Whitehall, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Whitehall is a borough in Allegheny County, United States. It is part of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area; the population was 13,944 at the 2010 census. Whitehall is named after Silas D. Prior's tavern on Brownsville Road, renamed White Hall in the 1850s; the building is in Brentwood. Another possible source of the borough's name is that the area, which used to be located within the township of Baldwin, was known as Whitehall Driving Park. In 1946, residents of Baldwin Township's fourth, fifth and seventh wards began the process of secession. A petition was filed on October 14, 1946, in the Quarterly Sessions of Allegheny County, with 1320 signatures out of the 1627 freeholders in the proposed borough. In response to this, Baldwin Township officials called an emergency meeting to file a petition to have Baldwin Township incorporated into a borough, as it is much more difficult to secede from a borough than from a township. On January 5, 1948, Whitehall separated from Baldwin Township to become an independent municipality.
According to former mayor Edwin F. Brennan, residents of Whitehall wanted better services and zoning than they received under the jurisdiction of the township. Whitehall is located at 40°21′37″N 79°59′11″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 3.3 square miles, all of it land. Whitehall has five borders, including the Pittsburgh neighborhood of Overbrook to the north, Brentwood to the northeast, Baldwin to the south and east, Bethel Park to the southwest, Castle Shannon to the northwest; as of the census of 2000, there were 14,444 people, 6,294 households, 3,958 families residing in the borough. The population density was 4,397.8 people per square mile. There were 6,519 housing units at an average density of 1,984.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.60% White, 1.42% African American, 0.02% Native American, 0.93% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.28% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.66% of the population.
There were 6,294 households, out of which 24.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.1% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 15.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.87. In the borough the population was spread out, with 19.4% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 24.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 86.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.7 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $45,111, the median income for a family was $60,371. Males had a median income of $42,658 versus $31,167 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $24,730. 6.4% of the population and 2.9% of families were below the poverty line.
Out of the total people living in poverty, 5.7% are under the age of 18 and 7.2% are 65 or older. Baldwin-Whitehall School District serves the borough, as well as the Baldwin Borough and Baldwin Township. Students in grades 9–12 from all three municipalities attend Baldwin High School. One of the district's three elementary schools, Whitehall Elementary, along with J. E. Harrison Middle School and Baldwin High School, are located within the borough. Located within the borough are the following schools: ACLD Tillotson School Wesley Spectrum High School St. Gabriel of the Sorrowful Virgin School Whitehall has been a home rule community since January 1, 1975; the borough is governed by seven council members, all elected at-large. Services are provided by a full-time administrator, twenty full-time police officers, a ten-person public works department and a handful of other staff members; the Whitehall Volunteer Fire Company and Medical Rescue Team South Authority provide fire and ambulance service to the borough.
Pennsylvania Route 51, a major area artery, delivers traffic from and through Whitehall to downtown Pittsburgh. The borough is served by four county bus lines. A large swimming pool, wading pool, four tennis courts and community room are provided at the municipal complex, as well as the Whitehall public library, which has a Hennen American Public Library 90th percentile Rating, making it one of the top 25 in the state. Six ballfields and playgrounds are distributed throughout the borough; the private South Hills Country Club provides golf, swimming and social activities. Caste Village, a large shopping center including a strip mall and offices, is the hub of retail activity in this residential community. Additional stand-alone storefronts line Pennsylvania Route 51. Whitehall is named one of the two "Most Livable Communities" in Metropolitan Pittsburgh by PHH Technologies Services, a company that advises corporations on employee relocations. Borough of Whitehall official website South Hills Country Club Caste Village
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period 298.9 million years ago, to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic era; the concept of the Permian was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm. The Permian witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals, turtles and archosaurs; the world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea and Siberia, surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa. The Carboniferous rainforest collapse left behind vast regions of desert within the continental interior. Amniotes, who could better cope with these drier conditions, rose to dominance in place of their amphibian ancestors; the Permian ended with the Permian–Triassic extinction event, the largest mass extinction in Earth's history, in which nearly 96% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial species died out.
It would take well into the Triassic for life to recover from this catastrophe. Recovery from the Permian–Triassic extinction event was protracted; the term "Permian" was introduced into geology in 1841 by Sir R. I. Murchison, president of the Geological Society of London, who identified typical strata in extensive Russian explorations undertaken with Édouard de Verneuil; the region now lies in the Perm Krai of Russia. Official ICS 2017 subdivisions of the Permian System from most recent to most ancient rock layers are: Lopingian epoch Changhsingian Wuchiapingian Others: Waiitian Makabewan Ochoan Guadalupian epoch Capitanian stage Wordian stage Roadian stage Others: Kazanian or Maokovian Braxtonian stage Cisuralian epoch Kungurian stage Artinskian stage Sakmarian stage Asselian stage Others: Telfordian Mangapirian Sea levels in the Permian remained low, near-shore environments were reduced as all major landmasses collected into a single continent—Pangaea; this could have in part caused the widespread extinctions of marine species at the end of the period by reducing shallow coastal areas preferred by many marine organisms.
