Regiment of Hibernia
The Regimiento Hibernia was one of the Spanish army's foreign regiments. Known by many in Spain as "O'Neill's Regiment", it was formed in 1709 from Irishmen who fled their own country in the wake of the Flight of the Earls and the penal laws and who became known as the Wild Geese - a name which has become synonymous in modern times for Irish mercenaries and soldiers throughout the world. Although the Wild Geese are more associated with the French Army and are indeed seen as the precursors of the French Foreign Legion the regiment of Hibernia was one of many Irish regiments to serve in the Spanish army; the Wild Geese began fighting for Spain during the Eighty Years' War. The first Irish units in the service of Spain were formed in 1587 as the Tercio Irlanda, formed from defectors from the English army. Due to the number of wars Spain was involved in during the early 18th century the country could not provide itself with enough soldiers for its own campaigns; this was exacerbated by the severe loss of manpower as a result of a plague epidemic.
Diplomatic approaches were made to a number of countries with requests for the recruitment of mercenaries to fight for Spain. Swiss, Germans and Walloons were recruited but the Spanish were keen to engage Irishmen because of their reputation as soldiers; the Confederation of Kilkenny established licences for the recruitment of Irishmen to fight for the King of Spain. The Irish regiments in Spanish service were disbanded in 1818 at the request of their British allies; the Irish regiments, as foreign troops, wore the same red jacket as the Swiss and Neapolitan troops in their service - except they had green facings. This was worn with an athwart black bicorne hat for all ranks, their regimental symbol was the Arms of Ireland - a gold harp on a sky blue field. In 1806 the uniform was changed to a sky-blue coatee with yellow lining and trim worn with a white vest and breeches to differentiate them from their red-coated British allies. Regimiento Irlanda had a yellow collar and lapels and gold buttons, Regimiento Hibernia had a sky blue collar, yellow lapels and silver buttons, Regimiento Ultonia had a yellow collar, sky blue lapels and silver buttons.
One remarkable facet of so many Irishmen fighting for opposing nations in Europe was that they faced each other as enemies on foreign battlefields. The Hibernia Regiment found itself in this position at the siege of Badajoz, in 1811, when they faced the Irish Legion under the command of the French. Battle of Zaragoza Battle of Brihuega Battle of Villaviciosa Siege of Barcelona Siege of Gibraltar Ceuta Brazil Jamaica Battle of Pensacola General Don Alejandro "Bloody" O'Reilly The Marquess of Lede Arturo O'Neill John Sherlock Irish and Scottish Military Migration to Spain Irish Brigades Abroad, Stephen McGarry The Spanish Monarchy and Irish Mercenaries.- The Wild Geese in Spain 1618-68. The Irish Brigades in the Service of France, J. C. O'Callaghan; the Wild Geese, M. Hennessy The March of O'Sullivan Beare, L. J. Emerson; the O' Neills in Spain, Spanish Knights of Irish Origin, Destruction by Peace, Micheline Kerney Walsh. The Irish Sword, Vol 4-11 The Wild Geese, Mark G. McLaughlin. Wild Geese in Spanish Flanders, 1582–1700, B.
Jennings. Spain under the Habsburgs, John Lynch The Flight of the Earls, John McCavitt
Eógan mac Néill
Eógan mac Néill was a son of Niall Noígiallach and the eponymous ancestor of the Cenél nEógain branch of the Northern Uí Néill, who founded the over-kingdom of Ailech and Tír Eoghain. His territory occupied the counties of Tyrone, Down, Antrim and north west Donegal and Argyll in Scotland, his burial place lies in the Inish Owen Peninsula in County Donegal, named after him. Eogan received Patrick's blessing. With his brother, the high king Lóegaire mac Néill, he was one of the judges in a dispute over the succession to Amalgaid, king of Connacht among his sons competing to rule their territory of Tir Amalgaidh in northwest Connacht. Eoghan is reputedly buried at St. Patrick's Church in Iskaheen, Donegal. A plaque there states, "Eoghan Prince of Son of Niall of the Nine Hostages. Died 465 of grief for his brother Conall. Baptised by Patrick and buried in Uisce Chaoin", his sons included Muiredach mac Eógain, Fergus mac Eoghain, founder of the Cenél Fergusa, Anghusa Mac Eoghain, founder of the Cenel Anghusa.
