Mekoryuk is a city located on Nunivak Island in the Bethel Census Area, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 191, down from 210 in 2000. Nunivak Island has been inhabited for 2,000 years by the Nuniwarmiut; the first contact with Europeans was in 1821 by explorers from the Russian-American Company. They recorded 400 people living in 16 villages on the Nunivak Island. While conducting the 1880 United States Census, Ivan Petrof recorded 702 Yup'ik in 9 villages, including 117 people at "Koot", near the site of present-day Mekoryuk. An epidemic in 1900 left only four surviving families in the village. In the 1930s, the Evangelical Covenant Church was built at Mekoryuk, followed by a school in 1939. People moved to the village from other areas of the island to be near the school. Reindeer herding was introduced in 1920 by an Eskimo-Russian trader; the operation was purchased by the United States government in the 1940s and a slaughterhouse was built in 1945. The reindeer were crossed with caribou from Denali Park.
The resulting animals were less tame than other reindeer. 34 musk ox from Greenland were transferred to the Nunivak Island in 1934 in an effort to save the species from extinction. Today, the musk-ox herd numbers around 500, calves from this herd have been relocated and introduced to other areas of Alaska. In the mid-1900s, Mekoryuk became the only permanent population center on the island; until the 1940s, the traditional lifestyle and traditional ceremonies and religious beliefs were practiced. The 1950s and 1960s brought considerable change. Mekoryuk Airport was built in 1957; the Territorial Guard was formed and men were sent to Fort Richardson near Anchorage for training. During this time, many families moved to Bethel during the winter to be near the high school, returning in the spring for fishing and sea mammal hunting. A high school was constructed in Mekoryuk in 1978. Mekoryuk is located at 60°23′21″N 166°12′25″W. Mekoryuk is at the mouth of Shoal Bay on the north shore of Nunivak Island in the Bering Sea.
The Island lies 48 km west of the Alaska coast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.4 square miles, of which, 7.4 square miles of it is land and 0.14% is water. Mekoryuk first appeared on the 1950 U. S. Census as "Mekoryok." It appeared as the current spelling in 1960. It formally incorporated in 1969; as of the census of 2000, there were 210 people, 73 households, 48 families residing in the city. The population density was 28.5 people per square mile. There were 96 housing units at an average density of 13.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 3.33% White, 90.48% Native American, 6.19% from two or more races. 0.48% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 73 households out of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.88 and the average family size was 3.77. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 32.4% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 116.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 136.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,833, the median income for a family was $33,750. Males had a median income of $25,417 versus $11,667 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,958. About 13.7% of families and 21.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.7% of those under the age of eighteen and 15.8% of those sixty five or over. Lower Kuskokwim School District operates the Nuniwarmiut School, K-12. In 1984 the building was constructed. Historic photos of Mekoryuk
Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge
The Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge is a United States National Wildlife Refuge comprising 2,400 islands, rocks, islets and reefs in Alaska, with a total area of 4.9 million acres, of which 2.64 million acres is wilderness. The refuge stretches from Cape Lisburne on the Chukchi Sea to the tip of the Aleutian Islands in the west and Forrester Island in the southern Alaska Panhandle region in the east; the refuge has diverse landforms and terrains, including tundra, cliffs, beaches and streams. Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge is well known for its abundance of seabirds. About 75 percent of Alaskan native marine birds, 15 to 30 million among 55 species, use the refuge. AMNWR provides a nesting habitat for an estimated 40 million seabirds, representing 80 percent of all seabirds in North America; the birds congregate in "bird cities" along the coast. Each species has a specialized nesting site. Other animals present in this refuge include caribou, sea lions, coyotes, Canadian lynxes, foxes, wolf packs, walrus, river otters, whales, Dall sheep and sea otters.
