Eratosthenes of Cyrene was a Greek mathematician, poet and music theorist. He was a man of becoming the chief librarian at the Library of Alexandria, he invented the discipline of geography, including the terminology used today. He is best known for being the first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth, which he did by comparing angles of the mid-day Sun at two places a known North-South distance apart, his calculation was remarkably accurate. He was the first to calculate the tilt of the Earth's axis, again with remarkable accuracy. Additionally, he may have calculated the distance from the Earth to the Sun and invented the leap day, he created the first map of the world, incorporating parallels and meridians based on the available geographic knowledge of his era. Eratosthenes was the founder of scientific chronology. Eratosthenes dated The Sack of Troy to 1183 BC. In number theory, he introduced the sieve of Eratosthenes, an efficient method of identifying prime numbers, he was a figure of influence in many fields.
According to an entry in the Suda, his critics scorned him, calling him Beta because he always came in second in all his endeavors. Nonetheless, his devotees nicknamed him Pentathlos after the Olympians who were well rounded competitors, for he had proven himself to be knowledgeable in every area of learning. Eratosthenes yearned to understand the complexities of the entire world; the son of Aglaos, Eratosthenes was born in 276 BC in Cyrene. Now part of modern-day Libya, Cyrene had been founded by Greeks centuries earlier and became the capital of Pentapolis, a country of five cities: Cyrene, Berenice and Apollonia. Alexander the Great conquered Cyrene in 332 BC, following his death in 323 BC, its rule was given to one of his generals, Ptolemy I Soter, the founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Under Ptolemaic rule the economy prospered, based on the export of horses and silphium, a plant used for rich seasoning and medicine. Cyrene became a place of cultivation. Like any young Greek, Eratosthenes would have studied in the local gymnasium, where he would have learned physical skills and social discourse as well as reading, arithmetic and music.
Eratosthenes went to Athens to further his studies. There he was taught Stoicism by its founder, Zeno of Citium, in philosophical lectures on living a virtuous life, he studied under Aristo of Chios, who led a more cynical school of philosophy. He studied under the head of the Platonic Academy, Arcesilaus of Pitane, his interest in Plato led him to write his first work at a scholarly level, inquiring into the mathematical foundation of Plato's philosophies. Eratosthenes investigated the art of poetry under Callimachus, he was a imaginative poet. He wrote poems: one in hexameters called Hermes, illustrating the god's life history, he wrote Chronographies, a text that scientifically depicted dates of importance, beginning with the Trojan War. This work was esteemed for its accuracy. George Syncellus was able to preserve from Chronographies a list of 38 kings of the Egyptian Thebes. Eratosthenes wrote Olympic Victors, a chronology of the winners of the Olympic Games, it is not known when he wrote his works.
These works and his great poetic abilities led the pharaoh Ptolemy III Euergetes to seek to place him as a librarian at the Library of Alexandria in the year 245 BC. Eratosthenes thirty years old, accepted Ptolemy's invitation and traveled to Alexandria, where he lived for the rest of his life. Within about five years he became Chief Librarian, a position that the poet Apollonius Rhodius had held; as head of the library Eratosthenes tutored the children of Ptolemy, including Ptolemy IV Philopator who became the fourth Ptolemaic pharaoh. He expanded the library's holdings: in Alexandria all books had to be surrendered for duplication, it was said that these were copied so that it was impossible to tell if the library had returned the original or the copy. He sought to maintain the reputation of the Library of Alexandria against competition from the Library of Pergamum. Eratosthenes created a whole section devoted to the examination of Homer, acquired original works of great tragic dramas of Aeschylus and Euripides.