Annals of Ulster at CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork Byrne, Francis John, Irish Kings and High-Kings, Dublin: Four Courts Press, ISBN 978-1-85182-196-9 Revised edition of McCarthy's synchronisms at Trinity College Dublin
Rathlin Island is an island and civil parish off the coast of County Antrim in Northern Ireland. It is Northern Ireland's northernmost point. Rathlin is the only inhabited offshore island of Northern Ireland, with a growing population of 150 people, is the most northerly inhabited island off the coast of the island of Ireland; the reverse L-shaped Rathlin Island is 4 miles from east to west, 2.5 miles from north to south. The highest point on the island is 134 metres above sea level. Rathlin is 15.5 miles from the Mull of the southern tip of Scotland's Kintyre peninsula. It is part of the Causeway Coast and Glens council area, is represented by the Rathlin Development & Community Association. Rathlin is part of the traditional barony Cary, of current district Moyle; the island constitutes a civil parish and is subdivided into 22 townlands: A ferry operated by Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd connects the main port of the island, Church Bay, with the mainland at Ballycastle, 6 miles away. Two ferries operate on the route – the fast foot-passenger-only catamaran ferry Rathlin Express and a purpose built larger ferry, commissioned in May 2017, Spirit of Rathlin, which carries both foot passengers and a small number of vehicles, weather permitting.
Rathlin Island Ferry Ltd won a six-year contract for the service in 2008 providing it as a subsidised "lifeline" service. There is an ongoing investigation on how the transfer was handled between the Environment Minister and the new owners. Rathlin is of prehistoric volcanic origin, having been created as part of the British Tertiary Volcanic Province. Rathlin is one of 43 Special Areas of Conservation in Northern Ireland, it is home to tens of thousands of seabirds, including common guillemots, kittiwakes and razorbills – about thirty bird families in total. It is visited by birdwatchers, with a Royal Society for the Protection of Birds nature reserve that has views of Rathlin’s bird colony; the RSPB has successfully managed natural habitat to facilitate the return of the red-billed chough. Northern Ireland's only breeding pair of choughs can be seen during the summer months; the cliffs on this bare island are impressive, standing 70 metres tall. Bruce's Cave is named after Robert the Bruce known as Robert I of Scotland: it was here that he was said to have seen the legendary spider, described as inspiring Bruce to continue his fight for Scottish independence.
The island is the northernmost point of the Antrim Coast and Glens Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. In 2008-09, the Maritime and Coastguard Agency of the United Kingdom and the Marine Institute Ireland undertook bathymetric survey work north of Antrim, updating Admiralty charts. In doing so a number of interesting submarine geological features were identified around Rathlin Island, including a submerged crater or lake on a plateau with clear evidence of water courses feeding it; this suggests the events leading to inundation - subsidence of land or rising water levels - were quick. Marine investigations in the area have identified new species of sea anemone, rediscovered the fan mussel and a number of shipwreck sites, including HMS Drake, torpedoed and sank just off the island in 1917. Rathlin was known to the Romans, Pliny referring to "Reginia" and Ptolemy to "Rhicina" or "Eggarikenna". In the 7th century Adomnán mentions "Rechru" and "Rechrea insula", which may have been early names for Rathlin.
The 11th-century Irish version of the Historia Brittonum states that the Fir Bolg "took possession of Man and of other islands besides - Arran, Islay and'Racha'" – another possible early variant. Rathlin was the site of the first Viking raid on Ireland, according to the Annals of Ulster; the pillaging of the island's church and burning of its buildings took place in 795 In 1306, Robert the Bruce sought refuge upon Rathlin, owned by the Irish Bissett family. He stayed in Rathlin Castle belonging to their lordship the Glens of Antrim; the Bissetts were dispossessed of Rathlin by the English, who were in control of the Earldom of Ulster, for welcoming Bruce. In the 16th century, the island came into the possession of the MacDonnells of Antrim. Rathlin has been the site of a number of massacres. On an expedition in 1557, Sir Henry Sidney devastated the island. In July 1575, the Earl of Essex sent Francis Drake and John Norreys to confront Scottish refugees on the island, in the ensuing massacre, hundreds of men and children of Clan MacDonnell were killed.