The administrative headquarters and visitor center are located in Alaska. In 1968, Simeonof National Wildlife Refuge, part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, was designated as a National Natural Landmark by the National Park Service; the refuge is divided into five units. Clockwise around Alaska, starting in the southeast, their component territories include: Saint Lazaria Wilderness Hazy Islands Wilderness Forrester Island Wilderness Barren Islands Tuxedni Wilderness Middleton Island Chiswell Islands Trinity Island Sutwik Island Semidi Wilderness Simeonof Wilderness Includes most of the land area of the Aleutian Islands, from Unimak in the east to Attu in the west Unimak Wilderness Aleutian Islands Wilderness Bogoslof Wilderness Hagemeister Island Pribilof Islands Bering Sea Wilderness Besboro Island Sledge Island King Island Chamisso Wilderness Cape Thompson Cape Lisburne United States Fish and Wildlife Service Saint Lazaria National Wildlife Refuge Official website Islands and Oceans Visitor Center, the official visitor's center for the Refuge AMNWR field camp photos Unofficial site The short film The Tiglax - Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge is available for free download at the Internet Archive
Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska
Kenai Peninsula Borough is a borough of the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 55,400; the borough seat is Soldotna. The borough includes the entirety of the Kenai Peninsula and a few areas of the mainland of Alaska on the opposite side of Cook Inlet; the borough has a total area of 24,752 square miles, of which 16,075 square miles is land and 8,677 square miles is water. Bethel Census Area, Alaska - northwest Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska - north Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska - north Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska - east Lake and Peninsula Borough, Alaska - west Kodiak Island Borough, Alaska - south Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Chiswell Islands Tuxedni Wilderness Chugach National Forest Katmai National Park and Preserve Katmai Wilderness Kenai Fjords National Park Kenai National Wildlife Refuge Kenai Wilderness Lake Clark National Park and Preserve Lake Clark Wilderness Bear Lake, Tutka Bay, the Trail Lakes, have been the site of salmon enhancement activities.
All three sites are managed by the Cook Inlet Aquaculture Association Some of the fish hatched at these facilities are released into the famous Homer fishing hole. Cook Inlet Keeper and the Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council are groups that attempt to influence public policy on the use of the areas resources; as of the census of 2000, there were 49,700 people, 18,400 households, 12,700 families residing in the borough. The population density was 1/km². There were 24,900 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the borough was 86% white, 7% Native American, 2% Hispanic or Latino, 4% from two or more races. Black or African Americans and Pacific Islanders each were less than 1% of the population. Just under 1% were from other races combined. 1.92 % reported speaking Russian at home. There were 18,400 households out of which 38% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55% were married couples living together, 9% had a female householder with no husband present, 31% were non-families.
25% of all households were made up of individuals and 5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.6 and the average family size was 3.2. In the borough the population was spread out with 30% under the age of 18, 7% from 18 to 24, 30% from 25 to 44, 26% from 45 to 64, 7% who were 65 years of age or older; the median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 109 males. There is a borough-wide government based in Soldotna, consisting of a strong mayor and an assembly of representatives from all areas of the borough, they collect sales and property taxes and provide services such as road maintenance, waste collection facilities, emergency services and major funding for public schools, along with mitigation of damage from spruce bark beetles that infested the borough in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Incorporated towns have their own local governments and city councils; the Alaska Department of Corrections operates the Spring Creek Correctional Center near Seward and the Wildwood Correctional Complex near Kenai.
Homer Kachemak Kenai Seldovia Seward Soldotna Jakolof Bay Kachemak Selo Lawing Razdolna Voznesenka 2006 Arctic Winter Games Kalgin Island List of airports in the Kenai Peninsula Borough State parks on the Kenai Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska at Curlie Borough map, 2000 census: Alaska Department of Labor Borough map, 2010 census: Alaska Department of Labor
Kwethluk, or Kuiggluk in Central Alaskan Yup'ik, is a city in Bethel Census Area in the U. S. state of Alaska. At the 2010 census the population was 721, up from 713 in 2000. Kwethluk is located at 60°48′8″N 161°25′7″W, it lies at the confluence of the Kwethluk rivers in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. The changing channel gives the village its name: Kwethluk is derived from the Yupik kuik, meaning "river", plus -rrluk, meaning "bad, unnatural". According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.7 square miles, of which, 10.0 square miles of it is land and 1.7 square miles of it is water. Kwethluk first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the unincorporated Eskimo village of Kuljkhlugamute, it did not appear again until 1940 as the village of "Quithlook." The spelling was changed in 1950 to Kwethluk and the village formally incorporated as a city in 1975. As of the census of 2000, there were 713 people, 153 households, 132 families residing in the city; the population density was 71.4 people per square mile.