Eratosthenes made several important contributions to mathematics and science, was a friend of Archimedes. Around 255 BC, he invented the armillary sphere. In On the Circular Motions of the Celestial Bodies, Cleomedes credited him with having calculated the Earth's circumference around 240 BC, using knowledge of the angle of elevation of the Sun at noon on the summer solstice in Alexandria and on Elephantine Island near Syene. Eratosthenes believed there was good and bad in every nation and criticized Aristotle for arguing that humanity was divided into Greeks and barbarians, that the Greeks should keep themselves racially pure; as he aged he contracted ophthalmia, becoming blind around 195 BC. Losing the ability to read and to observe nature plagued and depressed him, leading him to voluntarily starve himself to death, he died in 194 BC at 82 in Alexandria. Eratosthenes calculated the Earth's circumference without leaving Alexandria, he knew that at local noon on the summer solstice in Syene (modern Asw
Betacam is a family of half-inch professional videocassette products developed by Sony in 1982. In colloquial use, "Betacam" singly is used to refer to a Betacam camcorder, a Betacam tape, a Betacam video recorder or the format itself. All Betacam variants from analog recording Betacam to Betacam SP and digital recording Digital Betacam, use the same shape videocassettes, meaning vaults and other storage facilities do not have to be changed when upgrading to a new format; the cassettes are available in two sizes: S and L. The Betacam camcorder can only load S magnetic tapes, while television studio sized video tape recorders designed for video editing can play both S and L tapes; the cassette shell and case for each Betacam cassette is colored differently depending on the format, allowing for easy visual identification. There is a mechanical key that allows a video tape recorder to identify which format has been inserted; the smaller S cassettes use the same form factor as Betamax. The format supplanted the three-quarter-inch U-Matic format, which Sony had introduced in 1971.
In addition to improvements in video quality, the Betacam configuration of an integrated professional video camera/recorder led to its rapid adoption by electronic news gathering organizations. DigiBeta, the common name for Digital Betacam, went on to become the single most successful professional broadcast digital recording video tape format in history. Though Betacam remains popular in the field and for archiving, new tapeless digital products such as the Multi Access Video Disk Recorder are leading to a phasing out of Betacam products in a television studio environment, as of 2006; the original Betacam format was launched on August 7, 1982. It is an analog component video format, storing the luminance, "Y", in one track and the chrominance, on another as alternating segments of the R-Y and B-Y components performing Compressed Time Division Multiplex, or CTDM; this splitting of channels allows true broadcast quality recording with 300 lines of horizontal luminance resolution and 120 lines chrominance resolution, on a inexpensive cassette based format.
The original Betacam format records on cassettes loaded with ferric oxide–formulated tape, which are theoretically the same as used by its consumer market-oriented predecessor Betamax, introduced seven years earlier by Sony in 1975. A blank Betamax-branded tape will work on a Betacam deck, a Betacam-branded tape can be used to record in a Betamax deck. However, in years Sony discouraged this practice, suggesting that the internal tape transport of a domestic Betamax cassette was not well suited to the faster tape transport of Betacam. In particular, the guide rollers tend to be noisy. Although there is a superficial similarity between Betamax and Betacam in that they use the same tape cassette, they are quite different formats. Betamax records low resolution video using a heterodyne color recording system and only two recording heads, while Betacam uses four heads to record in component format, at a much higher linear tape speed of 10.15 cm/s compared with Betamax's 1.87 cm/s, resulting in much higher video and audio quality.
A typical L-750 length Betamax cassette that yielded about 3 hours of recording time on a Betamax VCR at its B-II Speed, or on PAL, only provided 30 minutes' record time on a Betacam VCR or camcorder. Another common point between Betamax and Betacam is the placement of the stereo linear audio tracks; some Betacam and Betamax portables share the same batteries.. Betacam was introduced as a camera line along with a video cassette player; the first cameras were the BVP-3, which utilized three saticon tubes, the BVP1, which used a single tri-stripe Trinicon tube. Both these cameras could be operated standalone, or with their docking companion VTR, the BVV-1, to form the BVW-1 integrated camcorder; those decks were record-only. The only transport controls on the deck were Rewind; the docked camera's VTR button paused the tape recorder. The Betacam SP docking decks had full transport controls but tapes could not be played back except in the camera's viewfinder in black-and-white only. Sony came out with the Play Adapter, a separate portable unit that connected via a multi-pin cable and had a composite video out jack for color playback.