During the Permian, all the Earth's major landmasses were collected into a single supercontinent known as Pangaea. Pangaea straddled the equator and extended toward the poles, with a corresponding effect on ocean currents in the single great ocean, the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, a large ocean that existed between Asia and Gondwana; the Cimmeria continent rifted away from Gondwana and drifted north to Laurasia, causing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean to shrink. A new ocean was growing on its southern end, the Tethys Ocean, an ocean that would dominate much of the Mesozoic era. Large continental landmass interiors experience climates with extreme variations of heat and cold and monsoon conditions with seasonal rainfall patterns. Deserts seem to have been widespread on Pangaea; such dry conditions favored gymnosperms, plants with seeds enclosed in a protective cover, over plants such as ferns that disperse spores in a wetter environment. The first modern trees appeared in the Permian. Three general areas are noted for their extensive Permian deposits—the Ural Mountains and the southwest of North America, including the Texas red beds.
The Permian Basin in the U. S. states of Texas and New Mexico is so named because it has one of the thickest deposits of Permian rocks in the world. The climate in the Permian was quite varied. At the start of the Permian, the Earth was still in an ice age. Glaciers receded around the mid-Permian period as the climate warmed, drying the continent's interiors. In the late Permian period, the drying continued although the temperature cycled between warm and cool cycles. Permian marine deposits are rich in fossil mollusks and brachiopods. Fossilized shells of two kinds of invertebrates are used to identify Permian strata and correlate them between sites: fusulinids, a kind of shelled amoeba-like protist, one of the foraminiferans, ammonoids, shelled cephalopods that are distant relatives of the modern nautilus. By the close of the Permian, trilobites and a host of other marine groups became extinct. Terrestrial life in the Permian included diverse plants, fungi and various types of tetrapods; the period saw a massive desert covering the interior of Pangaea.
The warm zone spread in the northern hemisphere. The rocks formed at that time were stained red by iron oxides, the result of intense heating by the sun of a surface devoid of vegetation cover. A number of older types of plants and animals became marginal elements; the Permian began with the Carboniferous flora still flourishing. About the middle of the Permian a major transition in vegetation began; the swamp-loving
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Castle Shannon, Pennsylvania
Castle Shannon is a borough in Allegheny County, United States, is part of the Pittsburgh Metro Area. The population was 8,316 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.6 square miles, all of it land. Its average elevation is 1,040 feet above sea level. Castle Shannon has five borders, including Baldwin Township to the north, the Pittsburgh neighborhood of Overbrook to the northeast, Whitehall to the east and southeast, Bethel Park to the south and southwest, Mt. Lebanon to the west and northwest; the first families settled Castle Shannon in 1786 in pursuit of timber. The most prominent farm was owned by David Strawbridge. Over time, the farm would lend its name to the area, as "Shanahan" would evolve into "Shannon". In 1872, the Pittsburgh and Castle Shannon Railroad line was completed, providing a direct link from Pittsburgh to the then-village of Castle Shannon. Development was stimulated by two years of free transportation and lumber transport given to anybody building a home.
In 1877, a second railroad was built from Finleyville through Castle Shannon to the West End neighborhood of Pittsburgh. In 1909, the right of way through the valley containing Castle Shannon was purchased by the Pittsburgh Railroad; this helped lead to Castle Shannon becoming a center for coal mining, with eight mines in operation in 1904. The Pittsburgh and West Virginia Railroad, still active today, came shortly afterward; the First National Bank in Castle Shannon was the site of a much publicized bank robbery in 1917. $18,500 was taken in the robbery, of which $10,500 was recovered from one man shot during the escape. The full sum was never recovered. A group of men gathered to chase down the robber to no avail. From that group, Elmet J Zeiler, a WWI Medal of Valor winner from the USA and France, a double Purple Heart recipient, was named the first Chief of Police in Castle Shannon when the police department was formed. Castle Shannon was incorporated as a borough in 1919, formed from parts of Baldwin Township, Mt. Lebanon, Bethel Township.
As of the census of 2000, there were 8,556 people, 3,859 households, 2,288 families residing in the borough. The population density was 5,259.8 people per square mile. There were 4,037 housing units at an average density of 2,481.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.91% White, 1.34% African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.78% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 0.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.98% of the population. There were 3,859 households, out of which 23.2% had children under age 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.7% were non-families. 35.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years old or older. The average household size was 2.20 persons, the average family size was 2.88 persons. In the borough the population was spread out, with 19.7% under age 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24 years old, 32.9% from 25 to 44 years old, 21.4% from 45 to 64 years old, 18.7% who were 65 years old or older.
