A beta-lactam ring is a four-membered lactam. It is named as such because the nitrogen atom is attached to the β-carbon atom relative to the carbonyl; the simplest β-lactam possible is 2-azetidinone. The β-lactam ring is part of the core structure of several antibiotic families, the principal ones being the penicillins, cephalosporins and monobactams, which are, therefore called β-lactam antibiotics. Nearly all of these antibiotics work by inhibiting bacterial cell wall biosynthesis; this has a lethal effect on bacteria, although any given bacteria population will contain a subgroup, resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. Bacterial resistance occurs as a result of the expression of one of many genes for the production of β-lactamases, a class of enzymes that break open the β-lactam ring. More than 1,800 different β-lactamase enzymes have been documented in various species of bacteria; these enzymes vary in their chemical structure and catalytic efficiencies. When bacterial populations have these resistant subgroups, treatment with β-lactam can result in the resistant strain becoming more prevalent and therefore more virulent.

Β-lactam derived antibiotics can be considered as one of the most important antibiotic classes but prone to clinical resistance. Β-lactam exhibits its antibiotic properties by imitating the occurring d-Ala-d-Ala substrate for the group of enzymes known as penicillin binding proteins, which have as function to cross-link the peptidoglycan part of the cell wall of the bacteria. The first synthetic β-lactam was prepared by Hermann Staudinger in 1907 by reaction of the Schiff base of aniline and benzaldehyde with diphenylketene in a cycloaddition: Up to 1970, most β-lactam research was concerned with the penicillin and cephalosporin groups, but since a wide variety of structures have been described; the Breckpot synthesis: The synthesis of substituted β-lactams from the cyclization of beta amino acid esters using the Grignard reagent. An efficient catalytic synthetic strategy towards beta‐lactams involving “in situ” generation of ketenes and subsequent trapping with imines was reported by the group of de Bruin.

Carbonylation of carbene radical intermediates using the cheap and active cobalt tetramethyltetraazaannulene catalyst provided a convenient one‐pot synthetic protocol towards trans-selective beta lactams. Due to ring strain, β-lactams are more hydrolyzed than linear amides or larger lactams; this strain is further increased by fusion as found in most β-lactam antibiotics. This trend is due to the amide character of the β-lactam being reduced by the aplanarity of the system; the nitrogen atom of an ideal amide is sp2-hybridized due to resonance, sp2-hybridized atoms have trigonal planar bond geometry. As a pyramidal bond geometry is forced upon the nitrogen atom by the ring strain, the resonance of the amide bond is reduced, the carbonyl becomes more ketone-like. Nobel laureate Robert Burns Woodward described a parameter h as a measure of the height of the trigonal pyramid defined by the nitrogen and its three adjacent atoms. H corresponds to the strength of the β-lactam bond with lower numbers being stronger and less reactive.

Monobactams have h values between 0.10 angstroms. Cephems have h values in of 0.20–0.25 Å. Penams have values in the range 0.40–0.50 Å, while carbapenems and clavams have values of 0.50–0.60 Å, being the most reactive of the β-lactams toward hydrolysis. A new study has suggested that β-lactams can undergo ring-opening polymerization to form amide bonds, to become nylon-3 polymers; the backbones of these polymers are identical to peptides. These nylon-3 polymers can either mimic host defense peptides or act as signals to stimulate 3T3 stem cell function. Antiproliferative agents that target tubulin with β-lactams in their structure have been reported. Azetidine Lactone Synthesis of β-lactams

Jáchal Department

Jáchal is a department of the province of San Juan. It is located north of the same by making, characterized by its first level agricultural production, which emphasizes the planting of onion; the city is known as the cradle of tradition. The name of the department is a native language meaning river of the groves or land or district metals. Jáchal The department is in the northern center of the Province of San Juan, about 150 km of City of San Juan, it has 14,749 km2 what you get placed in third place among the departments with the largest areas of the province, after Calingasta and Iglesia, its boundaries are: To the north the Province of La Rioja, Argentina To the south with the department Ullum, Albardón, Angaco and Caucete East: the Valle Fértil To the west with the IglesiaThe department has a relief Jáchal has two distinct structures. The mountains belonging to the edge of the foothills in the direction from north to south, are located to the west forming a natural boundary with the Iglesia Department, highlighting the hills, Alto Mayo and Glen Wells.