At first color playback required the studio source deck, the BVW-10, which could not record, only play back. It was designed as a feeder deck for A/B roll edit systems for editing to a one-inch Type C or three-quarter-inch U-matic cassette edit master tape. There was the BVW-20 field playback deck, a portable unit with DC power and a handle, used to verify color playback of tapes in the field. Unlike the BVW-10, it did not have a built in Time Base Corrector, or TBC. With the popular success of the Betacam system as a news acquisition format, the line was soon extended to include the BVW-15 studio player, the BVW-40 Studio Edit Recorder; the BVW-15 added Dynamic Tracking, which enabled clear still frame and jog playback, something the BVW-10 could not deliver. The BVW-40 enabled for the first time editing to a Betacam master, if set up and wired true component video editing, it was possible to do machine to machine editing between a BVW-10/15 and BVW-40 without an edit controller—a single seri
Beta is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 2. In Ancient Greek, beta represented the voiced bilabial plosive /b/. In Modern Greek, it represents the voiced labiodental fricative /v/. Letters that arose from beta include the Roman letter ⟨B⟩ and the Cyrillic letters ⟨Б⟩ and ⟨В⟩. Like the names of most other Greek letters, the name of beta was adopted from the acrophonic name of the corresponding letter in Phoenician, the common Semitic word *bait. In Greek, the name was βῆτα bêta, pronounced in Ancient Greek, it is pronounced. The letter beta was derived from the Phoenician letter beth; the letter Β had the largest number of divergent local forms. Besides the standard form, there were forms as varied as, and. In the system of Greek numerals, beta has a value of 2; such use is denoted by a number mark: Β′. Beta is used in finance as a measure of investment portfolio risk. Beta in this context is calculated as the covariance of the portfolio's returns with its benchmark's returns, divided by the variance of the benchmark's returns.
A beta of 1.5 means that for every 1% change in the value of the benchmark, the portfolio's value changes by 1.5%. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, Greek minuscule beta denotes a voiced bilabial fricative. A superscript version may indicate a compressed vowel, like; the name Beta was used as a name during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season as Hurricane Beta. Beta is used to denote a variable in mathematics and physics, where it has specific meanings for certain applications. In physics a stream of unbound energetic electrons is referred to as beta radiation or beta rays. In regression analysis, ⟨B⟩ symbolizes nonstandardized partial slope coefficients, whereas ⟨β⟩ represents standardized coefficients. In spaceflight, beta angle describes the angle between the orbit plane of a spacecraft or other body and the vector from the sun; the term "beta" refers to advice on how to complete a particular climbing route, boulder problem, or crux sequence. In statistics, beta may represent regression slope.
In some high-quality typesetting in the French tradition, a typographic variant of the lowercase letter without a descender is used within a word for ancient Greek: βίβλος is printed βίϐλος. In typesetting technical literature, it is a made mistake to use the German letter ß as a replacement for β; the two letters resemble each other in some fonts. "Beta" can be used to refer to several consumer and professional videotape formats developed by Japan's Sony Corporation. Although named, they are different in function and obsolescence. Betamax was the name of a domestic videotape format developed in the 1980s, it competed with the Video Home System format developed by the Japanese Victor Company, to which it succumbed. The Betamax format was marketed Betacord by. Betamax lost in the market and is an oft-used example of a technically superior solution that failed due to market forces. Betacam, including Beta SP and DigiBeta, is a family of professional videotape formats launched in 1982, the de facto standard for professional video and television production through the 2000s.
The formats outlasted analog NTSC television, their scarcity today is because the industry has moved to HD formats. Greek BetaLatin BetaMathematical BetaThese characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style
Beta (motorcycle manufacturer)
Beta is an Italian motorcycle manufacturer, specialising in off-road motorcycles. Beta are best known for their popular trials bikes. In 2005, they launched a range of enduro motorcycles using KTM engines. In 2010 they launched the new RR series, with a new engine made in-house. Beta motorcycles have been used by world trials champions such as Jordi Tarrés, Dougie Lampkin and Albert Cabestany. Beta has its origins in 1904 as a bicycle manufacturing company named "Società Giuseppe Bianchi" based in Florence; the company started making motorcycles in 1948. The name Beta comes from the initials of Enzo Bianchi and Arrigo Tosi, who ran the company at that time. Focusing on two-stroke bikes through the 1950s and 1960s, the company started focusing development and production to off-road motorcycles in the 1970s. Beta have produced motorcycles for observed trials since the early 1980s and are now one of the leading manufacturers. Unlike the Trail and Enduro models, the trials bike have used Beta's own engines.