There were 199 housing units at an average density of 19.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 4.77% White, 0.14% Black or African American, 92.85% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 1.96% from two or more races. There were 153 households out of which 62.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.5% were married couples living together, 20.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 13.1% were non-families. 10.5% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.66 and the average family size was 5.08. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 47.7% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 12.5% from 45 to 64, 5.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 20 years. For every 100 females, there were 116.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 113.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,417, the median income for a family was $27,500.
Males had a median income of $24,063 versus $14,375 for females. The per capita income for the city was $6,503. About 29.2% of families and 29.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.4% of those under age 18 and 35.9% of those age 65 or over. It is served by the K-12 Ket'acik & Aapalluk Memorial School, operated by the Lower Kuskokwim School District; as of 2018 it has 15 teachers. Alaska Float fishing Expeditions
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
The Bering Sea is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It comprises a deep water basin, which rises through a narrow slope into the shallower water above the continental shelves; the Bering Sea is separated from the Gulf of Alaska by the Alaska Peninsula. It covers over 2,000,000 square kilometers and is bordered on the east and northeast by Alaska, on the west by Russian Far East and the Kamchatka Peninsula, on the south by the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands and on the far north by the Bering Strait, which connects the Bering Sea to the Arctic Ocean's Chukchi Sea. Bristol Bay is the portion of the Bering Sea which separates the Alaska Peninsula from mainland Alaska; the Bering Sea is named for Vitus Bering, a Danish navigator in Russian service, who in 1728 was the first European to systematically explore it, sailing from the Pacific Ocean northward to the Arctic Ocean. The Bering Sea ecosystem includes resources within the jurisdiction of the United States and Russia, as well as international waters in the middle of the sea.
The interaction between currents, sea ice, weather makes for a vigorous and productive ecosystem. Most scientists believe that during the most recent ice age, sea level was low enough to allow humans to migrate east on foot from Asia to North America across what is now the Bering Strait. Other animals including megafauna migrated in both directions; this is referred to as the "Bering land bridge" and is believed by most, though not all scientists, to be the first point of entry of humans into the Americas. There is a small portion of the Kula Plate in the Bering Sea; the Kula Plate is an ancient tectonic plate. On 18 December 2018, a large meteor exploded above the Bering Sea; the space rock exploded with 10 times the energy released by the Hiroshima atomic bomb. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bering Sea as follows: On the North; the Southern limit of the Chuckchi Sea. On the South. A line running from Kabuch Point in the Alaskan Peninsula, through the Aleutian Islands to the South extremes of the Komandorski Islands and on to Cape Kamchatka in such a way that all the narrow waters between Alaska and Kamchatka are included in the Bering Sea.
Islands of the Bering Sea include: Pribilof Islands, including St. Paul Island Komandorski Islands, including Bering Island St. Lawrence Island Diomede Islands King Island St. Matthew Island Karaginsky Island Nunivak Island Sledge Island Hagemeister Island Regions of the Bering Sea include: Bering Strait Bristol Bay Gulf of Anadyr Norton SoundThe Bering Sea contains 16 submarine canyons including the largest submarine canyon in the world, Zhemchug Canyon; the Bering Sea shelf break is the dominant driver of primary productivity in the Bering Sea. This zone, where the shallower continental shelf drops off into the North Aleutians Basin is known as the "Greenbelt". Nutrient upwelling from the cold waters of the Aleutian basin flowing up the slope and mixing with shallower waters of the shelf provide for constant production of phytoplankton; the second driver of productivity in the Bering Sea is seasonal sea ice that, in part, triggers the spring phytoplankton bloom. Seasonal melting of sea ice causes an influx of lower salinity water into the middle and other shelf areas, causing stratification and hydrographic effects which influence productivity.