The Fertile Valley Serani surrounding the eastern valleys separating Huaco. From the standpoint of the department is irrigodo water by rivers Jáchal, second in importance to the provincial level, supplying the homonymous valley, located in the center west of the department; the river irrigates the valley Huaco same name and is where the dam the Cauquenes is one of the mirrors of water present in the apartment next to the diverter Pachimoco and the Bermejo River, this river is temporary and that feeds on rainwater. The flora is composed of jarillas, challenge you, chañares, booby bird, so on. In the case of the fauna are distinguished fox, condor, partridges and silversides, as well as various reptiles and arachnids, are the local fauna. Jáchal's economy is centered on the agriculture, highlighting numerous plantations of vegetable s, such as onion, the third product in the province of San Juan most exported after the vine and olive. Variasdas produced a fruit s, olives and develops a significant production of alfalfa.

From 2007 to date the amount of land planted with onions dwindled by 42%, passed 1,122 hectares registered in the last census of Hydraulics, the existing 650 hectares, according to figures from the Association, while the surface with alfalfa increased by 63% from 1584 hectares in 2007 to about 2,500 today. Thus the productive profile of Jáchal occurs much more diversified with the increased area of alfalfa and to a lesser extent, stands the tomato. In 2008 a company multinational dedicated to mining launched in this jurisdiction a mine, from which to draw gold, it is located above the 2,000 m. It is the Project Gualcamayo, is located north of the department, in the area of the Quebrada del Diablo foothills area of San Juan; this is a site located only 10 kilometers from the National road San Jose, Jáchal. This is a holding open with crushing of ore, leachate with cyanide and subsequent precipitation with activated carbon; this will provide doré metal bars go to refinery San José de Jáchal: In the Midwest of the Valley Jáchal is the city of San Jose de Jáchal, a quiet town with long streets connecting the center with the environment of green fields and turbulent Jáchal offers places like San Jose Archdiocesan Shrine national historic monument and several museums.

During the month of November is celebrated around the Provincial Party Tradition, where he performed shows with local and national performers, crafts shows, selling local foods and so on. From San Jose, Jáchal can begin to several different trips, for example, the old flour mills in the area. Cauquenes: Reservoir dam is located at 1,100 m; the reservoir known as Dam Dam Huaco or lysosomes, is the ideal place to share a day outdoors in a setting of spectacular scenery and amazing tranquility, the lake invites water sports and admire the variety of flora and fauna. The water mirror is famous among anglers for the presence of the coveted silversides. Mogna: This town is located south of the province, is home to one of the most popular celebrations of Jáchal mass; the Feast of Santa Barbara Mogna performed on 4 December and more than 20,000 calls faithful to ride from San Juan to honor the Virgin. The festivities include the participation of the Bishop of San Juan; the presentation of important folk artists and to sample regional foods are the main attractions of the festival.

Flour Mills: With more than two centuries of existence, these old machines stand the test of time to witness the economic development achieved by Jáchal the eighteenth century. The mills stand as symbols of a prosperous past. At that time, flour production in the province not only supplied the local market but those across the country, including Buenos Aires and Tucuman; because of their undeniable value and in order to ensure their preservation, Mills Huaco Jáchal near the Church and others were declared National Historic Monument. The various parts made possible today can be appreciated in all its glory. A visit to Jáchal can not overlook the trip to the mill circuit, an unforgettable journey that will leave a valuable cultural learning, it is interesting to know the sardines, still preserved wooden machinery of carob and Reyes mill, which dates back to colonial times. Mill SardiñaFeatures: One of the most prominent joint edilicios still active. In the original building were added as the room for other races to be queuing for milling.