TR240 First trials model, twinshock suspension 125cc, 200cc engines, the majority with reed valve induction. TR32, Air-cooled, monoshock model, produced in parallel with the twinshock model, same engine as TR240 TR33, TR34, Very successful trials model, stripey paintwork, 125cc - 260cc engines TR35, Air-cooled engine series Zero, Water-cooled monoshock Synt, Water-cooled monoshock SuperTrial, Air-cooled engine Gara, Techno, 125cc version from 1995 Rev-3, 2-stroke trials Rev-4, 4-stroke trials Evo 2-stroke and 4-stroke Beta made a range of motocross and enduro bikes during the 1970s and 1980s; the Beta Enduro bikes have used KTM engines since their return in 2004, though 2009 sees the launch of bikes with Beta's own power units. The Alp trail motorcycle models have used air-cooled Suzuki DR-model engines and have a good reputation at commuters and'green-lane' trail bikes. With a low seat height and a reputation as an easy to ride motorcycle, they are ideal to beginners of off-road riding. Alp, 125cc, 200cc and 350cc models.
Air-cooled bikes with Suzuki engines. Beta RR Motard Track Motorcycle List of scooters Scooter List of scooter manufacturers List of Italian companies List of motorcycle manufacturers Beta Official site. Beta Racing UK Uk based Beta Trials site. Www.betausa.com US site. Www. BetaBikes.de German Site: Information, Gallery and more, all about Betamotorcycles] www.betarider.org Beta Riders Club www.betarider.org/forum Beta Discussion Forum
Muv-Luv is a Japanese visual novel developed by âge and released as an adult game for Windows on February 28, 2003. Consisting of two parts, Muv-Luv Extra and Muv-Luv Unlimited, the gameplay in Muv-Luv follows a linear plot line, which offers pre-determined scenarios and courses of interaction, focuses on the differing scenarios of the female main characters. Muv-Luv was followed by a sequel, Muv-Luv Alternative, released for Windows on April 24, 2006 and follows the storyline of Muv-Luv Unlimited. Both Muv-Luv and Muv-Luv Alternative had subsequent versions with the adult content removed that were sold for Windows, Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3. In addition, two fandiscs were released, Muv-Luv Supplement and Muv-Luv Altered Fable, containing alternate scenarios, short stories, computer wallpapers, audio dramas. PlayStation Vita ports for Muv-Luv and Muv-Luv Alternative have been announced by âge. Muv-Luv and its sequel Muv-Luv Alternative have since been adapted into three manga series by MediaWorks and are serialized in the manga magazine Dengeki Daioh.
Shueisha published a seven volume novel series based on Muv-Luv and Muv-Luv Alternative while Enterbrain published a spin-off novel series, Muv-Luv Alternative: Total Eclipse in its Tech Gian magazine. Muv-Luv Alternative: Total Eclipse follows a new cast of characters while retaining the setting of Muv-Luv Alternative; this was followed by a manga adaptation titled Total Eclipse by ASCII Media Works as well as an anime adaptation produced by ixtl and Satelight which began airing on July 2, 2012, licensed by Crunchyroll. Muv-Luv Alternative: Total Eclipse was adapted into a visual novel by âge in 2013. Tech Gian serialized Schwarzesmarken, illustrated and featured character designs by CARNELIAN. Schwarzesmarken is a prequel spin-off to the series detailing events in East Germany 18 years prior to the setting of Muv-Luv Alternative; the novel was compiled into seven volumes following a 41 chapter run from 2011 to 2014. In addition, a visual novel adaptation by âge was announced and will be released in late 2015, followed by an anime adaptation by ixtl and Liden Films.
