumerian afterlife was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground, where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth"; this bleak domain was known as Kur, was believed to be ruled by the goddess Ereshkigal. All souls went to the same afterlife, a person's actions during life had no effect on how the person would be treated in the world to come; the souls in Kur were believed to eat nothing but dry dust and family members of the deceased would ritually pour libations into the dead person's grave through a clay pipe, thereby allowing the dead to drink. Nonetheless, funerary evidence indicates that some people believed that the goddess Inanna, Ereshkigal's younger sister, had the power to award her devotees with special favors in the afterlife. During the Third Dynasty of Ur, it was believed that a person's treatment in the afterlife depended on how he or she was buried.
The entrance to Kur was believed to be located in the Zagros mountains in the far east. It had seven gates; the god Neti was the gatekeeper. Ereshkigal's sukkal, or messenger, was the god Namtar. Galla were a class of demons, they are fr
A tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber, of varying sizes; the word is used in a broad sense to encompass a number of such types of places of interment or burial, including: Architectural shrines – in Christianity, an architectural shrine above a saint's first place of burial, as opposed to a similar shrine on which stands a reliquary or feretory into which the saint's remains have been transferred Burial vault – a stone or brick-lined underground space for multiple burials vaulted privately owned for specific family groups. Crypts – though not always, for interment, its central feature is a single, prominent pillar or column made of stone. Rock-cut tomb – a form widespread in the ancient world, in which the tomb is not built but carved out of the rock and can be a free-standing building but is more a cave, which may be extensive and may or may not have an elaborate facade. Sarcophagus – a stone container for a body or coffin decorated and part of a monument.
Sepulchre – a cavernous rock-cut space for interment in the Jewish or Christian faiths. Samadhi – in India a tomb for a deceased saint that has a larger building over it as a shrine Other forms of archaeological "tombs", such as ship burials Tumulus – A mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are known as barrows, burial mounds, Hügelgräber or kurgans', can be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, might be a tumulus. A long barrow is a long tumulus for numbers of burials; as indicated, tombs are located in or under religious buildings, such as churches, or in cemeteries or churchyards. However, they may be found in catacombs, on private land or, in the case of early or pre-historic tombs, in what is today open landscape; the Daisen Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, is the largest in the world by area. However, the Pyramid of Khufu in Egypt is the largest by volume. Cadaver tomb Church monument Death in Norse paganism English church monuments Funerary art Grave Ossuary Necropolis List of extant papal tombs List of mausolea List of non-extant papal tombs List of tombs and mausoleums Ziyarat - "visitation".
Notable examples: Dartmoor kistvaens Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Great Pyramids Taj Mahal Tomb of Alexander the Great Tomb of Genghis Khan Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor Catacombs of Paris Catacombs of Rome The Panthéon Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which contains the empty tomb of Jesus, where he was buried and resurrected. Tomb of the Unknown Soldier United Kingdom: The Unknown Warrior France: Tomb of the Unknown Soldier beneath the Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile United States: Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington National Cemetery Iraq: Monument to the Unknown Soldier Russia: Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Alexander Garden, Moscow