This mill still lists rustic machinery used to move the "teeth" or Prechas producing grinding wheel by a large Mill GarciaFeatures: true regional production unit, forms

Eddy (surname)

The surname Eddy is used by descendants of a number of English and Scottish families. Frank R. Holmes, in his Directory of the Ancestral Heads of New England Families, 1600-1700, proposes two possible origins. Another possible origin is the Saxon root ead, "success" or "prosperity". Ead occurs in numerous used names, as Edgar, Edward and the outdated Edwy. John Eddy of Taunton spells the name Eddway in the earliest record so far found. Eddy could be a diminutive of any one of these names. Robert Ferguson, in his work on English Surnames, believes that Eddy is a place-name: “Eday, Eddy are from ead, prosperity. Hence the name of the rock Eddiston, on which the celebrated light house is built. From this word are compounded a great number of Anglo-Saxon names of which we have Edward, Edgar,Edw Edwin.” One of the first mentions, close to the form of Eddy, is the name of the priest Eddi or Edde, Latinized into Eddius. He went to Northumbria from Canterbury with Bishop Wilfrid in 669, took the name Stephanus.

He taught the Roman method of chanting, in 709 he was in the monastery of Ripon, where he wrote a life of Wilfrid in Latin. In the Domesday Book, the name Eddeu is used in a description of Little Abington and during the time of Edward the First there were a number of people named Ede and Edwy on the tax collection rolls of Worcestershire. There is a record in Hertfordshire, of a William Edy, Gentleman, in 1486. Edie, Eddye and Edye are found in numerous records in Gloucestershire from 1545 onward. At Woodbridge, Eyde is found as a surname between 1599 and 1610. Starting from 1570 in the records of many parishes of the Archdeaconry Court of Cornwall, the following surnames are found: Edy, Eedy, Edye and Eddy. In Bristol, the town where William Eddye, the Vicar, was born, a number of wills from the late 16th century have the surname of Eddie, Eddye or Eddy. Ade, Addy, Eadie are common Scottish surnames; these may be forms of the name “Adam”. David Eadie of Moneaght, was granted a coat of arms in 1672.

In North America, the largest family group who bears the Eddy surname are descended from two brothers and Samuel, who immigrated to America on October 29, 1630 on a ship called Handmaid. Their father, William Eddye, was the Vicar of the church in Cranbrook, from 1586–1616 and was born in Bristol in the mid-16th century. Other Northern American "patriarchs" are John Eddy who lived in Taunton, Massachusetts in the late 17th century. There is a large family of Eddys in Cornwall. Arthur Jerome Eddy, American lawyer, art collector, art critic C. M. Eddy, Jr. American short story writer Charles B. Eddy, American cattle rancher, namesake for Eddy County, New Mexico Chuck Eddy, American music journalist David M. Eddy, American physician and healthcare analyst Don Eddy, American basketball coach Duane Eddy, American guitarist Eddy Brothers, two American mediums best known in the 1870s, who claimed psychic powers Ezra Butler Eddy, Canadian businessman and political figure Fannyann Eddy, murdered lesbian human rights defender from Sierra Leone Frank Eddy, American politician from Minnesota James Eddy, American businessman, founder of Arizona Mineral Belt Railroad Jerome Eddy, American businessman and politician from Michigan John A. Eddy, American astronomer Manton S. Eddy, American general Mary Baker Eddy, the American founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist church Nelson Eddy, American singer Nick Eddy, American pro football player Norman Eddy, American politician and military officer Sarah J. Eddy, American artist and suffragette Sean Eddy, bioinformatician Shelia Eddy, American convicted of murder Thomas Eddy, NY merchant and politician William A. Eddy, American academic and intelligence officer William Abner Eddy, American accountant and journalist famous for his experiments with kites William C.

Eddy, American naval officer, engineer, television producer, cartoonist, inventor, explorer, writer William F. Eddy, Canadian political figure from Saskatchewan Eddy Family publicationsEddy, Charles. Genealogy of the Eddy Family. Brooklyn: Nolan Brothers. OCLC 608720678; the Eddy Family. Reunion at Providence to Celebrate the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Landing of John and Samuel Eddy at Plymouth, October 29, 1630. Boston, Mass.: J. S. Cushing, printer. OCLC 20387092. Eddy, Ruth Story Devereux, A. B. A. M. ed.. The Eddy Family in America: A Genealogy. Compiled by Ruth Story Devereux Eddy, A. B. A. M. and Published Under the Direction of the Eddy Family Association, in Commemoration of the Three Hundredth Anniversary of the Landing of John and Samuel Eddy at Plymouth, October 29, 1630. Boston, Massachusetts: T. O. Metcalf Company. OCLC 608715552