Crunchyroll picked up streaming rights in January 2016. The visual novel Muv-Luv is divided into two parts; the first part, titled Muv-Luv Extra, features playable character Takeru Shirogane who wakes up one morning to find a beautiful young woman sleeping in his bed, just as an infuriated Sumika Kagami, Takeru's neighbor and childhood friend, comes to wake him up that morning. The young woman, Meiya Mitsurugi, is the heiress to a financially powerful family and is determined to be Takeru's bride; as the story progresses, both girls compete for Takeru's affections while Takeru has recurring dreams about a marriage promise he made to a girl long ago. At first, he believes the girl was Sumika, but realizes that it was Meiya. At the conclusion, Takeru must choose between which of the girls he loves. In addition, the player may make decisions to choose between one of the three main supporting cast: Chizuru Sakaki, Miki Tamase, Kei Ayamine; the second part, Muv-Luv Unlimited, starts with Takeru Shirogane waking up in his bed, reminiscent of the start of Muv-Luv Extra.
Upon leaving his house, he finds his neighborhood destroyed and Sumika's house crushed under the wreckage of a large mecha. Takeru learns that he is in an alternate world to Extra, where aliens called BETA have invaded and mankind fights back against the alien aggressors with mecha called Tactical Surface Fighters referred to as Senjutsuki. Muv-Luv Unlimited explains that the BETA first arrived on Earth in 1973 after arriving on the Moon in 1967 and being spotted on Mars in 1958. Subsequent battles with BETA resulted in the global population dropping to 2.4 billion with most of mainland Eurasia having been lost, by 2001. Displaced nations find refuge in the remaining human-controlled areas. Notably, the Soviet Union has been driven into the Kamchatka Peninsula and now leases Alaska from the United States of America. Japan was invaded in 1998 by the BETA, subsequently lost thirty-six million people within a week before the invasion was halted. Most of the major characters from the Extra timeline are present in Unlimited, notably excluding the Unlimited world's Takeru, said to be dead, Sumika, who does not seem to exist in the Unlimited timeline.
The characters are identical to their Extra counterparts, with the notable exception Yoroi, Takeru's best friend in Extra who, for reasons unclear, is a girl in this reality. By the end of Unlimited, Takeru is unable to change the course of the war as the United Nations vote to implement the fifth Alternative Plan. Alternative V's goal is to send 100,000 select survivors to a habitable planet in the Alpha Centauri system, while the remaining f
John B is an English DJ and electronic music producer. He is recognised for his eccentric clothing and wild hair and his production of several cutting edge drum and bass tracks. John B ranked #76 in DJ Magazine's 2010 Top 100 DJs annual poll, announced on 27 October 2010. Williams started producing music around the age of 14, now is the head of drum and bass record label Beta Recordings, together with its more specialist drum and bass sub-labels Nu Electro and Chihuahua, he has releases on Formation Records and Planet Mu. Williams was ranked 1st drum and bass DJ on the 2009 DJMag's top 100. and #92 on the DJ List as of 3 October 2009. While his trademark sound has evolved through the years, it involves female vocals and trance-like synths, his most recent concentration is a 1980s electroclash influenced fusion of electro and drum and bass, dubbed'electrostep'. At first, this style seemed comical to some in the drum and bass community. However, this move has given John the ability to carry his style of bass forward.
He has dabbled in darkstep and various other styles in his time. When he DJs, he is known to spin both drum and bass and electro house, sometimes with other genres such as disco and rock, in the same sets. Visions Catalyst Future Reference Brainstorm Mercury Skies In:transit American Girls Electrostep To Russia With Love Light Speed John B Official Homepage John B Podcast Beta Recordings' Website John B discography at Discogs John B at Rolldabeats
Hurricane Beta was a compact and intense tropical cyclone that impacted the southwestern Caribbean in late October 2005. Beta was the twenty-fourth tropical or subtropical storm, fourteenth hurricane, seventh and final major hurricane of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. On October 21, a developing tropical wave entered the eastern Caribbean Sea and spawned Tropical Storm Alpha the following day; as the wave entered the southwestern Caribbean, convection redeveloped and on October 26, the system spawned another low-pressure area which developed into Tropical Depression Twenty-six. The depression was named Beta. By the morning of October 28, the storm intensified into the fourteenth of the season. Beta underwent rapid intensification for several hours to attain its peak intensity with winds of 115 mph on October 30; the storm began to deteriorate before landfall, weakening to Category 2 status as it crossed the Nicaraguan coastline. Rapid weakening followed landfall, the storm dissipated early the next morning.
