Beta blockers are a class of medications that are predominantly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, to protect the heart from a second heart attack after a first heart attack. They are widely used to treat high blood pressure, although they are no longer the first choice for initial treatment of most patients. Beta blockers are competitive antagonists that block the receptor sites for the endogenous catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine on adrenergic beta receptors, of the sympathetic nervous system, which mediates the fight-or-flight response; some block activation of all types of β-adrenergic receptors and others are selective for one of the three known types of beta receptors, designated β1, β2 and β3 receptors. Β1-adrenergic receptors are located in the heart and in the kidneys. Β2-adrenergic receptors are located in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, uterus, vascular smooth muscle, skeletal muscle. Β3-adrenergic receptors are located in fat cells. Beta receptors are found on cells of the heart muscles, smooth muscles, arteries and other tissues that are part of the sympathetic nervous system and lead to stress responses when they are stimulated by epinephrine.
Beta blockers interfere with the binding to the receptor of epinephrine and other stress hormones, weaken the effects of stress hormones. In 1964, James Black synthesized the first clinically significant beta blockers—propranolol and pronethalol. For the treatment of primary hypertension, meta-analyses of studies which used atenolol have shown that although beta blockers are more effective than placebo in preventing stroke and total cardiovascular events, they are not as effective as diuretics, medications inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system, or calcium channel blockers. Large differences exist in the pharmacology of agents within the class, thus not all beta blockers are used for all indications listed below. Indications for beta blockers include: Angina pectoris Atrial fibrillation Cardiac arrhythmia Congestive heart failure Essential tremor Glaucoma Hypertension, although they are not preferred as an initial treatment. Hyperthyroidism Migraine prophylaxis Mitral valve prolapse Myocardial infarction Phaeochromocytoma, in conjunction with α-blocker Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome Symptomatic control in anxiety and hyperthyroidism Theophylline overdoseBeta blockers have been used for: Acute aortic dissection Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy Long QT syndrome Marfan syndrome Prevention of variceal bleeding in portal hypertension Possible mitigation of hyperhidrosis Social and other anxiety disorders Controversially, for reduction of perioperative mortality in non-cardiac surgery, but the best evidence suggests that they increase mortality when used this way Although beta blockers were once contraindicated in congestive heart failure, as they have the potential to worsen the condition due to their effect of decreasing cardiac contractility, studies in the late 1990s showed their efficacy at reducing morbidity and mortality.
Bisoprolol and sustained-release metoprolol are indicated as adjuncts to standard ACE inhibitor and diuretic therapy in congestive heart failure, although at doses much lower than those indicated for other conditions. Beta blockers are only indicated in cases of stable congestive heart failure. Beta blockers are known for their reductive effect on heart rate, although this is not the only mechanism of action of importance in congestive heart failure. Beta blockers, in addition to their sympatholytic β1 activity in the heart, influence the renin–angiotensin system at the kidneys. Beta blockers cause a decrease in renin secretion, which in turn reduces the heart oxygen demand by lowering extracellular volume and increasing the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood. Heart failure characteristically involves increased catecholamine activity on the heart, responsible for a number of deleterious effects, including increased oxygen demand, propagation of inflammatory mediators, abnormal cardiac tissue remodeling, all of which decrease the efficiency of cardiac contraction and contribute to the low ejection fraction.
Beta blockers counter this inappropriately high sympathetic activity leading to an improved ejection fraction, despite an initial reduction in ejection fraction. Trials have shown beta blockers reduce the absolute risk of death by 4.5% over a 13-month period. In addition to reducing the risk of mortality, the numbers of hospital visits and hospitalizations were reduced in the trials. Therapeutic administration of beta blockers for congestive heart failure ought to begin at low doses with gradual escalation of the dose; the heart of the patient must adjust to decreasing stimulation by catecholamines and find a new equilibrium at a lower adrenergic drive. Beta blockers are not approved for anxiolytic use by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration. However, many controlled trials in the past 25 years indicate beta blockers are effective in anxiet
Chinaski is a Czech pop/rock group. They won the Anděl Award, granted by the Czech Academy of Popular Music, in 2005 and again in 2007, have placed in the top ranks of the Český slavík awards; the group was established in 1987 as Starý hadry by Pavel Grohman and Michal Novotný. Longtime front man Petr Rajchert and Jiří Seydler joined in 1989. In 1994, the band renamed itself Chinaski, after the protagonist in Charles Bukowski's novels, released an album with the same name. In September 1995, the song "Pojď si lehnout" saw the band's first video, directed by Jan Hřebejk. Chinaski's second album, Dlouhej kouř, brought the band greater popularity as well as a number of nominations for music awards. In 1997, Chinaski released their second video, "Podléhám". On 25 May 1998, Dlouhej kouř won Gold certification in the Czech Republic. In April 1999, the first single from the band's third album was released, titled 1. Signální. In 2000, Petr Rajchert left and Michal Malátný became the band's new front man.
