Jerusalem's Church, Copenhagen
Jerusalem's Church is the main church of the Methodist community in Denmark. It is located in Rigensgade (, central Copenhagen; the first Methodist congregation in Denmark was founded on 11 January 1859 and was based in rented rooms in Store Kongensgade. The congregation grew and funds were raised for a new church, completed in 1866 to designs by Ferdinand Vilhelm Jensen; the church was known as St. Paul's Church until 1894 when that name was taken over by the nearby St. Paul's Church, it was called St. Mark's Church until 1912 when it received its current name; the church was destroyed in a fire in 1914. It was subsequently reinaugurated the following year; the church is designed in a mixture of Romanesque Byzantine Revival styles. It is 27 metres long, 16 metres wide and the tower stands 50.6 metres tall. The Jerusalem Church contains an organ built in 1916, it was restored in 1982-84, is considered one of the best organs in Denmark from before World War II. The church has three gospel choirs with different profiles: Kefas has existed since 1976, Saints and Sinners has existed since 1994 and Revelation Gospel Choirer is the youngest.
Simon Peter's Church
Simon Peter's Church is a Church of Denmark parish church in Amager, Denmark. Simon Peter's Church was built by the Copenhagen Church Foundation; the current congregation house was built in 1930 and was used for church services until the new church was completed. The parish was created on 1 April 1935. P. L. Jensen, pastor at Philip's Church since 1829, was a driving force behind the construction of the new church, it was designed by Poul Staffeldt Matthiesen, who a few years earlier had completed the nearby Højdevang Church. Simon Peter's Church was inaugurated on 10 September 1944; the church is designed in Neo-Gothic style with inspiration from Baltic village churches of the 14th century. Official website
An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
Church of the Nativity
The Church of the Nativity Basilica of the Nativity is a basilica located in Bethlehem in the West Bank. The grotto it contains holds a prominent religious significance to Christians of various denominations as the birthplace of Jesus; the grotto is the oldest site continuously used as a place of worship in Christianity, the basilica is the oldest major church in the Holy Land. The church was commissioned in 327 by Constantine the Great and his mother Helena on the site, traditionally considered to be the birthplace of Jesus; that original basilica was completed sometime between 333 and 339. It was destroyed by fire during the Samaritan revolts of the sixth century, a new basilica was built in 565 by Byzantine Emperor Justinian, who restored the architectural tone of the original; the Church of the Nativity, while remaining unchanged since the Justinian reconstruction, has seen numerous repairs and additions from the Crusader period, such as two bell towers, wall mosaics and paintings. Over the centuries, the surrounding compound has been expanded, today it covers 12,000 square meters, comprising three different monasteries: one Greek Orthodox, one Armenian Apostolic, one Roman Catholic, of which the first two contain bell towers built during the modern era.
The silver star marking the spot where Christ was born was stolen in 1847. Some assert. Others assert; the Church of the Nativity is a World Heritage site and was the first to be listed under Palestine by UNESCO. The site is on UNESCO's List of World Heritage in Danger. A 250-year old understanding among religious communities, the Status Quo, applies to the site; the holy site known as the Nativity Grotto is thought to be the cave in which Jesus of Nazareth was born. In 135, Emperor Hadrian had the site above the Grotto converted into a worship place for Adonis, the Greek god of beauty and desire. Jerome noted in 420 that the grotto had been consecrated to the worship of Adonis, that a sacred grove was planted there in order to wipe out the memory of Jesus from the world; some modern scholars dispute this argument and insist that the cult of Adonis-Tammuz originated the shrine and that it was the Christians who took it over, substituting the worship of Jesus. The antiquity of the association of the site with the birth of Jesus, however, is attested by Justin Martyr who noted in his Dialogue with Trypho that the Holy Family had taken refuge in a cave outside of town: But when the Child was born in Bethlehem, since Joseph could not find a lodging in that village, he took up his quarters in a certain cave near the village.