Due to the storm's proximity to Central America, several countries were placed on alert and began allocating supplies for a potential disaster. Several hurricane watches and warnings were raised for the small Colombian island of Providencia as well as the Nicaragua and Honduras coastlines. An estimated 150,000 people were evacuated from dangerous regions in Nicaragua and more than 125,000 more were evacuated in Honduras; as a tropical storm, Beta produced heavy rains over northern Panama, amounting up to 3 inches, which caused several mudslides as well as three fatalities. On October 29, the storm passed over Providencia Island, caused significant damage to structures, injured 30 people. In Honduras and Nicaragua, over 1,000 structures were damaged by the storm, hundreds of which were destroyed. Ten people were feared dead after their boat went adrift during the storm. However, a Panamanian vessel rescued the men after drifting in the water for several hours. Rains in Honduras totaled to 21.82 in and 6.39 in in Nicaragua.
Six people were killed in Nicaragua as a result of the storm and the cost to repair damages exceeded 300 million córdoba. Overall, Beta was responsible for nine fatalities and more than $15.5 million in damage across four countries. On October 21, a westward-moving tropical wave entered the Caribbean; the wave developed organized convection, indicating that a possible low-pressure area had developed along the wave. Continued development led to the formation of Tropical Depression Twenty-Five; the wave continued to move towards producing minimal shower and thunderstorm activity. Once in the southwestern Caribbean, the wave slowed, convection redeveloped on October 25; the next day, with continued organization, the National Hurricane Center stated that a tropical depression could develop in the following day or two. At around 18:00 UTC, the NHC determined that Tropical Depression Twenty-Six had developed about 105 miles north of the central cost of Panama. Located within an area of weak vertical wind shear and warm sea surface temperatures, the depression intensified.
By 06:00 UTC the next morning, the depression was upgraded to a tropical storm and given the name Beta by the NHC. Beta was moving towards the north-northwest in response to a mid-tropospheric shortwave trough over the Gulf of Mexico and mid-tropospheric ridge to the northeast of the storm. Deep convection developed near the center of circulation. With favorable conditions for development, Beta was forecast to intensify into a hurricane before making landfall in central Nicaragua. An eyewall developed around the center of circulation, fuelling further intensification. With the formation of an eyewall and the compact size of the storm, rapid intensification was anticipated. By the end of October 27, maximum sustained winds around the center of Beta were estimated at 60 mph. An increase in wind shear caused a minor disruption of the storm's structure preventing strengthening. After maintaining its intensity for 30 hours, the shear weakened, Beta began to intensify again. Around 00:00 UTC on October 29, the storm passed near Providencia Island with winds of 70 mph, just below hurricane-status.
At this time, the cyclone began to turn towards the west. Beta intensified into a hurricane several hours with winds of 80 mph, as an eye became pronounced on infrared satellite images. Located south of a weakness within the subtropical ridge, the hurricane's motion slowed to a westward drift. With the formation of an eye, the chances of rapid intensification reached 62%, the storm could become a major hurricane—a hurricane with winds of 111 mph or higher—before landfall. Beta continued to intensify as convection deepened around the 11.5 mi wide eye, strengthening into a Category 2 hurricane with winds of 105 mph. After undergoing a brief period of rapid intensification from 18:00 UTC on October 29 – 06:00 UTC on October 30, the hurricane reached its peak intensity as a Category 3 hurricane with winds of 115 mph and a minimum pressure of 962 mbar; the storm began to turn towards the south-southwest as it reached its peak intensity and its maximum size, with tropical storm-force winds extending out 60 mi from the center.
However, as it neared the coast, cloud tops around the eye began signifying weakening. Around 12:00 UTC on October 30, Beta made landfall in central Nicaragua near La Barra del Rio Grande with winds of 105 mph. After making landfall, the hurricane weakened t