The group was nominated for Group of the Year by the Czech Academy of Popular Music, finishing third. Chinaski proceeded to record their fourth album, called Na na na a jiné popjevky; the single "Klára" was the 14th most successful track on Czech radio in its first week of release. In the vote held for the Academy Prize, Chinaski took 2nd place behind Monkey Business and ahead of Lucie; the band won fifth place again at the Český slavík awards in 2001. That same year, "Klara" was the seventh most played Czech song of the year. In September 2002, a new album, titled "Originál" was released, its name picked by skier Kateřina Neumannová and the Slovak band No Name; the single "Můj svět" rose to first place on the IFPI TOP 40. An animated video was created for the song. Chinaski subsequently went on tour, attended by a total of nearly 43 thousand people; the album Originál was the second highest selling album in the Czech Republic in the first two weeks of its release. In December of the same year, a concert titled "Na vlastních nohou" was held for children from schools hit by summer floods.
The new single "Láskopad" garnered interest from Czech media, assuring Chinaski two top 20 singles. In December 2002, the band won platinum records, they won fifth place at the Český slavík awards again that year. "Láskopad" was the 7th most popular Czech song in January 2003. At the 2003 Anděl Awards, Chinaski won Song of the Year with "1970". Among other things, the song deals with the generation of Husák's Children; that year, the band began to prepare for the release of a compilation album. On Czech radio, another popular Chinaski song called. From July to August, they continued to perform at festivals, including a trip to Chicago. In October, they released their first compilation album titled Premium 1993 - 2003, christened in the Lucerna Music Bar in Prague. Chinaski took fourth place in the Český slavík awards in 2003; the compilation album Premium 1993 - 2003 included 18 of the band's most famous hits and three new songs, "Možná", "Láska a jiná násilí", "1970". "1970" appeared in the top rank on the IFPI website.
In March 2004, Chinaski launched their "Premium Best of Tour". It was the largest tour in the band's history, seeing them play large halls; the concerts were enhanced with light shows. In April, they released the new single "Možná". In June and August, the band held a set of open-air performances at summer festivals. In November, the band released the album Autopohádky; the album consists of three fairy tales narrated by the band members together with actor Jiří Lábus and musician Lucie Bílá, as well as 8 new songs. The author of the stories is the late Jiří Marek. On 15 November, the DVD Docela vydařenej den was released, it presents the members of the band in a new light. The new single "Láska a jiná násilí" was released at this time. Český slavík 2004 brought the band a historic achievement, as they secured second place in the category Group of the Year and 27th place for Michal Malátný in the category of Best Singer. In March 2005, Chinaski began a tour to promote Autopohádky, they began work on a new album.
The first single from that album, "Tabáček", became the most played song on Czech radio within a month. In September 2005, the band's sixth studio album, entitled Music Bar, was released, it sold twenty-three thousand copies within a day of its release, earning it platinum status, within a week it had become the best-selling album in the Czech Republic. In November, Chinaski launched their biggest tour to date, which culminated in a concert at Prague's Tipsport Arena. An estimated 70,000 spectators attended the tour. On December 10, 2005, Chinaski won the Český slavík award once more. On January 30, 2006, Music Bar was named best-selling album of 2005, with 57,506 copies sold; that year, Music Bar was re-released with an accompanying DVD documenting the tour, as well as additional bonus material. The set was titled Movie Bar. In May, the band launched their Chinaski Music Bar Tour through Slovakia, they followed this up with a two-week concert series in the US. In September, the single "Vedoucí" became the most played song on Czech radio.
Matthew Caldwell spelled Mathew Caldwell was a 19th-century Texas settler, military figure, Captain of the Gonzales – Seguin Rangers and a signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence. Because of his recruitment ride ahead of the Battle of Gonzales, some call him the Paul Revere of Texas. Matthew Caldwell, nicknamed "Old Paint", was born in Kentucky on March 8, 1798, he moved to Missouri with his family in 1818, where he traded and learned the ways of the Indians. He, his wife, family arrived in Texas in the Green DeWitt Colony on February 20, 1831. On June 22, 1831, he received the title to a parcel of land near the Zumwalt Settlement, southwest of current Hallettsville, Texas. Settling in Gonzales, Caldwell acquired the original James Hinds residence on Water Street and soon became a person of notoriety, involved in security and command of minutemen rangers in Gonzales and the surrounding areas. Recruiting before the battle of Gonzales in October 1835, he rode from Gonzales to Mina informing colonists of the dire need of their support in the volunteer army.