Additionally, early Christian theologian and Greek philosopher Origen of Alexandria wrote: In Bethlehem the cave is pointed out where He was born, the manger in the cave where He was wrapped in swaddling clothes. And the rumor is in those places, among foreigners of the Faith, that indeed Jesus was born in this cave, worshipped and reverenced by the Christians; the first basilica on this site was begun by Helena of Constantinople, the mother of Emperor Constantine I. The construction started in 327 under the supervision of Bishop Makarios of Jerusalem and was completed a few years - it was visited in 333 by the Bordeaux Pilgrim and was dedicated on 31 May 339. Construction of this early church was carried out as part of a larger project following the First Council of Nicaea during Constantine's reign, aimed to build churches on the supposed sites of the life of Jesus; the design of the basilica centered around three major architectural sections: At the eastern end, an apse in a polygonal shape, encircling a raised platform with an opening in its floor of ca. 4 metres diametre that allowed direct view of the Nativity site underneath.
An ambulatory with side rooms surrounded the apse. A five-aisled basilica in continuation of the eastern apse, one bay shorter than the still standing Justinian reconstruction. A porticoed atrium; the structure was burned and destroyed in one of the Samaritan Revolts of 529 or 556, in the second of which Jews seem to have joined the Samaritans. The basilica was rebuilt in its present form in 565 by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I; the Persians under Khosrau II invaded Palestine and conquered nearby Jerusalem in 614, but they did not destroy the structure. According to legend, their commander Shahrbaraz was moved by the depiction above the church entrance of the Three Magi wearing the garb of Persian Zoroastrian priests, so he ordered that the building be spared; the Church of the Nativity was used as the primary coronation church for Crusader kings, from the second ruler of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1100 and until 1131. The Crusaders undertook extensive decoration and restoration on the basilica and grounds, a process that continued until 1169, from 1165-69 through a rare cooperation between the Catholic king Amalric I of Jerusalem and the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos, his father-in-law.
The Khwarezmian Turks desecrated the Church of the Nativity in April 1244, leaving the roof in poor condition. The Duchy of Burgundy committed resources to restore the roof in August 1448, multiple regions contributed supplies to have the Church roof repaired in 1480: England supplied the lead, the Second Kingdom of Burgundy su
A brick is building material used to make walls and other elements in masonry construction. Traditionally, the term brick referred to a unit composed of clay, but it is now used to denote any rectangular units laid in mortar. A brick can be composed of clay-bearing soil and lime, or concrete materials. Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types and sizes which vary with region and time period, are produced in bulk quantities. Two basic categories of bricks are non-fired bricks. Block is a similar term referring to a rectangular building unit composed of similar materials, but is larger than a brick. Lightweight bricks are made from expanded clay aggregate. Fired bricks are one of the longest-lasting and strongest building materials, sometimes referred to as artificial stone, have been used since circa 4000 BC. Air-dried bricks known as mudbricks, have a history older than fired bricks, have an additional ingredient of a mechanical binder such as straw. Bricks are laid in courses and numerous patterns known as bonds, collectively known as brickwork, may be laid in various kinds of mortar to hold the bricks together to make a durable structure.
The earliest bricks were dried brick, meaning that they were formed from clay-bearing earth or mud and dried until they were strong enough for use. The oldest discovered bricks made from shaped mud and dating before 7500 BC, were found at Tell Aswad, in the upper Tigris region and in southeast Anatolia close to Diyarbakir; the South Asian inhabitants of Mehrgarh constructed, lived in, airdried mudbrick houses between 7000–3300 BC. Other more recent findings, dated between 7,000 and 6,395 BC, come from Jericho, Catal Hüyük, the ancient Egyptian fortress of Buhen, the ancient Indus Valley cities of Mohenjo-daro and Mehrgarh. Ceramic, or fired brick was used as early as 3000 BC in early Indus Valley cities like Kalibangan; the earliest fired bricks appeared in Neolithic China around 4400 BC at Chengtoushan, a walled settlement of the Daxi culture. These bricks were made of red clay, fired on all sides to above 600 °C, used as flooring for houses. By the Qujialing period, fired bricks were being used to pave roads and as building foundations at Chengtoushan.