In addition to the hydrographic and productivity influence of melting sea ice, the ice itself provides an attachment substrate for the growth of algae as well as interstitial ice algae. Some evidence suggests that great changes to the Bering Sea ecosystem have occurred. Warm water conditions in the summer of 1997 resulted in a massive bloom of low energy coccolithophorid phytoplankton. A long record of carbon isotopes, reflective of primary production trends of the Bering Sea, exists from historical samples of bowhead whale baleen. Trends in carbon isotope ratios in whale baleen samples suggest that a 30–40% decline in average seasonal primary productivity has occurred over the last 50 years; the implication is that the carrying capacity of the Bering Sea is much lower now than it has been in the past. The sea supports many whale species including the beluga, humpback whale, bowhead whale, gray whale and blue whale, the vulnerable sperm whale, the endangered fin whale, sei whale and the rarest in the world, the North Pacific right whale.
Other marine mammals include walrus, Steller sea lion, northern fur seal and polar bear. The Bering Sea is important to the seabirds of the world. Over 30 species of seabirds and 20 million individuals breed in the Bering Sea region. Seabird species include tufted puffins, the endangered short-tailed albatross, spectacled eider, red-legged kittiwakes. Many of these species are unique to the area, which provides productive foraging habitat along the shelf edge and in other nutrient-rich upwelling regions, such as the Pribilof and Pervenets canyons; the Bering Sea is home to colonies of crested auklets, with upwards of a million individuals. Two Bering Sea species, the Steller's sea cow and spectacled cormorant, are extinct because of overexploitation by man. In addition, a small subspecies of Canada goose, the Bering Canada goose is extinct due to overhunting and introduction of rats to their breeding islands; the Bering Sea supports many species of fish. Some species of fish support valuable commercial fisheries.
Commercial fish species include 6 species of Pacific salmon
Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska
Matanuska-Susitna Borough is a borough located in the U. S. state of Alaska. The borough is part of the Anchorage Metropolitan Statistical Area, along with the municipality of Anchorage on its south; the Mat-Su Borough is so designated because it contains the entire Susitna rivers. These rivers empty into Cook Inlet, the southern border of the Mat-Su Borough; this area is one of the few agricultural areas of Alaska. The borough seat is Palmer, the largest city is Wasilla; as of the 2010 census, the population was 88,995. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 25,258 square miles, of which 24,608 square miles is land and 650 square miles is water. Denali Borough, Alaska - north Southeast Fairbanks Census Area, Alaska - northeast Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska - east Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska - south Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska - south Bethel Census Area, Alaska - west Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska - west Chugach National Forest Denali National Park and Preserve Denali Wilderness Lake Clark National Park and Preserve Lake Clark Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 59,322 people, 20,556 households, 15,046 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 27,329 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the borough was 87.55% White, 0.69% Black or African American, 5.50% Native American, 0.70% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.86% from other races, 4.57% from two or more races. 2.50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 20,556 households out of which 42.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.90% were married couples living together, 9.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.80% were non-families. 20.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average family size was 3.29. In the borough the population was spread out with 32.20% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 31.10% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 5.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years.
For every 100 females, there were 108.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.10 males. Schools in the borough are administered by the Matanuska-Susitna Borough School District. Matanuska-Susitna Borough was the largest of fifteen county-equivalents in America carried by Ross Perot in the 1992 presidential election. Vern Halter is the mayor of the Matanuska-Susitna Borough; the borough has a strong manager form of government. John Moosey is the borough manager. Long-time Manager John Duffy retired in 2010. Houston Palmer Wasilla Alexander Creek Dinglishna Hills In July 2018, the borough's computer systems, including the library and animal shelter, were hit by a ransomware attack, forcing employees to do without computers, using electric typewriters where available; the borough incurred over $2 million in costs. The method is thought to have been a targeted phishing e-mail. Matanuska-Susitna Valley List of Airports in the Matanuska-Susitna Borough Matanuska Formation official government website Borough Facebook Borough newsroom Borough map, 2000 census: Alaska Department of Labor Borough map, 2010 census: Alaska Department of Labor