In 1642, Covenanter Campbell soldiers of the Argyll's Foot were encouraged by their commanding officer Sir Duncan Campbell of Auchinbreck to kill the local Catholic MacDonalds, near relatives of their arch clan enemy in the Scottish Highlands Clan MacDonald. They threw scores of MacDonald women over cliffs to their deaths on rocks below; the number of victims of this massacre has been put as low as one hundred and as high as three thousand. In 1746, the island was purchased by the Reverend John Gage. In the 18th century, kelp production became important, with Rathlin becoming a major centre for production; the shoreline is still littered with kilns and storage places. This was a commercial enterprise sponsored by the landlords of the island and involved the whole community. A 19th-
Belfast is a city in the United Kingdom, the capital city of Northern Ireland, standing on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland. It is second-largest on the island of Ireland, it had a population of 333,871 as of 2015. By the early 19th century, Belfast became a major port, it played a key role in the Industrial Revolution, becoming the biggest linen-producer in the world, earning it the nickname "Linenopolis". By the time it was granted city status in 1888, it was a major centre of Irish linen production, tobacco-processing and rope-making. Shipbuilding was a key industry. Belfast as of 2019 has a major aerospace and missiles industry. Industrialisation and the inward migration it brought made Belfast Ireland's biggest city and it became the capital of Northern Ireland following the Partition of Ireland in 1922, its status as a global industrial centre ended in the decades after the Second World War of 1939–1945. Belfast suffered in the Troubles: in the 1970s and 1980s it was one of the world's most dangerous cities.
However, a survey conducted by a finance company and published in 2016 rated the city as one of the safest within the United Kingdom. Throughout the 21st century, the city has seen a sustained period of calm, free from the intense political violence of former years, has benefitted from substantial economic and commercial growth. Belfast remains a centre for industry, as well as for the arts, higher education and law, is the economic engine of Northern Ireland. Belfast is still a major port, with commercial and industrial docks, including the Harland and Wolff shipyard, dominating the Belfast Lough shoreline, it is served by two airports: George Best Belfast City Airport and Belfast International Airport 15 miles west of the city. The Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed Belfast as a Gamma global city in 2018; the name Belfast is derived from the Irish Béal Feirsde, spelt Béal Feirste. The word béal means "mouth" or "rivermouth" while feirsde/feirste is the genitive singular of fearsaid and refers to a sandbar or tidal ford across a river's mouth.
The name would thus translate as " mouth of the sandbar" or " mouth of the ford". This sandbar was formed at the confluence of two rivers at what is now Donegall Quay: the Lagan, which flows into Belfast Lough, its tributary the Farset; this area was the hub. The Irish name Béal Feirste is shared by a townland in County Mayo, whose name has been anglicised as Belfarsad. An alternative interpretation of the name is "mouth of of the sandbar", an allusion to the River Farset, which flows into the Lagan where the sandbar was located; this interpretation was favoured by John O'Donovan. It seems clear, that the river itself was named after the tidal crossing. In Ulster-Scots, the name of the city has been variously translated as Bilfawst, Bilfaust or Baelfawst, although "Belfast" is used. Although the county borough of Belfast was created when it was granted city status by Queen Victoria in 1888, the city continues to be viewed as straddling County Antrim and County Down; the site of Belfast has been occupied since the Bronze Age.