Bricks continued to be used during 2nd millennium BC at a site near Xi'an. Fired bricks were found in Western Zhou ruins; the carpenter's manual Yingzao Fashi, published in 1103 at the time of the Song dynasty described the brick making process and glazing techniques in use. Using the 17th-century encyclopaedic text Tiangong Kaiwu, historian Timothy Brook outlined the brick production process of Ming Dynasty China: "...the kilnmaster had to make sure that the temperature inside the kiln stayed at a level that caused the clay to shimmer with the colour of molten gold or silver. He had to know when to quench the kiln with water so as to produce the surface glaze. To anonymous labourers fell the less skilled stages of brick production: mixing clay and water, driving oxen over the mixture to trample it into a thick paste, scooping the paste into standardised wooden frames, smoothing the surfaces with a wire-strung bow, removing them from the frames, printing the fronts and backs with stamps that indicated where the bricks came from and who made them, loading the kilns with fuel, stacking the bricks in the kiln, removing them to cool while the kilns were still hot, bundling them into pallets for transportation.
It was hot, filthy work." Early civilisations around the Mediterranean adopted the use of fired bricks, including the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The Roman legions operated mobile kilns, built large brick structures throughout the Roman Empire, stamping the bricks with the seal of the legion. During the Early Middle Ages the use of bricks in construction became popular in Northern Europe, after being introduced there from Northern-Western Italy. An independent style of brick architecture, known as brick Gothic flourished in places that lacked indigenous sources of rocks. Examples of this architectural style can be found in modern-day Denmark, Germany and Russia; this style evolved into Brick Renaissance as the stylistic changes associated with the Italian Renaissance spread to northern Europe, leading to the adoption of Renaissance elements into brick building. A clear distinction between the two styles only developed at the transition to Baroque architecture. In Lübeck, for example, Brick Renaissance is recognisable in buildings equipped with terracotta reliefs by the artist Statius von Düren, active at Schwerin and Wismar.
Long-distance bulk transport of bricks and other construction equipment remained prohibitively expensive until the development of modern transportation infrastructure, with the construction of canal and railways. Production of bricks increased massively with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the rise in factory building in England. For reasons of speed and economy, bricks were preferred as building material to stone in areas where the stone was available, it was at this time in London that bright red brick was chosen for construction to make the buildings more visible in the heavy fog and to help prevent traffic accidents. The transition from the traditional method of production known as hand-moulding to a mechanised form of mass-production took place during the first half of the nineteenth century; the first successful brick-making machine was patented by Henry Clayton, employed at the
St. Alban's Church, Copenhagen
St. Alban's Church, locally referred to as the English Church, is an Anglican church in Copenhagen, Denmark, it was built from 1885 to 1887 for the growing English congregation in the city. Designed by Arthur Blomfield as a traditional English parish church in the Gothic Revival style, it is in a peaceful park setting at the end of Amaliegade in the northern part of the city centre, next to the citadel Kastellet and the Gefion Fountain and Langelinie; the church is part of Church of England's Diocese in Europe. It is dedicated to the first martyr of Great Britain; the first sizable British community in Denmark settled in Elsinore in the early 16th century. The town was an important logistical hub for the collection of Sound Dues. First to arrive was a community of Scots which had a Scottish altar dedicated to Saint Jacob, Saint Andrew and the Scottish Saint Ninian in the local Saint Olaf's Church; the altar has now been moved to the National Museum of Denmark. Much of the Øresund traffic was British and over the course of time many English shipping agencies were established in Elsinore.