The median age was 39. For every 100 females, there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.5 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $38,040. Males had a median income of $33,013, versus $27,907 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $20,518. About 5.0% of families and 7.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.4% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over. Castle Shannon’s school system, Keystone Oaks School District, is a "jointure" with the boroughs of Dormont and Green Tree, comprising Keystone Oaks Middle and High Schools, Myrtle Elementary School, Dormont Elementary School, Aiken Elementary School. Located within Castle Shannon is Saint Anne School, a Catholic private elementary school. Lee Hartman, animator Dennis Miller, grew up in Castle Shannon, attended St. Anne Elementary School and Keystone Oaks High School Daniel DiNardo, Cardinal Archbishop of Houston Galveston, spent his childhood years in Castle Shannon and attended St Annés elementary school there.
Elmer J Zeiler - First Chief of Police, A WWI recipient of 2 Purple Hearts, Metal of Valor, Croix De Guerre Medal. Founder of the VFW in Castle Shannon, located on 88 across from Chevy Dealership. Received US Presidents Medal in 1964. Castle Shannon had parade celebrating Elmer J Zeiler's accomplishments. Mr Zeiler was the first to receive a phone in his home when he became Chief of Police. Many of the town residents came to his home and used the phone causing a $400 phone bill; as acting Chief of Police, he refused to allow the corrupt coal mine owners to evict their employees from company houses in the middle of winter. Official website
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud, a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments of other minerals quartz and calcite. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness, called fissility, it is the most common sedimentary rock. Shale exhibits varying degrees of fissility, breaking into thin layers splintery and parallel to the otherwise indistinguishable bedding plane because of the parallel orientation of clay mineral flakes. Non-fissile rocks of similar composition but made of particles smaller than 0.06 mm are described as mudstones or claystones. Rocks with similar particle sizes but with less clay and therefore grittier are siltstones. Shales are composed of clay minerals and quartz grain, are grey. Addition of variable amounts of minor constituents alters the color of the rock. Black shale results from the presence of greater than one percent carbonaceous material and indicates a reducing environment.
Black shale can be referred to as black metal. Red and green colors are indicative of ferric oxide, iron hydroxide, or micaceous minerals. Clays are the major constituent of other mudrocks; the clay minerals represented are kaolinite and illite. Clay minerals of Late Tertiary mudstones are expandable smectites whereas in older rocks in mid- to early Paleozoic shales illites predominate; the transformation of smectite to illite produces silica, calcium, magnesium and water. These released elements form authigenic quartz, calcite, ankerite and albite, all trace to minor minerals found in shales and other mudrocks. Shales and mudrocks contain 95 percent of the organic matter in all sedimentary rocks. However, this amounts to less than one percent by mass in an average shale. Black shales, which form in anoxic conditions, contain reduced free carbon along with ferrous iron and sulfur. Pyrite and amorphous iron sulfide along with carbon produce the black coloration; the process in the rock cycle which forms shale is called compaction.
The fine particles that compose shale can remain suspended in water long after the larger particles of sand have deposited. Shales are deposited in slow moving water and are found in lakes and lagoonal deposits, in river deltas, on floodplains and offshore from beach sands, they can be deposited in sedimentary basins and on the continental shelf, in deep, quiet water.'Black shales' are dark, as a result of being rich in unoxidized carbon. Common in some Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata, black shales were deposited in anoxic, reducing environments, such as in stagnant water columns; some black shales contain abundant heavy metals such as molybdenum, uranium and zinc. The enriched values are of controversial origin, having been alternatively attributed to input from hydrothermal fluids during or after sedimentation or to slow accumulation from sea water over long periods of sedimentation. Fossils, animal tracks/burrows and raindrop impact craters are sometimes preserved on shale bedding surfaces.