Because of this, some call him the Paul Revere of Texas. As a participant at the battle, he served as a mediator. On Nov. 3, 1835, the delegates of the citizens of Texas established the provisional Texas government by the Consultation of 1835. The Consultation authorized the recruitment of 25 Rangers, was increased to three companies of 56 men each. Caldwell was appointed a subcontractor to the Texian Army by the Provisional Government of Texas, to supply and administer a volunteer army at the siege of Bexar and the Alamo. On 1 February 1836, he and John Fisher were elected delegates from Gonzales to the Texas Independence Convention of 1836 at Washington on the Brazos, both were signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence, on March 2; the convention appointed a committee of three, of which Caldwell was a member, to assess the situation of the enemy on the frontier and the condition of the Texian army. They dispatched couriers with the message of independence. Caldwell went along with them, paying close attention to the state of the new republic as they passed through numerous settlements.
On February 4, 1836, Matthew Caldwell was named, along with Byrd Lockhart and William A. Matthews, as commissioners to raise a group of volunteers for a Gonzales Ranging Company; the company was mustered by March 23, 1836. The muster list of 23 rangers is shown here. Officers Capt. Byrd Lockhart, Lt. George C. Kimble, First Sergeant William A. Irvin Privates John Ballard, John Davis, Andrew Duvalt, Jacob Darst, Frederick C. Elm, Galba Fuqua, William Fishbaugh, John Harris, Andrew J. Kent, David B. Kent, John G. King, Daniel McCoy, Jesse McCoy, Prospect McCoy, Isaac Millsaps, William Morrison, James Nash, Marcus L. Sewell, William Summers, Robert White After the call for reinforcements from Lt. Col. William B. Travis by way of courier Captain Albert Martin on February 25, Lt. George C. Kimble responded on the 27th with twelve of the original rangers. Twenty more men joined on their ride to the Alamo; the Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers company consisted of family men from Gonzales and DeWitt's Colony, gathering after the call for support was issued.
After receiving Travis's "To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World" appeal on February 25, the Gonzales Rangers departed the town of Gonzales on the evening of Saturday, February 27, led by commanding officer Lieutenant George C. Kimble and Captain Albert Martin, the Alamo courier delivering Travis's appeal at Gonzales. Of the twenty-three original members mustered into the Gonzales Ranger Company on the 23rd, a total of twelve are thought entered the Alamo with the final Relief Force on March 1st, all but one died there. Lockhart, John William Smith and others accompanied the thirty-two Rangers into the Alamo and departed, at night, as other couriers left. According to one account, a group of twenty-five men left Gonzales at two in the evening on the 27th; as they passed through Green Dewitt's Colony toward the Umphries Branch community and on to the Cibolo Creek, the company gained eight more members, increasing the company to thirty-two men. The youngest member of the Alamo defenders, William Philip King, 16-years old, became a part of this group.
Due to family illness, he substituted in his father's place. On the 29th, the group searched to find a way through the Mexican lines. At three o'clock, in the early hours of March 1st, they made a wild dash into the fort while shot at by Alamo sentries. One man was wounded, after a few rash words, the Alamo gates flew open for the Gonzales force to enter; the list of the 32 immortals are: Isaac G. Baker, John Cain, George Washington Cottle, David P. Cummings, Jacob Darst, John Davis, Squire Daymon, William Dearduff, Charles Despallier, William Fishbaugh, John Flanders, Dolphin Ward Floyd, Galba Fuqua, John E. Garvin, John E. Gaston, James George, Thomas J. Jackson, John Benjamin Kellogg II, Andrew Kent, George C. Kimble, William Philip King, Jonathan L. Lindley, Albert Martin, Jesse McCoy, Thomas R. Miller, Isaac Millsaps, George Neggan, Marcus L. Sewell, William Summers, George Washington Tumlinson, Robert White, Claiborne Wright. Knowing their chance of survival was slim, the Gonzales Rangers remained in the Alamo, serving as the only reinforcements to make it into the Alamo during the siege.
The 1836 Gonzales Ranging Company of Mounted Volunteers all perished in the battle of the Alamo. For their efforts to support the besieged and outnumbered Texians, they are remembered as the "Immortal Thirty-Two". In the fall of 1837, after the revolution, settlers returned to Gonzales. Nothing remained of the former town except one charred building; the Comanche