There was a British consul there while Copenhagen only had a vice-consul. However, under the King's Law from 1665, which had instituted absolutism in Denmark, Lutheranism was the only faith allowed to hold religious services in Denmark. During the second half of the 18th century more and more foreign denominations were granted royal exemptions to this prohibition. Up through the 19th century the English community in Copenhagen grew as the city's significance as a centre of commerce increased. An English congregation held religious services in rented rooms in Store Kongensgade near Kongens Nytorv from 1834; the congregation had ambitions to build their own church and a Church Building Committee was established in 1854 but remained unable to find the means needed for the project. In 1864, it made an appeal to the Prince of Wales, his consort, the Danish-born Princess Alexandra, took it upon her to assist, she managed to raise funds as well as provide a attractive site for its construction when she persuaded the Danish Ministry of War to grant permission to have the church built on the esplanade outside the citadel Kastellet.
The foundation stone of St. Alban's Church was laid on 19 September 1885; the church was designed by Arthur Blomfield. It was consecrated two years on 17 September 1887. Present on the opening day was a large display of European royalty, including the Prince and Princess of Wales, King Christian IX and Queen Consort Louise of Denmark, Tsar Alexander III and Tsarina Maria Feodorovna of Russia and George I and Olga of Greece. Like Princess Alexandra, both George I and Maria Feodorovna were born Danish, issue of the Danish King and Queen Consort. Present were the entire Diplomatic Corps, representatives of the Army and Navy, church officials, Greek and Roman Catholic Priests. After the consecration, the Prince and Princess of Wales hosted a lunch on board the Royal Yacht HMY Osborne to which all those, connected with the realisation of the church were invited. St. Alban's Church is designed as a traditional English church by Arthur Blomfield who designed a number of parish churches around Britain and received the Royal Institute of British Architects' Royal Gold Medal in 1891.
It is built in the Gothic Revival style inspired by the Early English Style known as Lancet Gothic. The church is built in limestone from the Faxe south of Copenhagen, knapped flint from Stevns and Åland stone for the spire; the conspicuous use of flint as a building material, unusual in Denmark, is another typical trait from England where it is seen in church buildings in the south of the country East Anglia. The tiles on the roof are from Broseley in Shropshire; the tower contains fifteen tubular bells. It was not deemed strong enough to support regular bells, a set of eight was presented by the Prince of Wales when the church was built; these can be played manually on an Ellacombe Frame, on which the player pulls a rope for the relevant bell. In 2013 the Prince of Wales contributed to a new fund, which enabled a further seven bells to be installed, for all fifteen to be played automatically by computer; every quarter-hour the 80 louvres open while the bells sound a quarter chime, after striking the hour play a hymn tune.
The original bells are by the English firm of Harringtons, as are the additional seven, which were made redundant by Holy Trinity Church and retuned to suit. The striking system is by the Dutch firm of Fritsen. Many items of the church's inventory and fittings were donated, including the tiles on the floor and dado which are from Campbell Tile Co. and the carved oakwood pews which were a gift from Thomas Cook and Son. The altarpiece and font were donated by Doulton, London.a leading manufacturer of stoneware and ceramics. For the first time, they were all made in terra cotta with salt glazed details, they were designed by the artist George Tinworth. The church organ was made by J. W. Walker & Sons Ltd and is located in the choir in the southern transept, it was renovated in 1966 by the same company
St. Andrew's Church, Copenhagen
St. Andrew's Church is a Lutheran church on Gothersgade in Copenhagen, designed by the architect Martin Borch and built from 1897 to 1901, it is a parish church within the Danish National Church. St. Andrew's is a two nave church oriented with the choir to the west and the main entrance to the east; the tower is located at the south-east corner of the building. Its style is inspired by Danish brick architecture of the late Romanesque period; the portal is inspired by Jutland granite portals, with three pairs af columns and corbels shaped as lions. The latter were designed by Anders Bundgaard, known as the creator of the Gefion Fountain at Langelinie, while Thomas Bærentsen designed a number of reliefs including a circular relief of St. Andrew on the north wall of the nave; the lateral nave on the south side has three pointed gables. Official website