The Giant's Ring, a 5,000-year-old henge, is located near the city, the remains of Iron Age hill forts can still be seen in the surrounding hills. Belfast remained a small settlement of little importance during the Middle Ages. John de Courcy built a castle on what is now Castle Street in the city centre in the 12th century, but this was on a lesser scale and not as strategically important as Carrickfergus Castle to the north, built by de Courcy in 1177; the O'Neill clan had a presence in the area. In the 14th century, Cloinne Aodha Buidhe, descendants of Aodh Buidhe O'Neill, built Grey Castle at Castlereagh, now in the east of the city. Conn O'Neill of the Clannaboy O'Neills owned vast lands in the area and was the last inhabitant of Grey Castle, one remaining link being the Conn's Water river flowing through east Belfast. Belfast became a substantial settlement in the 17th century after being established as a town by Sir Arthur Chichester, it was settled by Protestant English and Scottish migrants at the time of the Plantation of Ulster.
In 1791, the Society of United Irishmen was founded in Belfast, after Henry Joy McCracken and other prominent Presbyterians from the city invited Theobald Wolfe Tone and Thomas Russell to a meeting, after having read Tone's "Argument on Behalf of the Catholics of Ireland". Evidence of this period of Belfast's growth can still be seen in the oldest areas of the city, known as the Entries. Belfast blossomed as a commercial and industrial centre in the 18th and 19th centuries and became Ireland's pre-eminent industrial city. Industries thrived, including linen, rope-making, heavy engineering and shipbuilding, at the end of the 19th century, Belfast overtook Dublin as the largest city in Ireland; the Harland and Wolff shipyards became one of the largest shipbuilders in the world, employing up to 35,000 workers. In 1886 the city suffered intense riots over the issue of home rule. In 1920–22, Belfast became the capital of the new entity of Northern Ireland as the island of Ireland was partitioned.
The accompanying conflict cost up to 500 lives in Belfast, the bloodiest sectarian strife in the city until the Troubles of the late 1960s onwards. Belfas
Gaelic Ireland was the Gaelic political and social order, associated culture, that existed in Ireland from the prehistoric era until the early 17th century. Before the Norman invasion of 1169, Gaelic Ireland comprised the whole island. Thereafter, it comprised that part of the country not under foreign dominion at a given time. For most of its history, Gaelic Ireland was a "patchwork" hierarchy of territories ruled by a hierarchy of kings or chiefs, who were elected through tanistry. Warfare between these territories was common. A powerful ruler was acknowledged as High King of Ireland. Society was made up of clans and, like the rest of Europe, was structured hierarchically according to class. Throughout this period, the economy was pastoral and money not used. A Gaelic Irish style of dress, dance, sport and art can be identified, with Irish art merging with Anglo-Saxon styles to create Insular art. Gaelic Ireland was pagan and had an oral culture. Inscription in the ogham alphabet began in the protohistoric period as early as the 1st century.
The conversion to Christianity accompanied the introduction of literature, much of Ireland's rich pre-Christian mythology and sophisticated law code were preserved, albeit Christianized. In the Early Middle Ages, Ireland was an important centre of learning. Irish missionaries and scholars were influential in western Europe, helped to spread Christianity to much of Britain and parts of mainland Europe. In the 9th century, Vikings began raiding and founding settlements along Ireland's coasts and waterways, which became its first large towns. Over time, these settlers became the Norse-Gaels. After the Norman invasion of 1169–71, large swathes of Ireland came under the control of Norman lords, leading to centuries of conflict with the native Irish; the King of England claimed sovereignty over this territory – the Lordship of Ireland – and the island as a whole. However, the Gaelic system continued in areas outside Anglo-Norman control; the territory under English control shrank to an area known as the Pale and, outside this, many Hiberno-Norman lords adopted Gaelic culture.
In 1542, Henry VIII of England declared himself King of Ireland. The English began to conquer the island. By 1607, Ireland was under English control, bringing the old Gaelic political and social order to an end. Gaelic culture and society was centred around the clann or fine, the landscape and history of Ireland was wrought with inter-clan relationships, friendships, vendettas, so on. Gaelic Ireland had appreciation of deeper and intellectual pursuits. Filí and draoithe were held in high regard during Pagan times and orally passed down the history and traditions of their people. Many of their spiritual and intellectual tasks were passed on to Christian monks, after said religion prevailed from the 5th century onwards. However, the filí continued to hold a high position. Poetry, storytelling and other art forms were prized and cultivated in both pagan and Christian Gaelic Ireland. Hospitality, bonds of kinship and the fulfilment of social and ritual responsibilities were important. Like Britain, Gaelic Ireland consisted not several.