Shales may contain concretions consisting of pyrite, apatite, or various carbonate minerals. Shales that are subject to heat and pressure of metamorphism alter into a hard, metamorphic rock known as slate. With continued increase in metamorphic grade the sequence is phyllite schist and gneiss. Before the mid-19th century, the terms slate and schist were not distinguished. In the context of underground coal mining, shale was referred to as slate well into the 20th century. Bakken Formation Barnett Shale Bearpaw Formation Burgess Shale Marcellus Formation Mazon Creek fossil beds Oil shale – Organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen Shale gas Shale gas in the United States Wheeler Shale Wianamatta Shale Media related to Shale at Wikimedia Commons
Pittsburgh coal seam
The Pittsburgh Coal Seam is the thickest and most extensive coal bed in the Appalachian Basin. The Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed of the Monongahela Group is extensive and continuous, extending over 11,000 mi2 through 53 counties, it extends from Allegany County, Maryland to Belmont County and from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania southwest to Putnam County, West Virginia. This coal seam is named for its outcrop high on the sheer north face of Mount Washington in Pittsburgh, it is considered to form the base of the upper coal measures of the Allegheny Plateau, now known as the Monongahela Group; the first reference to the Pittsburgh coal bed, named by H. D. Rodgers of the First Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, was on a 1751 map; the section of the Pittsburgh seam under the Georges Creek Valley of Western Maryland is known as The Big Vein This is isolated from the rest of the Pittsburgh seam by Savage Mountain, the Negro Mountain anticline, the Laurel Hill anticline, the Chestnut Ridge anticline.
Between these anticlines, the strata containing the Pittsburgh coal have been obliterated by erosion. The exception is a small remnant in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, in the Berlin Syncline between Negro Mountain and Savage Mountain; the Pittsburgh coal is one of many minable coal beds that were deposited across the Pennsylvanian and Permian eras in a subsiding foreland basin, filled in with sediments eroded from an ancient landmass located to the east. The Monongahela Group and other northern and central Appalachian Basin Pennsylvanian sediments were deposited on an aggrading and prograding coastal plain within a foreland basin adjacent to the Alleghanian fold and thrust belt; the Pittsburgh coal bed formed during a hiatus in active clastic deposition that allowed for the development of a huge peat mire. The extensively thick peat deposit was destined to become one of the most valuable energy resources in the world; the distribution of some of the sediments the channel sands, may have been controlled in part by deep, Early Cambrian basement faults that were reactivated during the Alleghany orogeny.
Significant parts of the clay layer below the Pittsburgh coal rest on an unconformity, that is, an old eroded surface. For this reason, the Pittsburgh seam is taken as the basal member of the Monongahela Group; the underlying erosion surface is considered the top of the Conemaugh Group known as the Lower barren measures because this formation contains few coal seams. The Monongahela is composed of sandstone, limestone and coal, consists of a series of up to ten cyclothems. During each cyclothem, the land was flooded, allowing the accumulation of marine deposits such as shale and sandstone; when the sea level fell, coal formed from the remains of swampland. Some of the coal beds in the Monongahela group are erratic, sometimes little more than a black streak in the rock, while others are of commercial importance; the Pittsburgh coal seam is laterally extensive. It occurs in southwestern Pennsylvania in two benches, the lower bench can be over six feet thick; the Pittsburgh rider coal bed, which overlies the lower bench, can range from 0 to 3 feet in thickness.
In 1760, Captain Thomas Hutchins visited Fort Pitt and reported that there was a mine on Coal Hill, the original name given to Mount Washington across the Monongahela River from the fort. The coal was extracted from drift mine entries into the Pittsburgh coal seam at outcrop along the hillside about 200 feet above the river; the coal was poured into trenches dug into the hillside, rolled to the edge of the river, transported by canoe and boats to the military garrison. Sometime around 1765, a fire broke out in this mine, which continued to burn for years, leading to collapse of part of the face of the hill. Mining rights were formally purchased from the chiefs of the Six Nations in 1768, from this point on, coal fueled the explosive growth of industry in the Pittsburgh Region. By 1796, coal mines extended along the face of Mount Washington for 300 fathoms, centered across the Monongahela from Wood Street.40°25′55.74″N 80°0′24.08″W By 1814, there were at least 40 coal mines in the Pittsburgh region, worked from adits in the face of the coal seam using room and pillar methods.
By 1830, the city of Pittsburgh consumed more than 400 tons per day of bituminous coal for domestic and light industrial use. In the early 19th century, Pittsburgh coal became the city’s primary fuel source: about 250,000 bushels of coal were consumed daily for domestic and light industrial use; the primary reason for the switch from wood to coal was one of economics. In 1809, a cord of wood cost a bushel of coal cost $0.06, delivered. The coal was plentiful and laborers, working in mines within a mile of Pittsburgh, earned about $1.60 per week and could produce as many as 100 bushels of coal daily. The Pittsburgh seam was America's principal seam of coal production during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Pittsburgh-seam coal was ideally suited to making coke for iron blast furnaces, it fostered the development of much of southwestern Pennsylvania a section of the Pittsburgh seam known as the Connellsville district. The Pittsburgh seam was America's principal seam of coal production during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
Exploitation of the Pittsburgh-seam coal began slowly. Blacksmiths and foundrymen made coal into coke to use in their hearths and small furnaces. During the early nineteenth century, entre