The main kingdoms were Ulaid, Laigin, Connacht, Bréifne, In Tuaiscert, Airgíalla. Each of these overkingdoms were built upon lordships known as túatha. Law tracts from the early 700s describe a hierarchy of kings: kings of túath subject to kings of several túatha who again were subject to the regional overkings. Before the 8th century these overkingdoms had begun to replace the túatha as the basic sociopolitical unit. Before Christianization, the Gaelic Irish were pagan, they had many gods and goddesses, which have parallels in the pantheons of other European nations. Two groups of supernatural beings who appear throughout Irish mythology—the Tuatha Dé Danann and Fomorians—are believed to represent the Gaelic pantheon, they were animists, believing that all aspects of the natural world contained spirits, that these spirits could be communicated with. Burial practices—which included burying food and ornaments with the dead—suggest a belief in life after death; some have equated this afterlife with the Otherworld realms known as Magh Meall and Tír na nÓg in Irish mythology.
There were four main religious festivals each year, marking the traditional four divisions of the year – Samhain, Imbolc and Lughnasadh. The mythology of Ireland was passed down orally, but much of it was written down by Irish monks, who Christianized and modified it to an extent; this large body of work is split into three overlapping cycles: the Mythological Cycle, the Ulster Cycle, the Fenian Cycle. The first cycle is a pseudo-history that describes how Ireland, its people and its society came to be; the second cycle tells of the deaths of Ulaidh heroes such as Cúchulainn. The third cycle tells of the exploits of the Fianna. There are a number of tales that do not fit into these cycles – this includes the immrama and echtrai, which are tales of voyages to the'Otherworld'; the introduction of Christianity to Ireland dates to sometime before the 5th century, with Palladius sent by Pope Celestine I in the mid-5th century to minister to Irish "believing in Christ". Early medieval traditions credit Saint Patrick as being the first Primate of Ireland
Sir Sidney Lee was an English biographer and critic. Lee was born Solomon Lazarus Lee in 1859 at 12 Keppel Street, London, he was educated at the City of London School and at Balliol College, where he graduated in modern history in 1882. In 1883, Lee became assistant-editor of the Dictionary of National Biography. In 1890 he became joint editor, on the retirement of Sir Leslie Stephen in 1891, succeeded him as editor. Lee wrote over 800 articles in the Dictionary on Elizabethan authors or statesmen, his sister Elizabeth Lee contributed. While still at Balliol, Lee had written two articles on Shakespearean questions, which were printed in The Gentleman's Magazine. In 1884, he published a book with illustrations by Edward Hull. Lee's article on Shakespeare in the 51st volume of the Dictionary of National Biography formed the basis of his Life of William Shakespeare, which reached its fifth edition in 1905. In 1902, Lee edited the Oxford facsimile edition of the first folio of Shakespeare's comedies and tragedies, followed in 1902 and 1904 by supplementary volumes giving details of extant copies, in 1906 by a complete edition of Shakespeare's works.
Lee received a knighthood in 1911. Between 1913 and 1924, he served as Professor of English Literature and Language at East London College. Besides the editions of English classics, Lee's works include: Life of Queen Victoria Great Englishmen of the Sixteenth century, based on his Lowell Institute lectures at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1903 Shakespeare and the Modern Stage Shakespeare's England: an account of the life & manners of his age King Edward VII, a Biography. There are personal letters from Lee, including those written during his final illness, in the T. F. Tout Collection of the John Rylands Library in Manchester. John Denham Parsons Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lee, Sidney". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Sidney Lee Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome Works by Sidney Lee at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sidney Lee at Internet Archive Works by Sidney Lee at LibriVox Works by Sidney Lee at Open Library
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou